Skip to main content

Full text of "Principles of English etymology"

See other formats


This is a digitaJ copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

ll has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enler Ihe public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vmy country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways lo the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other niaiginalia present in the original volume will appeal' in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from Ihe 
publisher to a library and finally lo you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with librai'ies to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we Lue merely Iheir custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order lo keep providing this resource, we have takeD steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm aiftomated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system; If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a laige amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage Ihe 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and maybe able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove ll. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring thai what you are doing is legal. Do not assume Ihat just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country lo country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assutne that a book's appearance in Google Book Search meatis it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize Ihe world's information and lo make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search tlirough the full text of this book on the web 

at lilitp :/ /books . google .com/ 

tflmnian |mj ^ixin 





VOL, 1. 



AMtx CosNiti, E-C. 

Clarenbon ^rcss Strics 






LL.D. Edin., M.A- Oxon 

EMitftim and Bofn/crtk Pm/tater e/ Ang^iaSajcon 
m iht Unhtriiiy of Cambridge 


' Or thciuld we careleai come behind ihe rest 
In power of wordi, (hat jco befon in worlS, 
Wheiui our accent 't equal lo the be^l, 
Is able greaier wonder* fo hTing Toith ? 
When alt thai ever hoffer ipirUi expreu'd 
CoOJet beUer^d by Ihe patience of the north,' 

Daniel, Mutcpkilia 


[ AB rights raemcd ] 

f ' 


'■ J 




Tin present ^'olumc is intended to 3er%x la a liclp to 
the student of English dtinolog}'. In my Et^mologicxl 
DidioDarj-, (be numerous examples of similar leller-cfaanges 
are invariably sepantlctl from cacli otticr, by llic iicces-Mty for 
adherii^ to Uic alphabetical order. It is ibcreforc advisible 
to re-airangc the results so as to shew wbai words should be 
under considemtion xi die mine lime. It is only by a com- 
parison of this character ihai the v-an'ous phonetic laws can 
be properly obser^'cd and Icslcd. 

I bax'e found it adviwilile to follow tlie example of Mr. 
Sweei, in his Hi»lory of English Sounds, and to consider 
what may be called the ' native clement ' of our language 
apart from the Komanoe or im|>oned element. Hence I 
hikte purpculy excluded all words of French origin fmni llie 
pn»cnt im'esligation. K few l-'rench words arc quoted here 
and there by way of illustration, but no inferences are bcr« 
drawn from iIk rc^niu which iheir hixtorj furnishes. If tlie 
)ireseni \xAamc should meet with 3[ipro«il, I propoiie 10 
ismie another ^'olumc, to be entidcd ' Second Series,' n hicli 
win deal particularly, and almost exclusit'ely, with the words 
which have been imported into from Frencli, as well 
»» from Latin, Greek, and other langutgcs (except Teutonic 
•od Celtic) afkr the Norman Conquest. 

I liave, howci'er, lurrc taken into cunsideration such t.atin 
and Greek wonis as I'ouiul their way into Anglc^Saxon (see 
I Chap. XXI); and have been caiefu) to include nords from 



ScaiKtinavian sources, as these mosil)- Ixlong lo an early 
Mage of ihc langnagt (see Cbai>. XXllI). 1 have also con- 
sidered tbe Celtic elemeni of the fauiguage (sec Giap. XXII); 
as well as the words which liavc been borrowed, at various 
times, from Dutch or some other Low German soarce (*ee 
Oiiip. XXIV). A list of the few and unimponant words of 
German origin is also includud, for tbe sake of completeness 
(see Chap. VI, p, 85); so that alt tlie Teutonic source* of 
our language arc thus accounted for. Whilst the main sub- 
ject of ilie hook is ihc ' nati^v elemeni ' of oui wry compoMte 
language, It is convenient to consider, at the same time, all 
words of Teutonic origin (except such as have reached u<:, at 
•econd-hand, tluougb the French or some other Romance 
language), as u-cll as the words of Celtic origin and such as 
were twrrowed from I-alin at an early period. 

The exact contents of the book may best be teaml from 
llie very full ' Tabic of Contents ' which follows this Preface. 
1 may here say, briefly, that I begin with a very short sketch 
of the htstory of Ihc language ; and gis'e an explanation, with 
specimens, of lite three princi]ial Middlc-lviiglish dialects, 
oorresponding to the three principal dialects of llic earliest 
period. I then discuss the chief Ang^lo-Saxon vowel-sounds, 
purposely choosing the lot^ von-cls, becauM tbdr history is 
more dearly marked and more striking titan tliat of the 
short vowcb. It will easily he seen how very largely 1 have 
here copied from Mr. Sweet. I then shew that Anglo-Saxon 
ii cognate with the oUier Teutonic longuni, and explain what 
is meant by this; an<l further, that it is cognate with the 
oilier KryxR tongues, and explain what b meant by this also. 
Next follows a di«cu»sio« of Giimm's Law, which Is slated, 
first in Its nsual form, and secondly in a much more simple 
form, obtained by leaving out of considera^on the cxnn- 



paralivclx animportant sound-Ehiftings pccular to the 01<l 
High German. Tlw conwdcraiion ncccsstrilj' inTOlves the 
iJiHlinctioti of liie guiiurti sounds into th« two !«nes kiioim 
8S 'pabtal' and 'vcIbt' sounds; st point which, I believe, 
Dcailjr aU Engtbb works on English clj-mology commonly 
ignore. I have here received much asnsUince ftotn Dr. 
Pcile. Next folluM'S a tialcmrnt of Vcmcr** Law. wiih 
illustrations. This is succeeded by an account of vowel- 
^atbiion and of voweUniumtion ; both ttubjectx of the 
liighctt importance to Ibc Kludunt of English vtj-mology, 
yet frcqnciaiy receiving but little attention. Chapters XII 
and Xlll deal with Prefixes and Substantival SulDxes, of 
native origin only. Chapter XIV <i<:a!» with .Aiijecti^-al. 
Adverbial and Verbal Suffiscs, also of naliw origin only. 
Chapter XV espbios what '» nteant by an Aryan root, and 
liow Hnglrsii words can sometimes l)c (raced up to such a 
root, or deduced from it. Chapter XVI atiempU a >Jioit 
i^etJi of a hififhly important subject, "At. the cluuiges that 
iia»xr at various limes taken plucc in ICnglish spelling ; in 
order to enable the student to sec for himself that Early and 
Kliddlc English spelling was intended to be purely phonetic, 
and thai the present aimosi uniwrKil notion of spelling wortis 
so a» to iminuate ihcii ct)-mology (often a false one) is of 
comparuively modera growth, and contradictory to the true 
object of wfiting, which is to express by symbols the spoken 
wortb ibemsclve^ and not their long-dead originals, l^iis 
neceHartty Icub to a brief account of ihe phonetic systems 
of speOing employed by Mr. Ellis and Mr. Swvcl, though of 
coui*; Ibc true student will consult the orljjinal works of 
llicsc two masters of our language. In Chapter XVIII. 
I give an account of the rarious Teutonic consonants, ;ind 
trace the IttKiory of each downwards (o the present day, 


wtiich is the only way of dealing u-itb (hem that avoids cikI- 
l»3 confuiiion ; ii also renders ihe results, aficr a liitic study, 
perfectly ca»y to remember. In tlie next Ciiapier, I consider 
the phonology of words (chiefly as regards llie cont-onants) 
more fiilly, and shew the various modes by which thdr forms 
suffer chanj^. Chapter XX deals witli ' doublets,' or doub1« 
forms of ihe same original word, and with word* fonned by 
composition, A List of compound vords is appended, ex- 
plaining atL those, of common occurrence, of which tlie origin 
has been obtKured. I tlien discuss, as 1 hat<c already stated, 
the early words of I^tin origin; words of Celtic origin; 
words of Scandian ' origin (with a second of com|>ound 
wordi of obtcure form) ; and words wliidi may be of Fricsic 
origin or which have been borrowed from Dutch or (con- 
tinental) I.OW German. The last cliaptei treats, -very briefly 
and perhaps inadequately, of the iinporUnt cfTccta produced 
upon ilie sound of a word by accent and emphasis. 

Tlw whole volume is nolhini; but a compilation from die 
wori;s of others and from mults obtained in my own Dic- 
tionary. I tnixt there b in it tttj Utile thai b original ; for 
it is better to follow a good guide than to go astray. Some 
experience in teaching has suggested the general mode of 
arrangement of the book, whidi cannot be said to follow 
any particular order; ycl I believe it will b« found to 
conduce to clearness, and that, if the chapters t>c read in 
ibe order in wliich Ibcy stand, tlic whole will be more easily 
grasped than by another mciliod. Perhaps, however. Chap- 
ters XVIII-XX. uUidi are not difficult, may be read, with 
adv^kntage, tmnKcluiely after Cha{)4cr V. The exaa and 
rigid ddcT prescribed by theory is seldom hat suited for a 

' Suodiui i* joU n good ■ wonl u the long aod damajr word Scu- 
4iMviwi ; Mc note to p. 4J4. 



beginner; and it n for l>cginncr8 in philolog}' lliu I lutve 
principally written. To the advanced student I can only 
a[>o)ogi9e fur liandling the »iil>ject ni xll ; beiii^ consdouB 
llioi he will find aomc unforiunatc slips snd imperfections, 
which I «houM have avoided iT I had been better trained, or 
indeed, trained at all. It ix well known liovr complete])' ihe 
studjr of (Ik F.ngtish langua^ was fornicrty ignored, and it 
is painful to sec how persslcntly it is disregarded (except in 
rare instances) even at the present moment ; for the notion 
[iremiU tliat il docs not pay. 

I append a list of some of the books whidi I have found 
most useful, and from whidi 1 have cojned more or less. I 
idso beg \ex\x to acknowledge my great obligations to the 
works of Mr. Sweet, and to the kind and friendly asdsiance 
I bara receU'ed, diielly as regards Ar}-an philology, from 
Dr. Pcilc, Reader in Comparative Philology. Professor Rhys 
has kindly helped me in the chapter Ufion Celtic, and Mr. 
Magnosson In that upon Stuidian ; \ta\ for ttie present form 
of those ch(q>tcTS 1 am solely responsible. 1 have also received 
iomc assistance from Prof. Cowcll and Mr, Mayhcw. The 
Index of Words, Intended to mal^ the book usi-fut for ficquent 
refereiice, is my own wx>rk. 


{/ meiili«B lie edifitiu iriitt / tmnuetl ; ti/y art lut aJx-aj/i 
tit laltH.) 

Skgiak'. Zaitfhri/I f&r mglische Philolagu. Halle, i8;8- 

Babdcr, K. vox : Die Vtrbalahtracta in d<n gtrKaniteheit 

Sf-ratitti. HaIIc, i88o. 
SsvCHiUtK) K.: Grundritt der vtrgkichm<itn Grammalii dtr 


iniegtrmanitthtn Sprathft. EriUr Band. Stnissbtug, 

DaVSK, T. le AI. : An JntrodiKlion lo (he Gotiie if Ulpas. 

I.i»i(lon, 18B6. (Thig admirable b<x^ appeartrO loo laic 

lo be of much help.) 
Eahi.b, j-: Anglo-SaxM Liltraturt. London (S.P.CK), 

Ellis, A. J. : Early English Prommfiaticn. Parts 1 — IIL 

Ijondon, 1B69, 1870. (The traci on Glossjc is pr«- 

Bj«I lo Purl in ; il was also pubtixlied »c]iarawly.) 
FiCK. A. : Vtrgltichtndtt W&rt€rbtt<h dtr indegtrtmnisthm 

SfrarAftt. Drillt Anfiagt. GCttingen, 1874-6. 
l-IXLnUffiTEix, J. : A Comparaik't Gramntar 0/ Iht Ttutettk 

LoHgitagft. LoiKton, 1870. 
Koch, C, P. : Ifiit&n'itke Grammalik dtr engliuhtn Sfrache, 

3 vols. \V«Unar, tt^tij; and Ciittcl, iH«5-8. 
Kll'ge, F. : Nominale S/amnii'lJuHgtlfAre dtr allgtrtnamKhai 

Dialrtu. Halle, 1886. 
Kluox, F. : Elym^iscket W^rUrlmtk dtr Jeululun Spraiht. 

SunMbarg, 1B83. 
Loth, J. : Etymtlegistht angtUtrxhtisfh'ftglitehe Grammalik. 

IClbcfffM, 1870. 
Maxtzkbh, I'ROPEiMR : An Eitglitk Grammar; Iranslaled by 

C J. Grcce, LL.B. 3 wis. London, 1874. 
MoKltisP.: HitforiealChiltina^EitgluhAtndence. Lon^n, 

MoKRis, R. : Spteiinfttt of Early English, frem 1150 A> 1300. 

(I-anL) Oxford, 1883. 
Morris avo Skeat: Spttimnu of Early Ei»glith,frwK ugS 

to '193- (Part IL> Oxford, 1873. 
Mi'LU^R, F. Max : LKtura m Iht Seitntt tf Langtmgf. 

2 \oh. E^hlh Edition. London, 1875. 



Mfu^R, IwAX : Uat^iuih dtr JOnstitfktn Alkrlumt- Wistm- 

telu^ FUnTter Halbband. Nordlingvn, i8«6. 
Peujc, J. : Jnlrodtutiott h GreA and Lalin £fymeti^. Second 

nUtion. l^ndon, 1873. 
Pkiix, J.: Primtr ef PhiMoj-y. London, i8jj. 
Rhis, J.: L^ttuTti on WeUh Philology. Second etbtion. 

London, 1879. 
Satce, A- H, : Introdadion U Iht Science of Language, 

3 vols. London, i8t!o. 
Sciunr,0.: AUdiuiakei Wurttrlmk; Halle, 1872-82. 
Sic^EKS, K. : An Old i^nglish Grammar, translated hy A. S- 

Cook. Boston, 1885. (A mast untM book.) 
Skkat, W. W,: An FtymoU^tral Dietienary ef Ou English 
Langnage. Second edition. Oxford, 1884. (Sec ihc 
lisc of Works consulted at p. xxv.) 
Skbat, W. W. : A Ceacise F.tymal^ieal DieHenary ef Iht 
English Language. Second edition. 1885. (Sec llic 
list of Dictionaries at p. xi.) 
Skiat.W.W.: Specimens 6/ English LUeralure ; from 1394 

to 1579. (Part in.) O-'iford, 1879. 
SxKAT, W. W. : The GasftI of St. Mark in Gothic. Oxford, 


Ske.vt, W. W. : Tht Goipelt in the Anglo-Saxm midlforlh- 

timirian {and Mercian) Versions. 4 toIs> Cambridge, 

1871-1887, (St Matthew, in llic pras, is nearly ready.) 

Stroko, H. a., axd Meter, K. : Oulliites fifa History of the 

German Langui^e. London, 1886. 
Sw«r, H.: A i/andhook ef Phonelics. Oxford, 1877. 
SwEKT, H.: A History of English Sounds. (Fjig. Dialect 

Society.) Lowlon, 1874. 
SnEiCT, il.: An AngU-SiiA<>n Readtr. Fourth edition. 
Oxford, 1 884. 



Sweet, H.: An hehndit Primtr. Oxford, 1886. 
Swirrr.H.: Tkt Oldal Kngiisk TixU. (E.E.T.S.) London, 

Tbekch, R.C.: English Past atid Prtstni. Ninth edition, 

1H75. And Oh the Sludy 1/ tt'ordt. Tenih «dilion, 

Whitnet. W, D. : I^ngtuigt and ihe Study 0/ Languagt. 

Second edition. London, 1868. 
WuciiT, T.: Angla-SaxM and Old Englith Voeahilarift. 

Second ediiion. Edited hy R. P. Wclcxex. a voU. 

London, 1884. 


A.S. — An^lo-Sixon; tlic Wcssex or SouUiL-ni dialect of 
the Oldest Knglisli. 

M.E. — T^Iiddle English; chieflj' of the thinecntfa and 
fourteenth ccutuiica. 

li. — Moik-m English. 

The ordinarj- grammatical abbrcnaiions, such as ' s.' for 
' substanti^'c,' *v.* for 'veri}.' «ill be readily understood; as 
also the ordinal}- abbreviations for languages, such as 'Dn.' 
for ' Dntch,' * Sltt.' for Sau.tkrit. (See Concise Et>-m. Diet.) 

The following signs arc imrodaoed 10 save space: — 

< b to be read as ' b derived froco,' or ' comes from,' or 
' is a Uicr form than.' {Compare its ordinary algebrakal 
meaning of ' is lcs» ttian "). 

> iii to be read as * produces,' or ' becomes,' or ' is the 
original of,' or 'b an earlier Comi than.' (Compar« its 
usual algebraical meaning of < is greater than.') 

.. is the symbol of mutulion, and stands for the words 
' by mutation.' 



I signt5es ' b (Icm of ihe same form as,' or ' ihc verbal 
stciD which appe:ir5 in.' It denotes parallelism of ibm^ 
(lenoc > .. »» U> be read as ' producer by mutation.' 

< .. is to be read as 'in derived by mutation froni.' 

< I is to be read as ' is derived riom the >«rbal stem 
wbicb appears in.' 

< .. t is to be read as ' is derived by mutation Trom the 
verbal stem which appears in.' 

* prefixed to a word signifies that it is an original tlieo- 
retical form, e^v))ved by known principles of development. 

V signifies ' Arjan root.' 

If it be desired to know to which conjugation a modern 
English sUong verb belongy, the reader has only t(> consult 
the Index, referring to pp. 161-167. 

"," I haw not always been conystcnt in writing the 
theoretical Teutonic forma of wonla. Thus ibc iheoTctical 
Teutonic stem of K. whole i» gix-en somciimcs as kail.v, and 
sometimes as hailo. The former really represent.* iIk; 
original Golliic Mem, and the bttcr the original Teutonic 
stem. The iiKonsistency will not give much trouble, now 
ika it is pointed out. 


The A. S. so-called iii(tnt(^6 in the case of ^ really marks 
vowe I -length ; thus A. S. (f=Lat. u. 

The pronunciation of the long vowrfs <f, /, f, 6, 6, is given 
at p. S2 ; ofj'. at p. 66 ; of d, at p. 67 ; of fa, eft, ai p. <i8 ; of 
the sltort vowels a, e, t, o, u, tt,M pt 71 ; and of^, M )>. 66. 
See also p. 30i,andconfiult Sn-cct's A. S. Grammar or I'rimcr. 

For remaiLi on the A. S. con»>nant3, sec pp. 199-302. 


p. 79, 1. 9. For nsolly nod osuaHy 

P. 108, 1. 15. For Iw^ir read Iveir 

P. 117,1. II- Yen fader TiiA/adar; AaA {01 '/alhtritaA */alhar 

P. 15s, 1. 16. For *Iii-a» read *liis-an 

P. 18,1,1. 4 from boltom. For jit. t. reaJpp. 

P. »68, 11. iJ-16. DiU from Bo-ih to iiri-o'e. [See p. 456.] 

P. 391,1. 11. Dele j^i>( 

P. 3JJ. For 1.1. Vmoel-inJIutitie read ij. Coasonanlal influittd 

Pp. 386-40R. In headlines, for jVOA'/WOiOCKread PHONOLOGY 

P. 406, 1. 8 from bollom. iJi-/* would 

P. 445, nw™, last line. For su<i read wjrt 

P. 470, note, lut line. For tiiri read »f'i.t 




. 1 

CnAmtR t.—lNTBOtHKnyiRV. (I. A putoee fram Sliakupearc 
qootciL { 3. Enj^Iiih liicraiurc and the EnulUli l]in;;i]a|[«, 
I S. Vocobulaiy of Modcta Knsliilt. { 4. Coiiipailte iiutBre 
«f IkU rocabvlarjr t 

CHAiTtk It— Tna SouRCts ar TKt English IjixauAcx. 
f S. Kccodiy orobocrviag chroncilogy- f 0- Addklon* ta Uia 
VootbtiUux of the Knglttli Unguacv. f 7. Cboajn la ih* 
tangn>£a ire cnxIcM liut Hilvnl. { 8. Source* of Ibc EnsUih 
bngMI^. f !), IJiuRicraiUin Qf ihoeioiucca. Nsiivc Lnj-liih; 
CcItU: Lalb; Scjiii<!inftviaii: DuKh; Greek: French; Hebrew; 
Arabic. Modctn itigc eithc Ijs^-uagc. Additioni bom Spsniih, 
lUlka, Grrman, Ktinian, Tnikuli, &c- | lO. Th« Madcm 
Ptriod b(i);Uit ilioni a.i>. 1500. ImptirUnce of iKti ilnic wiih 
nconl t" the Voeabulat;. { 11. Foicign tbtD£s dcnatctl by 
forciga u-onlt. Eiarapln of worcli burtuwed (rom Datch, 
CMtic, Italbt), .Spiiiiali, Knvian, Gmk; &c. f Vi. Ujtcful 
ditcs. ( 13. llUioriti)! Suiiey : (hewing llie Inducncc of 
hhUirlcal crenli cpoii ihc E/igluh lanEUn^. { \\. The wuc 
contimed dnmig tie Modem I'crivd .... ;; 

CliAncK Ul.— Tub Mativk Elbuekt; Dialrcts OP Miodi.i: 
EMiLMir. { 15. TeslB for dUtinguUhing lulM Cngluh wordi 
fnm borruwrd one*, i IS, The jiaiuge bnni Shikraimie 
(fotmnly quetrd ^t \\. V. ci.tmi»ed. f IT. Ouin);c> In pio- 
nuaeiukin uwcfa sruiet ibon the chonsei in our ipelUng icem 
lo indjcAie. N'eerarfiy for eiiiiainiiig Ihc old form* of words. 
I IH. Vami'toni in ifiilUni; fiiiiii lime to lime. Value* of a, t, 
I, A «nJ 1 In llic time of Chiooer. { 19. Middle- Fji|;il»h 
Vuwel*. NcecMltTfotiDmeiiudy of Chancer. | :tO. Chooco'* 
■pcDiag. Tbe Midland Dialect. I'uMgc fmm Ibe Mao if 



Law't Til*, hemark* upon the prenuncistioa of the wonJi in 
tiib puatfc. { 2\. The vocatiuliiy of ftic wortb in the wme 
jMinge coniidcnd ; pcepotiilervice ot dmivc Eii|;llih voidt. 
1 32. Owngei in the ipellinf of wordt in the umc p>(«^>e. 
(S3. Ubtinrof ramt of Uictewunli. }S4. The Ibm nab 
DUledKi Nottheni, Scmihcrn, inJ Mi.lluiil. f KA. The 
Somhem Dialect. Pn»a^ fiom Tievlu'i tmuiUlioii of 
HiffdeD** Polychrcinicaii. f 3S. The time in modem I'^ctbh ; 
with a cunt in nation. ( 27. IntcreMiTig inlbnoation found in 
the kboTC potu)^. Pcftitlaritlcii of ihe Scnilhrm Dialect. 
( 28. The Nonhein I>ialect. i'uut;c bom llamgiulc'l Prick of , 
CooiCKtiae:. PecDliuities of tlie Nonhein DiaiKt. | 39. The 
Eatt-Miiilaml Dialret. PaMaKO Iroin the tlfui<ilfaf; S^nne. 
wtltlan bj Robeit of Itninne.. I'ceullatitin iif the l^ast-Midbiul 
DUioci. It* (tiong Ksemblanoe lothe Kanilkn! litcraty Kn);li(h. 
% SO. Difference betwoea Eait-Midlind Mid Wcti-Mlillan<l. 
Aica over which these ilialecu oiteod .... ig 

Chaitbk IV.— Thk NATrvfi Elkmext: TtiEOLDEiT di^i.kcts. 
t 31. Tlie Ihrae main dialecit of M kittle- Etqiliih tnecil fuithei 
bock. Tbtf appear m North nmbtlaa, Merciaa, ami WesKi. 
• A>i{io.SuiM ' include* the Wcwex dialect only, mil ii nut 
eo^exieninic with ' Old Engliih.' f S3. Remain* of the Old 
Korthumbriin dialect. Ketnaiiii of the Old Ueiriui dialect ; 
and of the Wtvcx lUnlect. \ 83. Modem lilenry Eat;tiih 
derived fiom the Old Mefdnn dialed. Table of Ihlitj-tvu 
EngUtb words, with their cormposdinE Old Uerdftn and 
Anglo-Saxon lor Wmexl fomu. f 34. The A. ti. 'brokca* 
VDWrli ni)l fiKiniJ in inoilciii l-jij;1lxh, not ci>mRtOinl]> uteit tn the 
Old Mcfcidn dinlc-t. | 35. Chronolugy of \. S. wriiingi and 
maniucripu. The Lauilerdale .^11^ of ..4'Ilfrcd'* minlaiiiin of 
Oro<iUBOld<rthan ihcConoe MS-oliheMme. fU. Spccincs 
of ' .\nKlivSaxon.' i.e. of the Wcucx dialect ; St. Mall. xiij. 3-^ 
f ST. UkIhI Iomhii tn Engliih grammar, rtymuJoi^, and 
pmannciatiun to be Icanil from the aborc extract 40 

CiiAiiER v.— Rx(;i-tiii l.uNU VoviKU. f 3S. Chanj^ of pro- 
ttonciatlon of the A.. S. if in siO to Ihe modem Elnsltsh m !■ 
ttfli. The ume Aiap exemplified in uther uvrds. | 39. 
Gcnenl ihiflin); of vciwri^tiHUidt. Tlie A.S. ixiirtli A, /, /, i, d 
hare been replaced ^y the modem E. «a, n, i, t^ «w. Th« A. S. 
Ml, h/li, Man, til, A-Hlan kare became beat, beit. Hit, iM, 
aJiMT/. f (0. &igluh riioold be tnccd downward* as well 



; M tpnidt. Th« bmaet inctbotl «be«t Ihe true proct** of tht 
nt. The A.5. vowels / and it h>irc became, pbo- 
BMic*ll]P, ai [nod. E. r^ and an lE. «m). The A.S. i. k, U, A, 
ie, i hira become, phiinclically, i (K. iv). Tlie A. S. 4 Iim 
brcaoKf : ukI ^ hM b*cont« (i. f 41. The Tuwel'tiianclt arv 

I altcclcd by Ibe cwiMKiant ilut lollowt \<a (omctimd, Ihal 
[VMciIo] tbon. Kpecul inRutace of the coniooant r. % IS, 
Hiitoty of the A,.S, i. Example): ri. a rue ; t\i>4, two; ihttt 

['OB|;lu : ir-f oai; ifn, one; -kid (anlKij, •IukxI ; &c. f At. 

iTbe A.S. /. Eumpici: kJ. he; A/A, high: hir. here; ^, 
«)W ; krfc, (kk ; &c. } 14. The A.S. /. Eumpla : M by ; 
^h», hue ■ vrtf'Httn, women ; -Hi ^allii^n -ly ; &c f IS-. 
T1teA.S.A Eiampln: Krf, \hoc; mifr, moor; nw^r, twore; 
M/r, ollwt: WiA, muiI; itAJ/ian, behove; gJman, pimti 
rU. rood, rod: jtc. t 1«. The A.S. if. F-mnplo : Ai/, 
how ; iifr, WM ; (itff, could ; nlm, room ; rtJ^, nnigh ; Ac 
f 4r. The A. %.j lit) ; tii>w pronuunced. Conrancd with A. S, 
/. Eurapic* : Att^, «by ; A}r. hire : /^/A, Mtb : ftc 1 It- 
The A. S. <t, Ai, <^ i uiually become E. tt. KKimplei: li, 
ma; i»4f, whey; Sk^ ( 19. The A.S, /a; usualty wntlen 
«a In mod. [{. { to. The A. S. /a ; uwitly wrltim tt in mix). K. 
f &1. Sammaty of reiaUi of Chapter V. Exceptional iiuCance* 

['«( die dcKclopomi d A. S. J, /, /, J, <f, MtdjI. Note no the 

.Aon VowcU SO 

Ckaptui VT.— Tcutomic LAMcUAcn oocnate with Emiuih. 
{ SI, Valor of the rou^Ii in tracing the hUlory o(clynio!tif;iM. 
( &3. En(;Iiih ii not deiind from (>cnnan. { 51. SoutL-e of 
Ibii cominiA ernit ; conriuol iilcai aa to tbe mcaiiiti^ of 
■German-' ( S4, TheTrtiioiilc(;toupofIjin(;iia(;e». .Mixriim 
CcnuB a bail (julde to FjiglUh etymology. Eawcrn and WotcFn 
, Teutonic ( td. Eut Teutonie : Gothic, Swedith. Daniih, 
Jondic. Greai value of lodaniSo for Engliib eiymolo^^. 
(57. WcM TnitORle: Anclo-.Saxon, Old Kricoic. Ulil Saxon, 
Dntci), Gntnan. Old, Middle, and modern Ki^h Gninaii. 
I 56. Tentoali: typek, Ktunjng of a ■ type ' ; and of the Terms 
*bue' and "Weitt." The mod, E. h'u ii oearcr to the Teutonis 
type than tbt eqaivalent ij. tituiH. f .in. Trnloiiic ilrnt4l 
ammda. Uermao ha* clunked- Teut. d Into I; Tcnl. initial/ 
Into 1, medial / Into ii, 4ad final i into i, n, fi. i \ and Test, Ik 
[frlo ■/. I BO. Change of Teul. .f to G, /. Examples. t ^1. 
' of Te«L / lo U. : (», meilUIIy ; :. Ii, ti, i. Anally), 
plea. I 53. Cban)^ of lent, M (o G. d. Example*. 
TOL.L b 




The fortni Vattr and MulUr tat noqitioR*]. | tit. Tmlaslc 
l«bial souniix. GFtman hu inttiKl // (or / : and tnnu TcuL 
Aunl {• iutu/. t.iaiii|>1i.t. { fit. Teutonic /tninuni u C^ 
Ihouj-h •onicllmet wiillen v. Tcut. v xf\xan » U. J^ ( AS. 
Teutonic EOitaral xmodt. Teut. g, i, A iitqiienily icmaiii un- 
changed JQ Genrtu] : at finil i becomn G. eA. i 60. Englith 
•nd (.icriiiaii i:ani[Ku«d. Double chui|^ in mdic wunls. C 
UerfiiiG. Derf. The rowclcIunEei tcquirc expluiatlon m 
wcllu tbc conio'iaiital tiiuig«. A-S./^G-t). A.S./.V (E. 
jW)»G. /iii>> 1 1)'- I'^udly of tlii^liiih words borrowtd 
from Gcnnu). LiM of K. woiJ* bntrowci! ftoin Gcrra*!) ; 
all in the nodeni pcriDd. { BS- Sound -sbiii hi j>. What 
u neuit by *cogn]ile* woidl. t 69. E. _^nv -cot^alc' 
witb 'Goth, fattit. Guttiiu. Swrdiili, Iianiih, iti]il Duicb. all 
merolJe Engliih in ibcii u*c of caomnantt; wbilu 
diSen fioin Ibcin aX\. f 70- Knulu of tt K' -^U- E4isli>h nol 
burroanl from Gemu (wilh a few excepliaot). Getmati is tiol 
the >o1e Tcuioniu UnKuage, noi our culcti guide. Wc ihoutil 
mlher coniull Gothic, Old Ftlok:, Ac Cctnuui U ditlliij^ikhcit 
from otbci Teulonk Ungua][ct by ocrtaia coiiMminial ibifliniii. 
Piimilivc Teutonic 'type*' cut be coiitlnictrd. All ibe Teutonic 
]*ni;a>^eK nie »i«lcr-laiipia|^ \ 71. 'I'hc A.S, d-Teut. ai 
(imnly Si). A.S. jrdn(ttonc] -Tent. staikq tot xrAiKA). A.S. 
Mf(b(>*t)--Tcut. etmiOdiATA]. \ 73. ThcA-S./cominnnl; 
ariUi by mntttiioo ftoin Tent. 6. A.S.yW ^fcet) — Teut. i^iii ; 
•rhcre A. S. I* it due to t-mutitiaa of A ) 73. The A.S. I— 
TeuLt. A.S.AW/{ahilc)-Teul. iiwIlo. \ 1i The A.a^ 
—Tent A, or Tcut E; otiiductolcnBofif inOHifotan). A.SL 
<^ ((tool) -Teal. STt^ux. A.S. tpin (ipoouJ-Teut. ir<M. 
A..S.A»i:iooth)-TeDt.TA!iTKI7. f 79. Tli*A..S.«'-Tral.O ; 
ta it doe lo lou of ■ In A.S. «ii>TcM. ON. A.S. mf (a«») 
vTenl. xO. A.S. MrfS-Tcut. MONTHO. ITft-'IV A.S.i 
cominonlj ui>n by iiiiil*tiua ftoio Tcut. t (or At;, oc ku). 
S 77. The A.S. A-Teul. *u. A.S. 4Ai/ -hctp) - Te«. 
baupol fis. A.S.£(^^l)eO-TctiL 
LniliO(ori.SL-vu). t 7*. The A. 5. i (ouiwinly iiiw* from u 
^niDtalloiKif J. { »[). Knultiof Chi|>t(tVI. Tit4e of c<|utv«- 
lent lone Toweli m Kntfliib, A. .H^ Du.. G.. Dut., Swed., ImL, 
Coth., and {cunl TenUnk 7a 

CBAPTia vn.— CiASWCAL LAsccAiiRSCOcsAie wnit E_"(ci.iiii. 
CiiN14'i Law. \ Si. How to cumparc l.atln fofm nith 
£n^tdi. The LaL i^*r i* ot^uic irtth £. fvhtr, \ U. 



iln o( E> «or<lB boiroweii from Latin before Ihe CoaqiKaL 

r SS. Wfltib coi^ile villi naiiv« F- voni* nutjr oftrn be fonnil 

ia Greek, SaiMkrit. &c. Modem c«anp«i«tl<e phllalotljr um- 

URxvd ia the ycat 1784. Suiikrit not ■ mollict-IuiKUgc. bnl 

• liilM liii|,iwni The ume it tme of other * Atym ' luiguigc*. 

f S4. TtcAiyia (uailTiif 1iu)K»aKC«: Rlkooillcillndu-Kuroiieaii 

or Indo-Ccnnanlc. Tbc Indiwi fioiip. The InnUn croup. 

Ttw Lntic Slavonic, llcUtoia Italic. Keltic, uid Teutonic 

, CMpL S B5- Tbc three 'Ktl* of Aryan langnagm Ctauiical. 

I Low Gecnun, in<l High (ieiman. Clu4lcal filar, vrr^p, pattr, 

iJtc. f S<L CiitDiit'i Lav : at tt reUlct lo ihc dental tene* of 

I kucn DH, D, T. The memorial word aih : changinc to -iha, 

MditA*. [DSmjktil DH, D, T; (il English D. T, TH ; (3) 

Old Ilt,:h Gnnian T, TH, IX f NT. M«uilni;ar(he«yrohol*nil, 

I). T. Til iuap|>licd 10 Turlont langnajicf. Eiamplaordauicdl 

(initial and media!; DH ; ofclnsioil '.initial and mcdbli T; and 

of ilwiliil D. I 38. Excepdom to Ciimm't Law. Skt, 

MfAnr, A.S. trJtar, C. BrtvUr; u comfraiod with Skt, filar, 

K. S. f*dtr, G. Valtr. The Mccplion* can be <^plalnrd tnr 

VHBct'a Law. f 86. Grimni'i Law : at il rclntec lo Ihe Uliial 

!BMlc<>ltDralNri<ionetten.Bfl.B,P.rU: andGlI.G.K.KIl. 

' Eaanpln of ibe hhifling of clanical ItH, B, and P ; and ofcloi- 

ilcal Gil, G, and K. t !)0. NtcdIeM com plication of CriRim'* 

Law due to the allcnipt t» draf In the Old Hit;h Ocnnan form*. 

f VI. SimplM fonn oif Grimm't Law ; by omiiiion of tht Old 

>1 i)^ Gnman f«niu. Inlhcietia PH. D,T, Til, each 'clanical' 

■1 ^nbol ia itiirtnl to the ' Low Gennan ' iraimit dcootod Xi-j Iho 

I f^boil wUd> next followi kl. ( U'i. DifTicnUy of indoding 

I Ike Old High Gemuui loand-thiftine* under Grimm's Law. 

Valiu o( Grimm*! Law. | tt. The Aryan lypc of a wor>l ; r»- 

MAtfaamt of the simplified form of Grimm't Law. Kc-nlolrnient 

of Cclom's Ijiw, as appliod to Ihc dentAl aciie* of tymboti DH, 

D.T.TIt 97 

CfUPiex vnt— SmnJKiitD Foa« ok Gieimm\ Law, f 91, 
Tbe denUl, labial, and gnttuni Krie« of consonanti muat be 
braUd tC]iant(<ly. Aryan and Teutonio. Old High Gmnan 
ndwled. f M. Dmial Series. AT)«n D: Ski. d', Gk. S; 
lM.d,L Aiyia T: Skt. /, /«; Ck. v; \M.t. Atyan DHi 
Skt^il, 4: Gk.*, vt L*t./ [iniliallyl, rf, * ( medially 1 : Slav.. 
Uth., liiUi d. 4 M. Tent. T (Aryan D): Goth. /; Dan. d 
(when final). Tent, lit (An*" Tj : Goth, tk ; A. .S. (.. 8 ; Ictl. 
^>,>i (Jagi.a»dS«itd./,<fi Du.J. TcuL l> (.Aiyan DH} : Goth. 





d. {97. Heuiin20ftlie*rmbob>and<. The leriM DH> 
D>T>THi.cguivilcntloD<DH;T<D;TH<T. im 
Labial Snic*. BII > B > F > PH. DifficultiH nlnting In the 
TcnUinic/. |93. \rjt» 11 : Skt.«; Gk. it; 1^1. i. Afru 
P : Skt. /, /« ; Ck. V ; Lil^ Slav.. Ulh. /. Aryiut BH : Skt. 
M: Gk. f ; Lat. /. A (toitwl\. « Cminlial). h 100. TcnL R: 
Golh. J. Teul.P: Ooth,/. Ttnl.PH: Goth./[or, by Vcmcr't 
Uw.i). BH>B>P>l'Hi;F)iiiheMiiie»*Il<BH;P<B; 
F<P. ( 101. OnltuTil Scrlct. Gil > G > K > KII. Diffi* 
cnlly of mttrprcting Ihoc tymboU. owbg to the double Ttliwlij 
of llie Ai7W)G,K.uui Gt(. { 102. Palatal andirUttuundiof 
the Aiyin G. Eii^laaiilioi] by Ptuf. !>aycc. Aryan palalal 
tonuilt dcnnud liy K, C, ai>d ClI. Aryan vcUr lonndi dcootol 
bjQ.Gw.ondGHw. % 108. Atyao G ^palatal) : Stly; Lith. 
i ; Slav, I ; Gk. T ; Lat. ^ > Teut. k. Aryan Gw (wlor) : (a) 
Skt,.g,/i Gk.7; Lat^>Tcul.»:. :*) Slci.x-.>: Gk. fl ; Ul. 
^ OTeal. (K, KW), | 101. Aryan K ^palatal); .Ski. f j 
Lith./*: Gk.a; Lat.<>Teu[.<;H; Goth.i. Atyao Q (vclat) 1 
Skt.i.ii; Gk. «, r, v: Ui. r, ^. v; Uth. i>T«it. kkw 
(Kw) ; Cotb. 4w,/. J. 1 lOS. Aryiui OH (palatal', ; Skt. A ; Glc 
X; lM,A,/'j[)i LitIi.2>TcnI.a. Aryan CH* (vdai): Ski. 
Si.*i Gk.x,*,»! Ut.jr.i,/iiM.v); Ulh. f> Teut. fiwfn). 
I IM. Grimm'a Law : GbIHuoI Serla (velar). GIIw > Gw > 
f 107. Table ol tteular snbMitiition of canKHianu. ( IWL 
Example! : Tent. K< Aryan C. E.Hti; lM..gtniit,lik.yimti 
Ski. jan (la be^). j 103. Example* (rom .Scandinavitn. 
i 110. TnLK>E.i4. E.i'jIm: Lai.,ei0fd:.Gk.7Mn. f 111. 
TevL K ; final. E. eb ; Lu. augtn : and othd cxampto. 
1113. Tent. Kii (m]< Aryan K. Kumplts. E. A»ni, 
(trmt. f IIS. Teut. « < Aiyaa GH. Kianiplet. E. iotfij 
l«l./</; Gk.:(o>4. I 114. TeDt<i<Aty«iGir. Eianp 
E. ;«<«■ ; Gk, -jmi, ; SkL/otw. t JIS. Tcnu Hw < Aiyan Qi ' 
Examplct. E. viie; jiii; Ski. iw. ( IIS. Teul. cv, 
c < Aryan GHw. Example*. ( 117. Tent. T < Aryan D. 
Example*. V.. laau; iM. dtmitrt; So. dam. fllS. TeuLTM 
< Aryan T. luamiilci. E. Ikin: IM. nnuii; Skt. iMim. 
|<Aryanl>H. Kxanplc*. E.-f^Ti Gk.*ip«<». 
|1!0, Tnil. I'<ATrM a raiiciiy 0* wampi<». Tbc powl- 
Mliiyof Aryan P remaining nnihiftcd. f I'Jl. Tcof.PU [r)< 
Aiynn P. Example* numaniut. \L./atlirr; Lit. f^tr; Gk. 
mnV: S^L/iyf-. I 121. Tent ■< Aryan Bit.*rArr: 
JUL/noftr; Skt Mnf/<ir iij 



CMAfTTRlX.— Cos»(»cA?erAi.Siitrnso; Vi;ii !««»'» Law, |]a3. 
Diftcnltie* about Ciimm'i Ijw. *i otieinally aplained. Th« 
Seoood Shifting (from Low to High Gcniuuil mncli Utct tn lima 
lh*a tW Kint Shifting (from Aryta to 'IcutooicV Probnble diU 
■Bt the Second Shifting, f 121. In what icnw 'Uw ' i* to bo 
F-Udentood. Tbe Tn^cncu of populot ootloni on IhU ptiinl. 
[I IS5. Somd-ihtlting not conlincd to TchIddjc ; ilifilicaltf at 
nisg il* ongin. f 136. Anomalin ciplaiued by \'enicT's 
[Xaw. I 137. Vetncr'* I^«r flttoftvcrcil in 1875. SlatcnHsnt 
■.OfthcLalr. IVcnliantla of AtTiuiiuid TcutDDiocccnt. { 128. 
[.TetMiV L>», IS ititcd in the original Gennaa 1 <riih a ItaniU- 
Ttion of It. t li9. Kxamplei, tjk. nXmii doe* not g,ntwtt to 
jX. !<■ /Uilll, liBi to A. S. AlAi : F. UtiJ) i Ihlt li dn« to ih« accent 
l^ing upoa th« Mcond lylliblr. Chuigc of J to 1. and aflerwiuda 
fto r. Cauial icrln nc^mlcil cm the auflix. Explanation of the 
IvqaiTaUDt (aiBii rtir uiii raitf. | 130. Puinti in A.!i. gnni- 
lexjilainod by Wriiec'i Why the A. 8. milan (to cnl), 
ITpt. t. iiMlf, ttaka the pi. t. pi. sm'Jfit. and the pp. iHiJm (intend 
of mit^n and inrSen). Why mod. E. companilive adjcctii-ei tnd 
ta 'fr. {131. Vodic A»xnlaatl<)[i ; howconneclol wllh Aiiylo- 
I (.pclUnei. {13-i. General Kciultc In a tllghtly diHi-rcnt 
l^fcrm. { 133. Examples. Shifitngs of gnllanil, dental, and 
comocaDU. The occnncncc oi r lot 1 in Englith. K. 
'Jt0n~(i. Hau. Tie trotdi tert, itittr,/srhni,/r«it . i^i 

CnArrss X,— VowbiAIrahatiok. { 184. Meaning of i^dation ! 
Jrink, Jrami, ditmlan. Found a!(o In Greek and Latin. 
% ISSi Modent Ensliih gradation veiy impeffcct. Confiuiwi of 
pail ttCKt with {Wtt paiticrplcK. Strong tciIi* oflen bccamo 
weak ; the convene *ceii in the ca*e of wiar. \ 13S. Ncccntjr 
of coaddcring the M. E. and A.S. foTDM of E. terb*. Tha 
Scfen ConjngaiioDs ; faii, tkaie, tear, gnu, Jrint, itrht, cheott. 
Memorial couplet. | 137. Kalciplieating Veiba: l^c ivtb/all. 
No real f;t»AUjaii here. 1 136. 1'he four principal xlemi of 
A.S. Veibt: (l) tbe present stem; (1) the Ant preterlt-item ; 
ii(}} the aecotid pteterit-ilcm ; (4) the past paitidpial^lem. 
|SKw of /a//: (i)/iW/.«i<; {»)/«//: (.i)fieU-m: i,^) fiall-m. 
' % lit, Ptindpal K. v«ib* of lhc/^/-ocBiJDg»lion. 1 140. The 
vcfb ^Aoie. Sicsi^TowBla : a, i, i, a. Mod. E. Slem-nnrela : 
^«, My w, a. Example: tkait. skt«k, shtti, siaitn. | 141. 
ipU E. <rcrtH of the /inid'-canjagatioa. ( 1*2. C^eneral 
blMKC In tlie conJDKKi'liit of inir, givt. and Jrini ; Tent. 
kvoirA : t \i), a, f, « (o) ; 01 elac e (i>, a, i, t {i) ; ot d»e 


« (■), a, 1, * (m). Gcneinl r<«iiiiiU; K, a, O. Compm file 
Tfl^ir.lrfo^r.viifoipa. f 1(3, Thevwbiaii-. Sirni'Towdt : 
« (f) tf, •■ (ifl, D ,h) ; Tcui. K, A, tv-A), o. i lU. Vcrlit of 
tke ie*r-eoajoiia6oa. { US. The retb ^cv. Stcm-Towcl* : « 
(j), *, J (J). » (»1. ( ua. Verb* of the ^^-coajngMion. 
f 147. ■nie»ertni>i»i*. !>tcin-n7w(li> : *(«,r,« (w.rf), a, *(u>, 
\ 149. Vcibt of the ^iTHit'Conjaeation. f ]4t>. The mb 
driiv. Stem rijweU: /. *(, (, •'; Gnlhk «', «". I (m), i (ai). , 
f ISO. Vobi of ihe Jrnie-i:t3ajag»X\oa. f 151. Tlie vecb cAfwr. 
Sttm-Towel* : <b (if). A, 1, »; Gothic ^w, sm, « (mi), ir (ox). 
f 1G2. Verh* of th« ^i(nwc-conjU|;ati«a. { 15S. T*ble of Mctni 
«f the •crcn c«ijii(ption» 'yaft siaJtt, ttar, giiit. Jrint, oWiv, 
tkeeit) Id TcuKmic, Gothic, A. S„ IL, I>u., U., Icil^ Suti]., *nd 
UaniOi, t !!'(. (-oiiiinintlvc Table of Vawel-Soundx, u ite- 
ducid from Ibc gnuiilion scm in ilrong vcTbnJ «cmi. } lU. 
Remaiki on Uic T»blc. Ttut. a maj b« Imgthencd lo k (be- 
oomiuj; Ok £)■ ToaL B mij bt (^ilicl to A, or o. 'Int. t tnj 
ti« gndtd tu Al or I. Tent so nu; b« jjjulcd to au or n. 
Tba R-troap: R, A, o. Tbs i-gioBp : I, I, Ai. The U.(;roiip ; 
%o, U, AV. Values of Tent. A. d, &C., in Tarlou* Teul- Un- 
gnip*. I \W. Variovi nlna of Ttni. lone i. ( 1S7. 
Eqnivalmli of A. S. J ia other Tmt. lan^oxgcs. f 1 SS, 
E()Bivattnt» of A. S. / in olhtr Tent laoeua^. ( 15>. Th« 
•antcof A.S./. f ISO. Thcumeof A.S. i. f 1111. ThcHune 
of A. 5.(1. f 1S2. Theiuneof A.aj. f 163. TbcHUncof 
A.S. A. f 1«4. Tbe ume of A.& /a. f l«S. Tho 
Mma of A. S. r«. } 169. NcceMitr of obtorinf; njninlincc 
of T0ire1«>onils. f 107 . I^ctlcal ap^IicuUin <rf|;nul>tlm in 
corapanttiTc phllolo^r- { IfiS. Four wnrtU cootkining A.S.ii 
ffKisr.iMlA.efifr.nxttt. ThcSkt-Wonl laf/: K. ii>//M. 1 199, 
DerirabvM can be formed from ■mj'of the (crbal klcm«- ( 179. 
This renU mnirb ncelKted. f 171. DeiivstiTc* from nrb* of 
tlie ytii7«aojutpilou. { 172. Diilmliet from tiemi of verla 
like li^. f 173. ^(dr.con)u|tatlon : doivuiTn (lom ilenu. 
I 171. (jSrev-tcmjiicalioD : derimtiia ftom Aemi. ' f IIS. 
/ Mm t-teejagxtioa : dcrivttiro froin tuaa. { 179. Driv 
oaajagKioti: lUrintira boa •t«m«. | 1*7. OWu- coojui^.J 
tiaaideiitstlvcifrom uem*. | 178. Britf Summuj oJ Rcaolu, ~ 
Table of TowclpftdMloni IJ 

CnArTRiiXL->-Vo\rrt.-MirTA'noi'. (170. ■ A mmh wH l» CaC/- 
BiMDOtU iHiiwM. I ISO. Ututioa afMtio*r^)iaf»io 




&t aune ; ami ot M to li iS). f 161. I-maOUon. Onsiaal 

iTtnrett: a, #. w: J, i, il : n, t» ; ia, <i«. Mucatod vaweU: t, y, 

tjr; ^,*,f; uiy): Uij). \ 1S2. Mcaniasor'canoeaUd'iiin- 

Ulloa. t 1B3. A iBuUlnl to S. S I?i. O muuii^l to f. 

I US. t> notaled lo v. { IH6. Ijon); a niutatci! lo Imtj; x, 

^f 1S7. Loaf O maukd to long e. | IS^. LaQ|r U nuiUUil to 

ng T. f 189, Lung KA muuuil (o long is [v). | 190. U- 

atkriML { IS). I'JainplM of A. S. niulallon*. Meuiing of 

F''the •jrnbnU > «nd < in oomtdiwUoii wilb fb« lymtKil (. .)• 

{\)maim> ..aunit. W gald > . . gyUtn. i,i)hirA> ..hjrrig. 

i4)kH>..kAlia. \f)gii>..f^i. {6)tJ> (?)fa/> 

l,.4iifat. ex/vM. i IM. Eumpla ol mnlation In mcKlcfn 

jSagtiib. A>..t. I I{i3. o>..V. I lUl. U>..Y. 

[ilSS. Ji>..A. |196.A>..C. t1»7.0>..(. (198. 

. > . .¥ ; to > . . T. { 199. KccajiiluUtion o( pninpln cif 

I m OMilcra EostUh. | 200. A vowel may Ic •tItcMd 

'^bolli bj gndiiLloo uul LwbicqaeQtl}'; bf mnUtion . . 19a 

CiiAiTTK XII. PRKnxcf AKi> SuHn'AfmvAt. Surrrxas. { SOL 
Pitdnet: A-,afttr-,aH;airit;M;ie-,l;i-,eJJ-,emi;fir-^l\ 
fir- it\/irt-./ir/i; /rV', gaitt; i'«-, in-, /-, JWfcA, m//-, w- (i), 

•■ {»).■- (Sji *■ (4). ff-tfff-> '"•% ""•' «</-. «<"-, /., MrW^Kji., 
l»-(ll, «- {»). ««■, mi- (1), wn- (J), «ii- (j), uniUr-, uf-, wan-, 
vUk-.y-, I -Ml. SubtunUTiil Saffun: -c/om, -'^m;/. -JkioJ, 
► *n*. -i^. -r(rf (i), -rtd {»), -riV. vAi>i, f 2U3. Suffiie* a- 
IpttMite ol (limiiinliaa: ■<, v/, -«», -iV;^', 'Ah/, 'i/it iij 

CltAPTXR Xin. SUMTAKTITAL SuinXKIi (■'tffl/i'llMAO- 1304. 

Air>a w&M«: -o, -1, -i, -«. -to. -il, -u-o, -wi, MO, -non, 

-»tt,-tO,.NO.-XI,-(«lI,-TO, -Tl.-TU, -TE«C-TOH),-TRO,-OST, -n 

X-Oci), 'Kv. Tbc AiTUi -TO maf become 'Itnt. -TO, -Tiio, or -DO 

^(•TA, -THA, ot -DA). I 30&. Aryan -O : fern. -X. Exunpin of 

Modrtn I-lni;llih vrotiU wbich once coaUlncd tbji niffii; mnic 

Jay; ncnC. i^<Ti fan. id^; &c i 309. Tent nllu -am ; rem. 

^M (- •kit). Eiunplci: mou:., *«»■, tew, imnt, nnv, a>B/t, 

lAoaif, (««vii', ift'k. ilittt, wit; fem., frms. ntr, i^, 

y, ilfxrr, iMttm. uvft; aikii. % 'iffi. Aiyan -1. Entmplc*! 

kif-: itnt. ftutn; Ac i 2UH. Ary«n t'. ExAmpln: 

muc MtWi fcm. i-ii'n; 3k. i UOO. Aijrut -lO; Gothiu ys; 

A-i>. -*. EtAinpIci: rnJ, AtrJ («hepbenl\ tec Aiym -tl. 

■aijikt: tnJjct.m'i, tJgt, Jle., all fcmliilne. ( -JIO. Tenl. 

■'■4AK. KxudiiIm: muc^ < j^, jtc ; fern. </.^, &c. Tent- ■!.-<>; 

A.S. ■<■. Eiunpks: main, ib., /wiJM. | 31L Aryan .vra. 



CxBiopIa : halt, taJ. mrai, tar, fhf, imt, trtt, ttraai, Itt i &Im 
tdcto.leta.maw. f 212. Aiyui-wA ; feminloe. Exunpto: <-tor, 
grar, mfit.i, ikadt, ihaJeai, lituro, ttne. % 313. Teutonic -WAK. 
Eumploi: imiJltw, artvtv, ianvu, ifarrvw, farfma, imdvm. 
{314. ArTui-MO. EiompU*: ttam,b^»m,ketl9m,Je«m,A-tamf 
fiithita ,filni ,/Mim, ginm, gletm. A^mJm, Mm, i^m,lt«pi,li'U, 
ftbtJni. itam, ilitn<, tttam, iftmM, ttrtam, natrm, UAm ; alM> 
rorm, igein. { 21,'>. Aiyin -Ml. Euinple: i^me. | SIS. 
Aryan -Mus [-mknI. Eji«mplci: farm, ArAin, Mtun, itame, 
limt; tXxu Neswm. ( 317. ArTan-Ro; Coth.-tA. Exunpin: 
muc. airt, Um/er.Jlttgir, fiiir, kamntr, ollrr, Uttt, summer, 
tt*r, IkanJtr; rIm mtffr: iem. /tathfr. livfr, limttr ; ncnu 
iKivr, bar, Ualitr, limter, nMr, waftr, uvWir,' aliv i/ai'r. 
Suffix -ftll : di. iuH^r, vinttr. ( ^^^- Aiiin -LO; En^ilb 
-It, -tl, •/. Sii!alantiv(» of vcclnil origin ; kirllr, AuaJlt, 6x. 
^iglt, «fflf. Ac : fawl, hail, mail, rait, tec. SuiJt, liU, maagli. 
S 319. iVnt. tuRixta •rama, -akka. Extmpic*: aetm, irvn. 
t 320. Tcut. nlTii -LA>. E»m]:lm: in-/, tuitit, tirva/f; 
Havtl. Tcnl. mtSa -MSh. Ei*it)|>I«: hm'a/, riJilh, liutll*. 
1331. At^Bii laflii -MO. Example*: ttatm.pttit.rm'ai.teteit, 
nve/vn ,~ tairi, AJLirx, train, lern. htm, lean, mim. itoiu, Ihaite, 
V*iti, Jtam ; /»''», rw. Aryan huHii -M. Exi. tatfm, frn 
(cagjlc). Aryu) luflii -M>. Ktk, fifiru, ten, Ihtm. | 232. 
TcoL nfti -XA!'. Ex>. Aoivn. mn, tttm. { S23. Arj'aa loflix 
-«. (if) E. »affix -« ; fcWA, <ra/A. Ac (*) E. wflU ■/, »Xi«t 
/,gh,n,r,t; »,ttlit/l,lixH.^nait,)iart,/Tta. {i) E lufGn/; 
gtiJ, MaJt. btted, d:c { !31. Ai^aii lulTn -ri. (a) E. tuflix 
-/i : u hirtk. (i) E. nffix -t-./ight, p/l. Ikirit, tu. (r) E. 
nflii i/; liteJ.gitdt, wiW, &c. t £35. Aiywi teffix •TO. («) 
K snirii 'iM; A%4tati. {i) E. tatUx -I; hfl, tuH. (0 E. mtb 
>4;fitod, ihitU, uoU. f ^6. Suffuci BUK>nvtltCid by utiling 
•N : focd, maiJtn. { 327. Arymn snffii -ikk (-tun^ \M..Jrater. 
(fl) Colh. Via/-; hrMlnr. (.*) CoUi. -.^r; /tf/irr. ■iKf.t^r. (<■) 
K -A^; ilmtfittr, tii/tr. ( 338. Aryin tuflii -tko; T«nt. 
suffix -Tioo, •thijO. («) The form -Mis; ruJAr, Inthtr, 
wiunttr, h«lhtr. {t) The fotm '9/«; UaMtr, aJdtr, feJJtr, 
Mittr, wtatJUr, {t) The (bna -/m . Mttr, iatipk/fr, ilanghUr, 
/tUtr, hlutltr. (if) SbAii -i-tr*; Mitir, h^sttr. (f,i SnOix -^i 
mtdlt. (/) Soflix (A; j/^/r. C?; Suftx-i'ilri t^iitU. ttraalt. 
(Jt) A.S. luDU -^i A.S. iM, whence E. ^<&f; thwJMJ, 
f »M. Aryxn raffix h>kt, -Kr^ rmcnl FiilwiplM. 
Ilntot frr,imi,Juml,/ritiitf, tidingt, wind,jrttilk. \ 2S0. Atyui 
tuffix-o»,-n. La,Lrfm,s,V'.tfrrit. ^») K.*^e,mm,{amt,lt^ 



i,iAeon\.<hiUrtii. \iS\.\fi)^n&X'i'\jK;hmul,tuitt. {KjSaSii 
-t-S ; turitl. riddlf. ihmltlt. f 333. £. uffii mis : for u-ts-). 
I SS8. Arysi tuKi -i/ii-tf, tffiiil, dtMiil, fivriii ; kanal, 
tameU. E. vronlt tn -j/; rtitfl*, trtal, ImjI, terijl. nul, £nil, 
I SSI. Teat, toftx -s-n : jht, liiten. { SSS. T<a[. lutKx -it-TU i 
aiwf. f 23«. Tent. luffii -s-t-UAN; Mujam. { Sir. TcuL 
' Hfii -SKA I teii, itn/i. { -SSS. A. !). tollix -BS-TltAN ; E. ntflU 
■Urr; tfintttr, nti^iflUr, &c. f 389> }L Rtflii .47, nprtsainit 
the atneiiL f £10. Aryan uiffii -ko; Ck. ■■«, viu; 
C«a. -itf-. -^; A)^, A«»or. ivy. tally . E. -k : /M, ^a»i, 
witlt.xWi.tili, f 3U. TcoL tuffii -ga.-an-ga.-ingit.-mii-ga, 
(a) A. S. suffix -iif : pWiDnjmic anil diminutinl. i6) A. S. 
iuftx -"tf: lh« w-ollcd 'TcrtfAl' MbiUiilive. How 10 p»i)e 
* lot faM«kin£ a window.* 115 

CiiAmii XIV. Ad/cctivai.. Aoviuuial. a»o Vxubal. 
S4! friXK^. f Sl3. The nEliut -/oj/. -/*W, /ul. Ins, -litt or 
-^, -ttrnt, '7»arti, -n'orl, retit. f 213. Aryan -o ; Hind, ilaiA, 
tiMt, ftc I Stl. Ar)nu) -i ; kcam. f Hi. Aiyao -u 1 f»i>/, 
lUr^. f 248. Atyvi -10; (ik, -w-i; i^mi-, /m, mi/, nrw, 
trilJ : tito (with mnullon) it<H, nittt. % W. TriL -I-na | 

' tiotb. -tiiu; A.S. -<«; E. -/», ■«: imi-fi, g»l.i-tii. See. 
( S4& Atjrui -wo i taJJ-err, /aJI'ini', mt!hnv, narr-mv. tall-vrv, 
ytli-t». Mtti/ne, nigh, rata, lbw,lrut,)rart. { U<9. Arytn 
-MU: tntr-w. iiX-O. Ttal. •tiK-Hi/trt-mtU.hinJmM.iK.i 
for-m-tr. \ 8SL Aryui -BO; titl-tr,/ai-r, tliff-ir-/. Krp/a 
-Lo; A.S. -ai.-it; trilt-U, tti-it, fiik-h. id-it, lill-U, miit-U I 

■ raJt/M, ai-l./ttt-t. ^ SS3. Aiyan -tfo ; tivtvm, ev-eu, fai-n, 
Siv-4n, kialk-tm, grtt-n, Ita-i, iler-it ; east-mi, Sk. i 233i. 
Arjan-TO; pp.nllix. (d) E.-fA; tinceti'lh,n«r-tii,im-tli:feur-tli, 

*«. {*) E. ■/ : ^V. f^-'. *=■ : ■»"■ *""■ *«■ i '*^'' '¥■'• "'/•'* 
toa/-t; trigJt-/, hgk-l, rigk-l, lUgA-l, tlnu^k-t, ti{lt-l; lat-i, 

' netr-t, tar-t, i*s-t, truf-i ; ttiai-u. i/)K.-J; M-d.M-J, iM-4, 
Aa-J. leti-J. nak-td. | 351. Aryan -thr: ^titr, rvlu-iker, 
ti-lkff.mi-iitr, | »5. Aryan -oNT.-KNr; (cT. f. iiq). f SG6. 
AiT>n -Ko; Colli. -**; migkl-y, man-y; iui-y, eraft-y, Jia-y, 
JnttAt-y,JMit-y,/tam-y,kMiV'y,tetar-y; ait-y: liil-y. i'HT. 
ArytM -ISKO. -sko; A,Sl -rV, E- -iM, M. -c^; /Ualhenish, 
Ei^-ith, Daii-ith. Fnn-tk, Wd-tk, Brit-M, Arc ; fn-th, 
moT'ik, ra-iik. ATfon -isi-To, for -vons-to! E, tnpftl. -at. 
f US. Adterbiai. Siimxu; -ly, -mtal, •toarJ, -viardi, -uvy, 
•vqjft, -wilt, f IS'J. Suffixes, -t, -tt. -ft ; ti-it,iKafi, ravf, twi-ft. 



Suffn -tr: n-tr, Hi»-tr,yttl-tT-4ay. SidU -tm ; ati£/-»m, ttU- 
(Ui. Suim -i-iiiti •^'^'Vr ^f^-l-^Kg. JirhJ-injf. ( 240. 
VKKitAt. SurMXea. Snffiu* -«i>. 'h; fatt-tn, Utipk-m, &c.; 
gliit'ta, 0/vn; Jme-n, irfSB-n, faw^», iiar-n, «»-m. | ML 
Suflis ^: '.^f. iur-t, ifM/t, tmir-i. ,tal-i. Ttal-Jk. | MS. 
Suflii-/ir, ■/: nim^/r, Ac ; ifrdiQf-'''. 'bi'-'I'i Ac. : ifini'-/, 
uuai-J. Kraul. Suffix -ir; ^mm-tr.JImlt-tr, ^Ut-tr, wtlt-tr. Ci.^ K\tagirJ-lt,fia-tr. | S48. Suffix -^f ; 
dean-It, tin-u ; tUif.sraif; Hif »6l 

CiiAmm XV.— Dkrivwkwb «om Roan. }S4(i. Dcrmiiioa 
o( a root, f 2Sfi. DlaowuoQ of rooU. ( 200. AtTiic* are doe 
to root!- ( 3ST. Exampto of tuoU ; care h to be cxerciiH to 
diicriiiuDitiDg lh« Towel'totnii] fouiul in ■ mot. A liil of Rlijp 
roots, t 26S. Hijw 111 ill*eovtr ihc ruol of «n K. word ; «■ 
cinplitied in the cue of llle word lilfm, hota the root KLEIT. 
f Wi. Other muds derived from the mme rooL 1 2i0. Result* 
of Ihe two precediii}; ttctioiu; iiilen^ Icuil, tmnitr, tliml, ghry, 
liat*. are all from the ume root. { 3*1. Ilie root GHKU, to 
(Miur : whence GHKUI) ami GHKl'a Hcuce in firau. iM^if, 
tlihtm/f, <hemiiti,fMi€, toti-fmitd, rt-fund, fitl-ilt, i»if/itU, 
n-fuu, /tiien, fainJ: git, i^gtt; pyi-ir, gtui ; ffill-i-Ur 
law. f 273. Tha nwl UK, to col. with i» derivative* ; 
iA>dir/, tfg-mtnt, N-tttt, ia-iul, itim, linUe, &c f 373. The 
loot SKAI), to eut : tchtJ-mlt, Mng-k, Kati-tr, ikati-tr. 1 SN. 
Titt root SKIB. to cat ; tiiitm, uhiil. uii, iqnill, aA-uinJ; 
lifj. ikidi, tktailt, iUdi ni-vrm, tittrnm-iitt, Ac. ; tkit^, 
uia-vrt, (275. The root SKAP, KAP, la col; aft-ttft, tyn- 
ttff, trmma. cap-«H ; ihaff, thiot. ikajl. u^. tiaify. titfi, 
tiif, fkumf. f 3TS. The root iit.iLw., to ib«ar; shear, iMart, 

ikort, tkgrt, Mrt, tkartl, tien, tttutr, tttrrj, Mrt ; Kor-iff, 
tkar-a/ttr: euir-au, j>iwwr-/r. | 277. The tool ikkl, to 
diiiie : K9U. shtll: aaU, ituU, ikiU: ika/t. f 978. The mm 
&K*tP, to cut; liarf, uarf, ttarf, uraft, ttnif, urip: tt' 
arf^t,; iarv-til. ( 27*. Tta too! SKAI.F, to cut; 
xalf-ti,Kiil/-tHrt.i<ailcf,ita}f:ikit/. t 2$0. The root ikUK. 
to CM t tur-t : KTH-ple, strKtinf : ikmtJ, ikrei, itretd: itr^ll. 
I SSI. RtBuk* on the iracnc of rooU . . . . t$o 

CttArrsK XVI.— MoMiKN EitOLKH SrrLtiKO. 4 SS2. Ansh* 
Uihop Trench'* remark* oa ' Hjw)nU>(ical ' *p<l1in^ Fallicy 
of the arstUDenl. Neglect of pboactii: CMuidrntiaaa. f %i9. 
Uiitorj the «al7 true £BUe la *peUing; impanaace of [ibo> 



nctioi 1 384. Accooni of th« rrmboli cmplojrcd in Eftnlldi. 
The C«^iiE klfdnbrt. The AdcIo-Smihi ftlphtbct. ( S89. 
ValHO^the A. S. xyintK)U;(npecnlty oit,g,;p,/,r,t. Double 
talKi o( f »aH I. \ 'tht. The A. 8. vowel • (Jrtitcm ; luc of 
KOCCM* U» dc*o(e vowpt-lFn|;th. The A. S. lyitcm of wrilins wu 
inlenilfd to be parely jihonclic. }3ST. A.b. it;o-i3oa. Chnngn 
bi tpetUng; newiiKarjr; utBotJt.^gk ; » uii cuRtonant.i'aK 
■ CQwcl ; Inttodsctiiili of tM, stk.y u a ocouaiiuil. fs, \vk -, nvw 
DM of/, ff. Oiiappefttance of a, ta, n. Introduction it the 
ABslo-Kicnch lyilcin «( >i>cllin|;: llie Kn^iliih Impwge is it- 
wptiK \fj tcrilMS acevMcmtd to Acglo-Frcncb. Hence pi, c *At, 
u mhI / M cODBODaott^ af, ry, v, », cM, i as/. Ac. Chanf^ tA 
A- S. i to M. ««, t 2$4i. Symbol* in ofK abnut 130a ; ik {ax 
Ae\ /4, fcA. Ik, tsA : ai, aji, a«. mii. ea, ri, ry. t9, iV, At. »', 1^, 
«M. HI, m, nv; jM, uh, k. { 2S9. a. d. 1300 )4oa t'unhcr 
changes ia ipellingi lue tA gh. id, tt. e«,y itn long /; French 
CA { IM. About A.D. 1400L Spelling \A Chaacor ;E1le»m«re 
MS,; *ee AiTKnu:x A). t 21^1- List of Symboli In M^i 
voweb; dip&thoDg*: comoamii: digraphi: doubled letten; 
Iiifbnn digraph* ; jniliaj and Anal combinatioDL f 2^3. 
C-hjui)^ auice a.d. 1400; loM of the fiual -t in tlie ipoken tan> 
gnoee, t ''^'''■l' llitioryof the tpelUjjj; of the Hi>nli /kiiK',//(ur<'; 
■facning how the final t (mute) came to be used to tndleale the 
kngth of Uic preceding >o<rel. History of the apclling of the 
Frach anotd tvu ; with a tiniLlar T««ult. 1 ISi. Oi|;in uf the 
■pcUinp riJt, ariite, Uil. ( im>. Spelling of wordi derived 
from Frcncbh Uie of j* for/, and of « for $. | 296. Hinoiy of 
tli« pluni lutti ■<!, haih In Eogliih aiid Krcnch word). f 337. 
Um of a donhle coinonant to indicate Itutl the jirccedlni; vowel 
la tbort. Why the roedial conionnnt ia not ilonblcd in miotagi, 
mMim, iigot, mttal, ielvnr, tuiy, ioubii, &c. Th« spelling 
tttltrali. Ute o( xft tot irnal//. Doubling of rand of liual i. 
I ^98. A.ti. i40o-is'M». Caxion't apclline in 1471. Vm of 
idle Gaal •* 'm ImjiosBble placet. 1 3911. Cuiion'a uae of i-oweU, 
difAlhong^ and conionaata. Origin of the symbol/ Uu of v 
cona«aaoL )«aaftu*d with :. Caitoii'n uitc ol'dij^phs. and of 
y tat f. Explanatloa of iniilal ff. tiiUma dignphi. ; oilgin of 
/•rd; dliiue of lilA. Initial combinations. { iW. Review, 
tbc«iI^[ ihM ibe olil (pellini; was meant to be phonclic. Con- 
AuioB between the cloie and open », and the dote and o|ien t, 
Aaglo-Kiench uraidi Inlruduixd in the AngV>-^nnGh apclllng. 
HofTuvbig uf Prtncli traidt from the French of Pari*. i Sdl. 
InnatMn of Filaunt!. Oiigta of the Tudot-EogUsb m Io denote 


«(lWfa«alfiMl«. € 

Mi|h. Tk an ^dl 
1— BiHinMiB^dfcH 


Ciurm XML— pBDfnnc 

•gb** I9MM«( j.BbiMdri !■ 

Ui. H. Sucet. AdnM^cm of dte ijiiib Vowd* ■ 
MOivd b7 Mr. Sa«eL (IIL 
HcSmcL I31X Spactem o< 'n 
■»od Ui c»<kt. f SU.lI1fbl7eltfc«• 
U« o< On dUrf wnmUo^ Md d|i^M^ Hwfc k ABgl»- 

«ttbt ctemeMWc wodi. ( 111. Saw(dK(«Had>,Cwdlll 

S»nL Hon. : TSrioa BodlAettidM a( lite 
with illaMnlica* ..... 


«iadMB ■ 

CHApnut XVIIL— ENcum CoxNncAim. f Sl«. n««ilir«rtM 
nfriiiniMiwiii t"'""*^.'*'*"^*'**"'' *^ |31i.V< 
U)d Toicwd coMoaMU. Why A k voketoa. b« ^ b t«to4L 
Wb]rik««k«kH^li« > tovoksd. VokehM bttm : i. f *, i; 
M (in tki»\f,/, i, ik, tak. Voiocd klun : /. / 4.tkrm llami\ 
h. 9, t.U,w, \ 818. InpornM* of tbc abmrc ilutuiclios. 
ABinltr<rfToteda» c ot— MiU fa-oWr inch, «■! uf veicKl oai* 
■onuiU for Mh« neh. UlMtnttoM. f 30. Voiced 
ouiti ue awrar ihm ilie other* to the luiim lA 
Lulnlii} of niicdcH Unm to becetM Totcol. f 8X0. SUaUl*- 
tioa o' (loe voicriwi (en voiced) letter tea ■aoiku td lUkc kind. 
Ulnttntlioiu. I 8SI. Onf;iii«(MaM)a«iKalcli>ngei. EconoBr 
of dbtt. EitetaU laflBtace, do* to McnUl ■woci^tiott. Ka- 



nptc* «f thii. { 933, Princiial mclliodi by mbicb conio- 

htsl rhirnr i« cflrctKl In En);llttt. ( 33S. Exampln of 

"pak t tllMtlon (4 > ih) ; voicing i* > g] \ vocaliullon («■ > ^) ; 

•nmiUlloa {hd > JT/ ; mbititutiim (4 > f) : mcUiihesU ()i > 

. lb) ; nUmmtkn (A. S./tif^ > IL/nvi) ; nntoidDf iJ > t)i 

dditiicai («xcfnc«at /, ttc); tymbal-cbsne* (c > i'); iiii»- 

)lfi|irTtwn*iun >i); iJ«abtin|>orcoi»cinanti;coiuonanul tnlla- 

encc I <r > or) ; canOneaae. ^ 324. Exnmplcl of pulallKitiiiii. 

13*25. UatorfolK.X> i4; initially, as in fio^ iAai~«wa>ai(, 

(ikarlft, lie. : Eually, u in cfV. ^<i, jnirit, &«. | 8S4. M 

> M . E. rti > E. ivJ ; M m HuJ, .fiitek, iuk, tie. | 837. 

Voidnf! kxh> j: t'ta ajar. /ftiil. /file. \ZiS. k>ti 

^X< 'f"S- '"JOCW- Fin«l * Io*I : "f*. Aa'/'/i /■ ««?■■ i '39. 

(fMatitntioni i >f: lU/, d/nVnf, /iu/, nu//, ni//. !>/>»; 

V^r. f U0.>4>(i: athn,ajA, Jitk.Jitk, tcK. Intliilly.M 

}^ ijkait, ihamt. SJt > ii ^ x; mii, ytx, ax, Jtc % 331. 

[AW » fiB > /«. A'w > j» 01 » ; *«aw. iw«ii/, ic. ; gnarleJ, 

•tA, gtm', niMt. aaf. { 333. Hittorj of H. ^^llCIl 

ialtlallj'; taUofe o! Jk. At > I; Ah > a ; ir > r; ta 

rjn Imt^r, maf, raiktr, Ste. f S3S. Fbal 4, cow gA ; ttrntg*, 

|Jmv4, ftc. The combiution tugk explained. { 334. Final 

atm git. I 335, \jm of A; finally, at in/iw, lia; meAi' 

Il]r, b/rSHf, aacilnilially, io tf. Ij^uof A. S. •) )nu-(ori:«ni), 

V, Iter, (^ If^r^jt. f 336. Uv > a<A ; Ufk for tp, In u-Ur, 

[vActt, vkfrtUhtrry. \ 337. Hi«o^ of G; par.gii, gidify, 

' tK. Ct > y; *» myi, /ta, y<i ; al>o in yatj, yart, &c- Ci 

>^, u iajiin/ (rod), jwom, ftc. Mid. E. t- A-S.^^'-^^^^ 

ori-.>t'MfitmgA. GU/aitii/.UfA, la'cle. {338. 

Kinal and mcdlat g' g > gk. in ntfgi I g > > or t, in day, 

gray, kty, ail, Hain. Ac. ; g> tv oi viv, tn tta/./ftuI, JK-, and In 

mtmn, Ac. ; / >/. In Jv/arf; g U lokl la iletearil. Hint. tilt. 

A^ > <V' ''I "'"If'- '1>'>S' '• S >* 1o*I ■■■ '■*■■'' I ^^- Doulile f : 
A. S. i(f > M. E. iy or £ff > E. aiv. in MJge, tJgi ; is vocnl. 
bed is ilir, AV. *««7'. (ig vt g final (imctred in Scuitl. wordi, 
[ >a In tgg, T., egg, %. \ 2^0. HSilnry of X- T > d, in frvudl, 
. eltd; / > /A, In nvarlky. talh. T\<M In am-il, Arif, /.ui'. 
.te> I 811. EiCKKtoI /, aStttHii I. Diuimilatcd ecinl> 
Zax.i agtiail, amiJti, S!i.; aamt. {848. Itisloiyof 
Tn. VoktlcH Ik ()) ; toiotd M (IT) i S > •/, In a/fn/. h>n£n>. 
MmML ftc.; t > 'i >" kei'xkt, milril, Ac; /ii > u. In M», 
(j ft M w . 7X Io«, in vsvniif, uiriil, ft&, and b teki/iU. vkatA, 
|S43. HiitoryofD. Vernet'i Law. D >ti; kilkir.lkitker, 
Ac i </ > /, bi oMor, (MIkfitk, tilt {fit cait) ; (rmtf, iwi/t, Jtc. ; 


« «r: A > aC k 

l*M rt .t rfrr- ,i^i> | IIB. Jy> > /, la ^Nrfdr : a^ ^AcV 
kM fa amr. f ML HlMBiy atSX. A ' «> > J*, n it^H^ 

Ciumk XIX,— Vauoc* Oumob n Tm Ruon or Wa 

rnomotoar. ^ tO. NbttllwHwi ; Vnktef «f 
ktkn; Voallawtai «#«nfcarf kOcfsi Airiaifafiai; '■trt 
tadoB : Mcttfci^ | MS. AhbnttMim. KftrnttSAmL 
I ir rf t-it-rti' ri-riiiHH. ■■ ta mif. mMit. it. |M4. La* 
^ MadUl udMoB—n, m k ,^^^>m. on Ac f 3<S. Um oT 
u in tmrify, twtry, ftc. Lam c( final a. 




, ctpedtUjr in bfloiaa*. Lna «r Itnal ti> In [Ui, knii ; \au of 

rCMl / in iurial, fto. { 3SS. Sjocopc ; bi id <Vr foe n«r. 

-Lon of modUI^, u la nor/. Lou uf a meiliil vawel.u in adtt, 

amt.&t. Example* of violent coniniclliHi. Vowel- thoiUnln^ 

{ 347. Apocope Lon of gendct* in Kngltih. Final a lc«l, (n 

ast, ttn, *. : final / loU, in i/vtv, tiui; Aail « toit k i*at, e/J: 

Saal m loal n dicvr. im, tvMtf; final si lost in u/au ; final tn 

loM in iCm', kinJrfii &c. f 8HH. Unvoicing of voiced coo- 

, KBUaU, U In aii«t, want (mole), tein'fi, fartt. i 349. 

pAddllUiB. Vowel - laMrllnn ; miiifiir , Uitm , &c The Iv. luffii 

'jrrr, -itr, in irtojrei; tratur, &c. Oriein of the tuftix -ur, 

Icncflkai of p before w, ai in jutiilnt'. Addition of InoTKfnic 

I nntc (. f 87i>. CMiMnuil*! inaertlonk // wrun);tT pn''M4i 

pta Ib ^htt^kammtr. Wronj> Initrllan of J. in viitli, rAymti 

md of n, in wipf. ^ tufliutl. m in Mfem. Y prefixed, la 

jmfi/tm. KimKHtA.Xti ^ridrgroam, ktant,tmr/, laartki. L 

.taueilcd la tmiid. W Inaortcil, in mhtit, xekaif, worf. S In- 

I in ittutJ. Eicmccnt lellcn. { 371. Giajihlc cltanfca; 

r>i; i-fA>ft4; i>j*: rti/>yi»: Aitr > w4; aw. i3ri. 

fMbiB of tjrmboU. Ltil i>f ai-mbuli llial are meat ofien 

[coafuHil. i 373. Hnon of fdiiiini and of early prinlcti^ 

' Tbe word livery. The ' phme' eAriya a tj/itt. Ghoiit-wonia 

(•ee foot noteX f 3Tt. Uoubling; of cotuonaait to denote 

lOWtl-lliortcoing. Ncnl!f«* oM of f la ailiw^uMgr -, nndlna 

• of/In ^fertl, alright. { 376. Vowel -c1ian|:n i^ue to 

iolliunoe. Eficct tA h. { 37U. Tlic Hnie: cifect 

\tfS- t STT. Ik nine; eflKt of ■ or m. S 3TS. Tbc aainBi 

^cOccl oind\a IcnipbRiIng i. KJTecl of «. \ SJU, Mflrci of m 

or M npoii a pnceillng t. % Sf>(). Effect of W ia lengtlicaiiij; m. 

f Sei. ESrct of r on the preteding «cmcL Loss of tiill of r. 

S'r>-<ir; emunpln. } 3S3. ElfccI of / upon a iiTrccliof 

I 3f3. UleGt of »■, S'i, aud yw upon a fuUowInf; 

iwrcl ; 4f > <np. { 3Mi. Chani^ of ik<i to « ; and of iw lo 

nK % 3^. Cunflueoce of (onns. l>cfinlili>n of ' cimllunicc.' 

iSaawplot; thnc word* ipcit istmd; bant and Aoii; vili and 

Ac. t 834. Ilamonjini. llamacrsplti and liomo- 

ikteed. Etamplei of homo|[nplia { 387. Fsnlier 

Dpin. |K8. ExampUt at humopbonE*; ait, eH; iaif, 

Aw/i ece. . 3S4 

CMarruE XX.— DovnLxn and Cowroona. 1 389. Dimor- 
pliian. Definition of duubleU. f 390. OonUct* MmcllniM 
dae to a illlfcnaice of diatetl, a» ri^, rig; o* to bonoKcd 



wnnl* from •brovl. *t In the cue oXditt, a doublet or/jUftJ. 
{ 3t«l. One of the pair may be Scandinavian, u in tlie cue of 
4ali, doublet a{ dill, ftc ( 3:13. One o( the pair niBjr be 
Krerich or l.slin : ciAinl>le«. Both (ormi uuty tic Ijilin; exam- 
pic*, t 3"^' CampouQcI WoriU. f S!I4. SnbttaDtlve eom- 
ponndi. Adjective Cataponndi. Verbal Compouadi, | 395. 
Lilt of C<niipciimdi> of natire onj^n, in which the ori^ bat 
bc«D xnoTB or leu obieured. f 396. PcliirKd fonnt. { 897. 
llybiltl foini 414 

CHAfTKR XXr.— Eamlv Wobws of I-atiw oiiii;iK. J S9S. 
L«lio of the Fint Period. Clusttr. Sirtil.viall. H'int.mtk, 
poTi. peel, milt, fitu, v. f 399, Latin uf tbe Srootid Fertod. 
U'orI* tacit *) A. S. lOMCI are not to be includeil. Two iicl( of 
■uch iroidi. % 400. Lilt of Word* of pare Latin otisio. found 
In Aii£lo-Saion< and Mill in use ; ioctudio); thuie of the Fint 
Period. t iOl. LiK of onorii^al Latin woidi found In Anjjlo- 
Saaon, and Kill in Bx. f lU!. Claui6ciUJon of \Yordi foiud 
to the Ivo preceding Liils. f <03. Kemarki. Notice of lome 
Latin words fuund in Anglo-Saaun that bare botn »u]i)3Uii(«d by 
Ftcndi fornit 431 

OiATTKR XXII.— TiiK CKi.Tit: Ki.CMKiCT. f 404. DilTieiilly nf 
(he (object. WeUh hu frequently borrowed word> fiooi Middle 
EaglUh. I 405. Moat Celtic vrordi have been bonowcd at 
« late period. % 40fl. Words of Irish origin. H 407-40n. 
Vi'otd» ol Scotch-Gaelic ori^n. f 410. WDtdaof\Vctahorit!la.. 
f 4IL Wordi pooibly of caily Celtic origin. { 412. An^lo- 1 
Sojion wotda of Celtic ori^ 443~ 

CiiAtTER XXIEL— The Scaxdtnavia;* or SCAVntnK blkhent. 

{413. rcn'ml of the bononine <■■ Scamliui word*, {414. 
LangtM)^ ot tbe Northmen, -Soandlan de^nrd. {4)5. Ice^ 
landlo ; ita anhaic form. It may be taken as the bcH type of 
Scandian. { 414. The Iccl. long a>E. long 01 ai in kth. 
Example*. ( 417- llie Icel. I«n£ t>R.a; aa In tntti, U4. 
I 416. The loel. tone 1 > E, tt, » in JiuA ; or i, at in griiru. 
Example*. ( 419. The la^. Umg«> E.M, •■ BiilaaiH, Avn, 
rMl.itrtfttfmm ; or £. ^, «a in hor/inti or m, ■■ to A#w^ofa 
Alp), f^UK^i J^nvA. f 430. The lotl. tone » > E^ m, aa in 
fcwri, dnvfi, ietl, /uM ; or E. mf, a« in ttmd i,rca>lyi, ttw, r., 1 
tmMr, Sk. {431. leehukKo vowel-iBMatian. {431. Ttiej 
Ic«l. looe y>Z.Ii u b /r, mm, M/, ify, miit, t. f Vttt < 

TABLE OF coyrsyrs. 


The l«cl. long if > E. tm, u In urtam ; oi E. tt, ui iitmfy, 
autr; M E. {, u In tiiUr-Juik, fry (»|>«wnj, tfyi or K. m, ia 
wuV. f 124. Tbc IcieL «i> ; whence F- ioMt, itaof, »., Kowl^, 
fiuittr. I 435. TLc ltd. a> C oi.u in tail', or ra.iiimttt, 
fWMif ; groin. ( 4S6. Tbc tcel.o'ipp'anin £'>''■''> 
e£ oIm rf*f. T., /tt#^. v., ttyn, %. t iSJ- The \<x\./i,jtl i t£. 
■ tUcaliiig, mttt. i 428. Mnudon ; a > . . r, »» in btit, drigt, 
J,ltfti;«> . .}i,tl\m<.v Jrif.Jilly./it.U/l ; u >../, whence 
'lUm. U-ntuulloii of a; ixii-i i^iii > irre), Mm/irJ, itdfr. 
t 4S9. Cridatton. Verbal lieiivativa formed hiy g»i&U.ian, 
Sxtoa% verb* of Scand. ori^a i fiing, rivt, takt, ikriv<. Ollief 
Wtte nf Scand. ori^n. The [ip. reiitH. \ 4SU. Arjxu kufliic* 
uonplificd In wonl* oftican^. mlifiii. { 431. The «uffixc<l ■* 
oftbe neum gender; alhv/ari, iiaut, liwari. loji, xvanl, •.vighi. 
i MS. The nffix -Jit in Ituli, imi. Tbc mfiii -At in tu-lir. 
Ttttnithx a ialrtift.tryi/. {433. Verlwl tuDiiCMi -rafM.u 
to taften./tKn ; -i, ai in tart; -ti, \ajii(t ; -It or -</, u in 
^tmg/t, giwt\ -i, u in taul ; -tr. u b tlumffr ; -it, u in 
^oir. The mb gaifi. i 434. I'alntalinxlion rare lii Sciuiit. 
wordi; it\» oflon pn-KmeiL Final a' u ii»o oMnmoiiIy pre- 
MTTed ; iuge nuubci oS Scand. wontt ending in g, ££, or con- 
UMnggg, thetb.tgs. Tinal il> ii,a*iaiiiuA; -jf renuiina 
Id niiti, iaii, tuii; final j > si, in guii, fiuih, \ 4SG. 
Voicing of toiealcnietten. Vnrioun cumplo. { tUiI. \V>ciill>- 
■tion t& toiod letlen ; /arn, iBto (of a thip], Avi". I""" C^iH), 
d>«v ■4-. <Cm> (flme), Tet:fiata,framsht. | 137. Auiniila- 
tioD ; lirad, gaJ, l, >'//. d././. fUc. i 43S. Snbnltntion ; i > i, 
Bi in iui(|r i I > /*, in guiA. Thr word i/a^. { 4Sa. MeU- 
lh»ii; ^if, Jirt. i 440 runlnccion. Lob ofiniciil Irltcr, 
u in /<'«; of* medial letlEt. u in ^.i, tohul; of a tinnl letta, 
a* In nw (o4a Rib), f 441. fiDuidni; of roltxil conhonania; 
Hunt, tkiat. {443. Additions; cxcretcftil ' aad ». The 
WDtdi Kikiit and mtutl^t. { 443. Graphic chuigci. Tccu- 
liaritlo of kelandtc ipelling. 1 444. Mitnic of / for / 
t 44S. Vu¥rel-<!uui£Ct dae to consonantal tnflumoc or other 
came. VowcMnii^hcnin);. Change of ix to /«; hingi.fing. 
I 44<. Loi of Coinponnd WokU, oS Scandiao origin, in which 
the origin hat bom more or les otHcnrtii. Note aa vorda bor- 
rowed Ereon modem locLaadic.Swediib, Daniih. and Norwe|:;<,Ti 4gj 

ICrapted XXIV, — Tub Old Friksic and Old DutCK bui- 
MitiT. { 447. Sonitx of Inrotmiiion. ) 4IS. Bonowriagi 
froa D«ch haire taken place ai vafio»« date*. Manjr tat-t«(inii 
TOL. I. C 



tjt Dutch ; exciinple*. f <4Si. Many cam l«nM arc oi Dutch 
origin ; exnmplcs. % tSO. Ratch irotdi banoved in Uie ibnc 
of l^liubcth. Uit of Dutch words in Shakespean. | iSt. 
ttilroilucliun of Dutcli wunll intu Mii]ill« Cn|;lali. Diffically of 
the en<|ulry. Kiaia)iilc>. ( U2. Imprrioctlon of the (cmain* of 
Anglo-Saxon 4X1 

CKArn» XXV.— Effscts op tub Ekcush AccBNr. I US. 
Shortening of long rowclt often due to ■coent. 1 154. Knit /, 
A Imik *o*el i« ofton tluMened byaoomul tfrcw, when » uonl 
(i kagmented by an ftddlUon&l tylUUc. Exunplc* : (a) wordi 
augmented by a. luHix ; (4) word« ftngnmccd by compodiioD, 
the voirel being followed by two or more conaonsnt* ; (.() com* 
pound wordii In which the *owct u nol clnggt>l by eouiionanli. 
I 4B5. ttaU t. In ilittyllatilc compoondK. > l(in|r vowel In the 
loiter tyllnblc miiy betboncsicdbythevanlofttrca. Eiamplts. 
(Note that, by Itule 1 and i, both the voweti ia A. S. Ihhutait ■ 
BID thort In mudnn Eiii-lUh). { tUi. A'u/t j. In dlMyllablc 
word^ the towcI of iltc nnaceenial q'lUble, if thort, may dib- 
appear ; bence ' ctnihed fomx,' xuch at iem for ieren ; /put kit 
at*tu. ( (57. Mult 4. In triiylUbie word^ the middle (n 
aocentod) *oml or lylLtble may dinppcai 1 hence 
Ibrm*,' tnch m ftrtmj^kl hr /mritfH-niflU. Tblt il cooomon lH 
place namcfc u In Gh'ittr for tUeiuitttr. f 458. EflTBd 
MBphasii ; diflcrentinlion of tt and (iv : t/asiA aff. Lom of 4 in 
tuwnptwtlc H. \'aidiig of final 1 ia plnnl* oJ subitmlte*. &c. 491 

NoTM 501 

Appsxdix a. Farther Ilkwuatiaat of || 60-4$ . joi 

ArpBXDix B. Specimeni of Spelling 509 

Indcx or E.<4CLtui Words 513 

Cbmskal bcDKx or PKixcirAi. Uattbm Discvisto . 519 




$ L It wQI assist me in cxjilsiiiiing the scope of the {tre- 
wnt boot: if I first of all make a few remarks upon si given 
psussige of Kngliah Uieraiurv. For this purpose. I open 
Booth's reprint of the oelcbmed 'First Folio* edition of 
^ukcspcare'x [>!ay», first printed in 1613. In 'A(/ut Tirlia' 
of The Taming of the Shrew, Grcnuo thus speaks of 
Peinichio : — 

'Tut, {he's <t Lambe, a Douc, n foolc to him: 
lie tell you fir Luctnlh ; when [he Pricit . 
Sbodlde ftske if Kalkerine fhould be his wife, 
't by EOKgs wooncs quoth he, and fwore so loud, 
That all amai'd Uie PHeft let fall the boake, 
lAnd as he (loop'd agitine Co take it vp, 
[TUs mad-brain'd bridegroon>c toofcc him such a culfe, 
domie fell I'nell jnd booke, and bookc and Pncfl, 
low take ibcm vp (luoth he, if any lift.' 

Those wbo arc accustomed onl/ to modem print and 
spelling n-ill ai once notice slight x-ariations between the old 
and modem oietbods of printing this well-known passa^. 
Thus tlie use of / to represent ttie alBraiative ayt has 
certainly a peculiar look ; and fevr people would now make 
use of such an expression as 'if any list.' This will at once 
help us to see iliat our lan^age has a history, and that it 
alters from time to time. 'I'lic importance of studying our 



[CKiP, r. 

language hulcrically can hardly (h; ovtr-rstimatcd. A 
Hudeni u'bo is unacquainted with the older fonoB of it, is 
h) no wise quuKlicd ' to giv-e o^iiiiions upon Uie derivation of 
English vorda, unless the word be d«rivc<I froin Latin or 
Gr««k in so obvious a manner that ihc derivation cannot 
easily be missed by such as bavc rccci^rd a fair education 
in Iboce languages; and even then, if Ihe word tias come to 
136 indirectl}*, through ihc French, he is verj- likely to mixs 
some important point concerning it. 

§ 2. Glancinj; once more at the abo^'C quotation, let US 
consider the various points about it which call for tpecfad 
attention and study, First of all, we naturally ask, who was 
ibe author, and at what time did he Vwc} What kind of 
Ktcrary work is here exhibited, in wliat relation does ii stand 
to other works by the same vrritcr, and what is llie exact 
dale of its composition? These arc questions which chiefly 
lielong to what is called the history of Kngliili literature, and 
to tiirrary history in general. Looking at it once more from 
aiKillier point of view, we may ask, in what language is ibis 
wriitcn, and at what period? What were the peculiarities of 
the language at that period, as regards the pronunciation, 
the spelling, the method of printing and punctuation, the 
grammar, and the nature of the vocabulary? These are 
questions which belong to the history of the English Ian* 
guage, and to the history of language in general. 

§ 3. With a view to limiting the field of oljscrvation and 
enquiry as br as possible, I propose, in the present work, to 
consider chieOy the veeahtlory, and further to limit this, for 
llie moat part, lo the vocabulary of our language as it b 
current at llie present day. And fnnbcr, as regard* the 
vocabulary. I propose lo deal mainly with tbc tfyoM^^ of 


■ 1 bavc frT^imlly bnnl luch groMl; him glMTtMoit coeoenting 
Englbk to eoofidentlj ultoed I? luppowd ' >ohobn ' that anir MdI ^ 
eofiliadlcxkra «m bopcUn. Kolhing wits left bnl to lliten m tUcot 




the words which go to compose it ; so that the precise sub- 
Jeci of our enquiry- a, in htx, th« rmioi.onv oi* words 
CUKRCNT IX HDDEXX Ewusti. At the Mitic limc, it must t>e 
carcfall)' bomc in mind, that all th« points roentioncd above 
att more or less inltmatelj- connected with the subjecl. We 
ahaQ certainly make a great mistake unluflK wc arc nlways 
nady to accept such help as may be afibrded as by con- 
sidering the liicrary use of words, the phonetic history of 
lltcir cbai^ng fomiK, the date;) at which certain changes 
oT fonn took place, the dates at which certain words (pre* 
vioosly imknown) came into current use, and the changes to 
whkh wordK ate tiihjrct in conKcqaencc of their grammatical 
rdalion to each other in the sentence. Whiltl, on the one 
hand, we Umit tlie subject as far as possible in order to 
maxiei the rfscniial principles nitli less effort, wc arc often 
obliged, on the other hand, to make use of all the aid that 
can be afforded tis by proper attention to chronology and 
Ungubtic history; and wc often find our^b-es rom])eMe(l to 
feck for aid from all the resources which comparative philo- 
logy can yield. Inasmuch, howe\-er, as the vocabulary and 
gnuninar of every language can be, to *ome extent, con- 
tidervd independently, I propose to leave the grammar in 
Ibe badtground, and to refer the reader, for further informa- 
'lion concenuiif; it, to Morris's ' Historical Outlines of Eng- 
lish Accidence/ and Mtttzncr's ' Englischc Graminatik,' of 
which tliere » an English iraniilation by C. J. Grew. Another 
highly important work is the ' HiMotische Gnunmatik der 
cnglischcn Sprachc' by C. F. Koch, which, like the work 
by M&txner, contains a great deal of valuable inform.-tiion 
about the vocabubry as well as the grammar. To tliese 
three books 1 shall ha>'c occasion to refer particul.irly, and 
I have frequently drawn upon them for illusirativc examples. 
\ 4. The tacM remarkable jxiint about the vocabulary of 
modern English i$ its compwite natlicx. Certainly no 
kngnagc was ever composed of such numciW and such 

B a 


diverae elements. The sentiment of the old Roman — 'homo 
sum : humanj nihil a me alienum puto ' ' — has been fiilly 
adopted by the Englishman, with a very practical effect 
upon his language. This imp>ortant subject, of the various 
sources whence our language has been supplied, will fonn 
the subject of Chapter II ; and the succeeding Chapters of 
the present volume will deal with what may be called the 
native element or the primary source of modem English. 
I also take into consideration Latin words found in Anglo- 
Saxon, and early words of Celtic and Scandinavian origin. 
The secondary sources, including the very important Frendi 
element, will be dealt with in another volume. 

* ' I un > man, and Dothing which relates to mtn can be a nutla of 
ancoDcetn to me;' Tcitacc, Heaatontimertimetuu, i. i. 15. 


The Sovhces or the Excush Laxguacil 

§ S. Chronolog;. In coD5uI«iDg the various sotircn 
front which the vocabulary of modcni English hu twcn 
ilnnni, our most inporlatit help is ehrmoi«g}: A strict 
anentioD to chnmology vill often decide a queslion wluch 
migbt olhcTwise be somewhat obscuK. A single example 
DMf tui&ce to >Jicw this, and may fumuli further instruction 
bjr the vay. Johnson's Dictionary, in treating of the word 
turUin, imder the spelling sirlom, refers us to the gth sense 
of sir, under which we find, accordingly, Uiat sirtoi't is ' a 
title gi^vn to the loin of beef, which one of our kings 
knighted in a good humour.' This is one of those bmous 
and abundant fabrhood* which the genctid public, who 
Dsaally hare no special linguistic esperiencc. applaud to the 
echo and believe greedily; but any student who has had but 
a Dioderaie experience of the history of language cannot but 
lecl sotne doubts, and will at once ask the very pertinent 
question, h^ wat Iht kingf Turning to Richardson's 
Dictionary, we are told (hat atrkin Lt ' the loin of beef, so 
enlilled by King James the First.* Not the slightest evidence 
b offered of this Idstorkal event, nor b any hint given as to 
the author who is responsible for such a statement. Gut in 
an account of lomc expenses of the Ironmongers' Company, 
in tlic time of Hmry VI, quoted by Wedgwood from .ihe 
Albenxum of Dec, i8, 1867, we find the entry — 'A surteyH 
beeff, viiA* Thus chronology at once tells us that the word 
was in use at least a century before King James I was born, 
and effectually diipoics of lliis idle and nUtchievous invention. 


In fact, oar km is nMrely borrowed from ibe Fnrt»ch /<n^ 
(formerly also spell /<ifjw). and our turtoia from the French 
itirh>^<'. In Liltr^'s French Dictionary is a quoiadon 
ebewing thai surl0t^< wus already in u»e in the fourteenib 
century, wluLh cirrics the word's history stitt further back. 
Hence we Icani the very necessary lesson, that ct)'mology 
requires scientific treatment, and does not consul In giving 
indoJent credence to ^ty guesses ; and wc at onc« establish 
the value of chronology as t, helpful guide to the traib. 

j 6. Addititma to th« Vocabulary. The wxabuhry 
of the Engltiih languajjc lias, for many ceniorics, been 
steadily incrcMcd I))- the constant adfliiion of new woards 
bonowcd from extraneous sources. It is true that many 
wonlx, being do longer wanted, or having their places 
supplied by more convenicni or more poptilar exprciak>iK^ 
have From time to time become obEolclc ; but the lo«s thus 
occaskmcd lias always been more than couniefbalanccd by 
additions from wiilioui. In some cases we arc able to tell 
the exact date at which a word has been Iniroduccd. Two 
examples of this may be readily given, llie «rb lo boyf&tl 
vos 6rM tised in 1880, being niddenly brought into me by 
the peculiar circumsianccs of the case. Cajnain Boycott, of 
Lovgli Mask House, in Mayo (In-land), u-ax r«ut>jctted to a 
kind of social outlawry by the people among whom he li^Yd, 
and to vhom he bad given oflence. Soch treatment was 
called btQ'<e!lii^, and the use of the word may \tt readily 
undersiood by help of the following extract from Uic Sevlmim 
newspaper of Dec. 4, 1880: — 'They advise dial men who 
pay full rcDlB Ehall be Beynfltd; nobody is to work for 

■ Tiaa rtrrMm la really tbe nppa pan or lb* lob ; from P. air, 
tiwr, and O. F. tigm, iMi/r, Uic Ivlii. Agab. ibe f. lur b 6oa 
IM. ru/rr, above; aud iln>(r reprroctici a Lai. fcm. adj. /umira. foniw>d 
from Itimtui, ■ loin. In many cues I ihall nol gftvc ilic delotli of tneb 
ctyraoId^M, as Ibcy can be ierawl is my RiyinoJu|^cal DMli'iary, m 
In lb« (frltdDic of il, called itic Cundao ECl]rin«ilogical Dictioauyi l'<>tl> "^ 
ubicb an pobliihcd \iy the Clanodaa I'tta. 




tbem, nobodf is to sell tbcm anylhing, nobody b to buy 
aoyUiing of them.' Funhcr, the people vbo acted asaintt 
Captain Boycott were called Biyoflkrs, and the Etha news- 
paper of Dec 7, 1880, even >'cnlurcU 10 «peak of ' the latest 
vKtinof^9vM/ijm'.' Here b a case still fresh wiilun tlie 
DMDMTT of n>031 of \&, wiuch at ODce shovs bow mdtly 
a Dew verb can be formed to exprcs a new kind of 
lociaJ oppression : whilst ihc date of its introducljon is so 
well det«Ynioed, 4hat it uoiilii be ikcIcss to search for 
examples of tt earlier ilnn 18S0. The other example to 
which I allude is llie word tnob, w^iidi is a mere contraction 
of the Latin mi^iU or m^U vulgm (the fickle crowd or 
multitude), first introduced as a convenient form for common 
use, and afterwards retained bec4UKc of its convenience. 
This word can be dated, without much risk of error, about 
168a. In ShadweU's Squire of Alsatia, 410., 1688, tlie word 
b sprft mdilt on p. 3, but wd* on jj. 59. (Sec Notes and 
QueiicB, 6th S. xii, 501). In Drydcn's Don isebastian, wriflen 
in 1690, we &nd ilic word nt^ik in Act L sc. i, whilst in Act iii. 
>C. 3 H is shoiicncd to mc^. In 1693, he again a»eK mob, in 
his preface to Cleomcnes. I have given, in my Dictionary, 
uamplea from iJic Hatlon Coricspondence, of the use of 
m^Qt in 1(190, but mob in 1695. We nIuII not be likely lO 
find many examples of the tue of itvb bdbic 1688, nor of 
m^U lonfE after 1690. 

§ 7- Cbuigoit iutroduood unceasingly but silently. 
These constant additions to our laii^age are seldom much 
noticed by any of us. They usually creep in unobserved ; 
or if^ as in the ca.%e of buyoit, tliey are so cuiious an to 
force tbcnHJclvca upon our attention, the novelty soon wears 
oil, and u-e soon come 10 employ them without much re- 
gard to the manner or liinc of their introduction. ' In this 
matter of language,' says Aichbixbop Trench, 'how few 
ajed persons ... are conscious of any serious dijTcrciKC 

* Tbc wtwd is wcU ajJaiocd aad niuitiilcd in CuscUs Pictlcnuy- . 


90V»C£S OF f^VCl/Sff. 

becwtto 6k spoken lao^o^e of tber carijr ycnsh, aad ifast 
of ihtir old age ; ue awuc [fau ««nls and wajn of aia^ 
wordf are obiolete now, which wete nsnti dm ; ibal nnjr 
words are carml now, which hod ao e^ a emx at that tiaie ; 
that M« idioms ia.\x sprang up, that old idtoms have paA 
away. Amdyd it it trrlmn Utat w H wuat it. . . . But ifane 
are few to wbonn this is broaght «o dotnictljr boinc as 
it was to Caxton, who writes — **oor hngmgc now ned 
vancth hi from that which was lucd and spoken wbea I 
was born '.'* ' It will thus be seen that it is be* u fia an 
absokite date for the period oT the ha^iuage onder discua- 
sion; and I therefore take die vear 1883 as our startfatg- 
point, being the >'ear in which diix irork was commenced. 

{ 8. Sooroes of the LAOsnage. BeTore we can discan 
the etjmolo^ of anjr wxird einplored in tnodem Fj^M*, it 
is ncccssaiy lo be quite cenaht, it potnUe, as to the source 
irhoncc the word has come 10 us. It would be useless lo 
try 10 cxpIaiD such a word as t/ixi^ hy the help of Latin or 
Dutch, because, as a matter of Cut, it b a icrrn of alchemy, 
and. as such, is due to the Arabic el-ihir. Here r/ {al) '» the 
defutiie artick, and ilttir, I «. essence or 'the pliiloeoplieT's 
stone,* is not a true Arabic word, but bonowed from the 
Greek fq^dr, dry or dried up, a tern applied to the teBdniKD 
left in a retort'. Arcfalnshop Trench gives a long list of 
words which have found their way iuio EngUsli from various 
•ources *, but I have sioce ^iven a fuller and more exact list 
b the Appemlix to my Dictionary '. In the aticmpl to settle 
thL-< ([iiesiion of ' distribution ' of our words according to ibc 
languages whence they are derived, we always receive great 

) Tmch : ' E&^iih Pui and Prowt/ ten. 1 : gtfa ed., pp. S-io. See 
the wtiolc psangc 
* Pn** ' ^ * * ^ ^ StppkmtM 10 wy EiywKitogiqJ Dittkauy. p. tei. 
■ 'EastUhPutKKlPicwiu.'kcLi. SeeBlM)Monli,Eac. AcddoMe, 


' ■ DiUtibnlion of Wonb,' at p. 74; of the Iirsw edftloD, or p. 603 
6f Ihc CoDdK cdtlkw. 




help from dironology >n<l liistorj'. Hence tlK following 
'CanoDsFbr Etymology' ar<^ of pntoar^- imporUncc. Before 
attempting ao etymology. aAoertain the earlleet form 
aod vaa of tbo word, and obverve chrooology. If th« 
vord be of native origin, wo should next trace its 
history tn cognate languages. If tho word be bor- 
roiirod, we must obeerre geography and tho history 
of evenia, remembering that borrowinga are due to 
actual cont«Ot. Wc may \k sure, for example, Uul ne did 
not take tlie word tSix'r directly from the Moors, but ntiticr 
olttuned it through ibe uicdium of Latin, in which language 
alcbemtcal ticati«ex ttt^w u>iiully written. 

f 9' Enumeration ofthesesooFceB. The various sources 
of English may be thus cniuncrated '. Taking English to 
lepresent the native tigieech of the Low-German contjuerors of 
England, iIk eartlcsl accessions to the language, aRcr a.d. 
ISO, were due to borrowings from ihe Celtic inhabitants of 
oor istinJ. Latin occuiJes the curious jiosilion of a language 
which has lent ux worts at many dilfcrcnl dales, from a 
period preceding historical record' down to modem times. 
Many Scandinamn words were introduced at :m early dale, 
chiefly before llie Norman Conquest in 1066, allhougli many 
of them cannot be traced much further b;ick than 1100, or 
even liomewhat later. Owing to an almost constant trade 
or contact wiih Holland, Dutch words have been borrowed 
directly at various |)eri»il-> ; tlie chief of these being, in my 
opinion, llie reigns of I'Ulward HI' and F.lixabeihf A oon- 
■iderabk number of words have been borrowed from Greek, 
many of which belong purely 10 Kcience or literature rather 

> For fiillcT ddallf, lee Morrii, Engliih Accidenor, cb. til. 

• ScTcral LbHo word* weic known to the Tcnlunic trib« before the 
Sudd tmtaiion o( Eiij;Iand. Such ivordi ve lamf, liii't, mil, fin, 
tf/irfr EcRiap, Ck**/. lallc. pine, <-«- iiuniihmcivl, Htreci); 'Dialect* Miil 
rnbiMock Forms of Old Englith,' by H. SweM ; Hhit. S»e. Train., 
iS;d. p. 543. iaate, uich ^fert (Imtboiit^ aiall, &c., may ha*« been 
kual ban ibc Ebitoni. 


» .J-J-f- itiiS- 


thu to ilx ^>oken lungoage. Sucb as Imtc been borrovtd 
Urntfy aa.y moetl}- be daicd from a period Dd eaHier ilnn 
the rdgn of Edward VI.' when ibe revival of the stitdjr of 
Greek took pbcc owing to the tcadiing of Sir Jobn Cheke 
and othere ai Cambridge '. Before Unt period, nuny Greek 
vOfds foand iltetr ynj indeed tnlo Englhb, but only in- 
dirutly, through the medium of Latin or French; such 
«ords commotily refer lo ecdesia.iticd nlTair* or lo tbc art 
of medicine. Tbe Norman conquest opened the way for 
Ihe introduetioD of French wordy into English, but litis in- 
tnxhictjon vnu at fintt very spiaring, ko tlut the number of 
tbcfn esiant in English writings before the year 1300 is by 
no means lar^ After thai date, tlie influx of them v,-tLS 
immcDsc, cspecbUy during the ^rtcenUi century; so much 
so that by the end </ tliat century the composite churactn' of 
our langua^ was comptctely esublishcd. One great cause 
of Uns was certainly the influence of tlie bw-cooils, which 
ikouuiously retain to the present day many old Fienrli «-ords 
that have dropped out of curreni uac, or have oever foBiK) 
their way into our daily speech. Be»idex the:ie tiouroes, there 
are no otliers of imjiortxnce much bcfotc 1500, with the sole 
sad curious exception of tbe Semitic languages, Hebrew and 
Arabic Tbe Hebrew words are due to tlie influence of tbe 
Hebrew Scriptures, which remSered v.k\\ words as strapk and 
tahbath lamiliar to Gicek, Latin, and French anihors al an 
early period. Aral»c words came through contact with 
Eastern ocHUmerce, or were due to some acquaintance, either 
through tbe mcdiinn of Latin or by vay of France and 
Spain, with Ihe Moors who had established thenudves (n 
ihc latter counlxy. 
But about the fax isgy. oar huiguagc entered upon what 

> • TNy age, Uke am, O Saul Off Sit John Cbcck, 
Uatod man IcMidnK wane ihaa toad 01 u]>. 
When tboD unght'fi Camteklse, wd Kieg; Edward, Grwk.' 

Uatai: SwiKfA. 




may be dcGniidy call«l its medtftt stage. Not only ^^ il>c 
discovery of Amcf ica render pos^'blc the grodual introduction 
of a few Dative American words, but EngHsb was brought 
into closer coniaci wiik Spunish and Porlugvese, owing to 
U)e stimulus thus gi^-cn lo foreign travel and trade, and the 
tnctcaKd factlilics for them. At the same lime, the French 
fauq;utgn began to l>orrow brgcly from lulian, especially 
during ibe rc^ns of Krincis I (1515-1347) and Henrj- II 
(■547~t559)> ^d we frei]uent!y borrowed Iidiitii words. 
not only indirectly, ihroiigli the French, but directly also. 
WyaU and Suncy studied and JmiialeiJ Italun, and already 
it '545 ^^ find AscJuun, in bi» Preface to Te^xephitut, com- 
iJaining thai many Engli»l) writers use 'straunge wordcs, as 
latifl, frencb, and Ilnh'an,' see Arber's repfinl, p. 18'. The 
Old of the sisiccnth ceniury, and the century succeeding it, 
made our Iravellen 5imiliar with such foreign languors as 
^ ir ynain*. Russian. Turlush. and Persian ; and later still, words 
have been introduced fiom many otliers, including various 
Indian languages, an<l the diwne tongues scattered o^-c^ the 
continents of Asia, Africa, and America, the tcniotci parts of 
liuropc, and the distant islands of PolyncMa. We hate aUo 
borrowed Spanish words indirectly, through the medium of 
French, from the time of Henry IV of France (1589-1610) ; 
and even dirccdy, from a somewhat earlier date. It may 
be Tcmatked Uiat ibc influence of French upon English has 
now lasted for mnre than tvc centuries. 

$ 10. The Hodora Poriod begins about 1600. It 
will thus appear that a loleiab!)- distinct, though arbitrary-, 
line of separation may be drawn by taking the date 1500' 

' Sre an any on 'Tb» luflnniot uC lullwi upon EnmlUh LilecixtUTt,' 
I7J, KoMUvnayi i8S«. 

' The aiiMliCT af word* directly derived from Gcnnui i* rery Mtiall. 
AcODii<ltT*tilcnainbci*cr«dcHwlfrom Old 01 Middle High Cermia 
thnrag^ the nodiiim of Vraidi. Tlic cumtnon popuUi ilrliulon aUiDt 
the ' ilctiratioo ' tA Esglidi fnwn Gcimnn a rrfotnl belov. 

■ itaat prdcr Ut tiUte the dale ifH j, 1. c the dale of the aixaaan uf 


U bxlicating the conmenceineni of a oew stage En the hc»- 
locy of our Ui^iugc. Roughly spealung, aiuJ with very 
few CKCCptions, tius date sepaniteB the earlier stages of the 
language from nearly all contact u-iih such Unguages as 
Spanish, Italian, Ponngnesc, Gcniun, Greek (as used in 
ecicDcc or as an tmmediaic source), Turkish, Russun, and 
Htint^ahan in Eurojie, and (wiih the eiceptioiis of Hebrew, 
Arabic, and, to a »Iight extent, or Persian) from neaHj- evn; 
tongue not spoken viihin the European continrru. If, 
tfacrcfote, wo ascertain that a given won] was already in 
common tae in the filWnth century, or caifier, the range of 
our search is much limited. Words of Kastem origin are. 
in general, easily delected and at\ aside ; and when these 
are disposed of, the choice is usually limited to English, 
Low Gemun, Scandinavun, or Dutch on the one hand, or 
10 French, Latin, or Greek (in a Latin or Err^nch forni) on 
ihe oilier. The Celtic words stand apart from iHcKe, and 
often present much difficulty; and there are doubtless socne 
ca«ea in which a word borrowed from French turns out to 
be ultimately of Celtic origin. Owing to this gradual 
narrowing down of tlie number of original sources as wc 
recede from modem to more ancient times, the question of a 
word's origin Erequcmly resolves itself Into the tolerably ample 
fbnn— it it native English, Scandinavian, Latin, at Fren^? 
Thcee four sources are all of primary importance, and will 
each of them be con^dered hereafter ; but (uiih the excep- 
tion of words borrowed Itcfore the Norman ConqueAt) only 
the two former fall within the scope of the present volume. 

{ 11. Foreign Uiinga denoted by foreign words. The 
best way to set aliout the enquiry into the etymology of a 
given word is, as I have said, to find out ihc earliest example 
of its use. Yet eteo without this aid, our general knowledge 

llenif VII. M the diK ot ib* oommtn tw igit «f Ihe moikRi period. 
Nothing tt £aint<I bjr it. The diKOToy of America did not tskc pUoc 
till 149), nnd ibc my jrou Ijoo b fuooos for the diicovcrjr of Brt^ 





of history and geof:rapb}' wHt ofien indicnte the inic sourcet 
bj telling i» sooKtliing about the thit^ which the word 

Examples of this may be seen tn Tiench'g 'KnglUh Past 
uid Pmcnt,' Icct. i. The in«re mtiition of hoiland suggests 
Dutch; whilst geography tells us that Holland conlains the 
town of DelA, whence our del/, as veil as die province of 
Gddcrland, whence our guddtr-rott '. The gtyjtr suggests 
Icchndic, and mttrtchaum German. Such words as f/ajv, 
elajmore, gif/it, leek, pitroth, ilcgan, wAt'ify, can hanlly be , 
olbcr ihan f^lic. Such musical terms as a/iegro, andanit, 
diul, ef^ra, pianofork, tfio, ttmala, si^ramr, Irw, arc of course 
Italian; and so are eanSo, eietrotu, doge, ineegnilo, mtaglio, 
tara, nuuaremi, mtnolinic, Uaitsa, tlikU«, vtrmittUi, vista, ■ 
The wry forms of the words at once betray ihcir origin. 
Similaily the stadent of Spanish easily recognises the words 
armada, crmadt'ih, dm, ditrmta,/oeii/a. grtiHdte, liii/algii.junJa, 
laiMt pu/adffr, mosfui/o, negro, peecadtJ/a, firinurti, quadroon, 
real (as tlic name of a coin), tornado, vanilla ; and even 
those who have no acquainianee with that language naturally 
associate armada, den, duenna, grandee, ht'Jdge, matador with 
Spain, and lano, fitgro, ^uadro^n, with the Spanish colonies. 
We caoDol mention a drosfy, a rouble, a jftyyc, or a vertt 
nithoul diinking of Russia, nor such words as amatm, am- 
br«tia, antittrgpht, asphodel, efiisode, Hadn, I'ehor, myriad, 
myth, mptnthe, panoply, siropfie, tantalise, threHody, without 
being temtudcd of the glorious poetry of ancient Greece. 
Talcs of Pt-rsian origin or accounts of travels in that country 
are sarv to introduce us to the iataar, the earavan, ihc 
<//nM ; the ihoA, Ae pasha, and the dert-iiA will not no un- 
nicntione<l; iK>r will tlie En.>trrn imager}' be complete witlioui 
the ghcul, the hfvri, and die peri. It is tlte Malay who calls 
ht> sword a ereeu, and wlio runs amitei; the Chinese who 
grows tea ; tlte Thilictan who acknowledges a supreme lama, 

> Tlw tftllitieiiuiiler- it due to the Fnncib q>clliDs GiulJrt, 



vhilc the Tartar rallx \a% cliic/ loni a khan, and tli« RtBsian 
a ezar^. Bantam is in Java; gatnhogt is only a French 
Spelling of Cambodia. AuBtnlia possesses the kangaroo aod 
\!bevxmia/; the inhaliiuiit of Taliili iii/Awi hiinseir. Guitta 
is on tbc west coast of Africa, and the C<atary inlands haw 
given a name to a bicd, a wine, and a dance. Sioiics about 
the North American In<ltans speak of Ihc tno^u, the o^ssum, 
the raeoon, and (be stunk ; of Ihc ^'arrior with bis moKonint, 
Itmaiiaivk, and wamfiuiii, and liis tjuaw in the urigwam. 
These instances may suflice for tbc present ; I propose to 
give otlier cxani]>let in due course. 

i 12. Useful datOB. The following dates are all of them 
more or less inipottont in relation to tbc changes wbicb 
have taken place in the English langtiage. 

First landing of Csctsr in Britain ■ . . 9JZ. 
Agricota buildi his line of foru, and reduces Britain 

to a Roman pinvince A.D. 

Chfiitianiiy introduced into Britain 

Hengeit founds the kingdom of Kent 

AuRusiine cont-cns ^Ihelbeiht 

Northumberland submits to Ecgbcrhl 

Ecgberht defeats the [>anes 

Th« Danes winter in Sheppey 

Peace of Wedtnore ; between Alfred and Gulborta 

Danish invasions begin again 

Ascend«nc)- of Cnut , . 

Battin of Hastings 

EnglUh proclamation of Henry ]1I> 

First parliament of Edward I. 

Yeai-baoks of Edward I. (Repons of cases 


Edwaid 111. invades France 

Pleadings lirst conducted in EnKlisb, though recorded 

in Latin . *-^ jii.i-ei' .... 



a6«ut iSo 







in Angto- 




' Not, bowcTTT. * true RoBiin word ; l«l > Sluvonle modilicalloD at 
Catar. Shniltily tbt tiitml \* denoted by a woad bonowri bout SwrtiA, 
•nd allied to E. kml. 






Eoglit)) fint Uuj;bt in schoola .... a.d. 1385 

Wan of Die RoiM 14SS-71 

Iniroduction of PtintinK into England . 1477 

Columbus dijco^-ers San Snltador . . . 1499 

Modern ««(rc of English bcRins .... aiattt IJOO 
AriMto publitli«i his Oilando Furioso. (tiesianinf; 

of Italinn intluence) ■5rti 

Tyndolc's New TciumnU first printed . . iji; 

Sir John Cbcke totches Greek at Cambridge . 1 540 

The Nnhcilandeis icsisi Spain .... i^ 
Baltic of Ivry. (Beginning of ricqueni bonou-ing« in 

French from Spanish) 1590 

Authorised x-eraion of the Bible .... ]6l I 

First folio edition of Sh*keipeajc . , . 1623 

Civil War 1641-9 

Proceedings at lav recorded in EngUth . . 1730 

Clive gains the battle of Pinsscy .... 1757 

Captain Cook's discoverie* in the Pacilic Ocean 1769 
Coctlic's 'Sorton-s of Wcricr' iransUtcd into English 1779 

Cart)-te iranslules Goetbe's 'Witbelm bleister' . 1834 

4 18. Bistotlc*! Survey. A few remarlcs wDl make 
cle«r the bearings of these events ijpon our language. When 
Julius Cssar arrived in BrilaJii, the inhabitants of the &ouih 
1KTC speaking a Celtic dialect, but the reduction of ;ho 
ishnd to a Roman province under Agricola gradually in- 
troduced a knowledge of Latin, wtiicli led in iis turn 10 
a knowledge of Chrisuanity. After the Romans uiihdrcw 
from the island, it fell an easy prey to English invaders, who 
rounded in it various kiiigdotns the oldest of which uas that 
of Kent. Ecgbciht's acquiation of Northumberland brought 
iJie whole of England under one ruler ; whilst the mission 
Oif St. Atqwtine brought in Christianity amongst the pagan 
Knglish. Ecgbdht's defeat of the Danes only marks the 
beginning of a long stroggle of two ccniurics'. Their in- 
cnruons still continued, so that in S55 iJiey spent the whole 

* The ^iVKi, In imttll iitunben. bnd limiln] EngUod eitn evller. In 
I7 aad 83] ; mc Honii, £ng. Acciiloicc, f * j. 



vtnter in Kent, inMcad of rctreutng bocacwvrd for that 
•MSOD, as the; had been vont to da Tbc peace of Wed- 
mote tirougbt vitfa il some casulon, but at (he cIo«e of the 
leudi ccnltirj' ire find t hem agiin aggrcstivr, antQ a Danish 
IdBgdoBi was at last establhfani nnder CnsL Thus vre 
already aee that there Dmst have been a eoo»defaMe fuxioo 
of JEngliafa wUfa Laiin and Scandinavian before Uk Nonnan 
cooqwst, wtiilH a few lenns had probably been borrowed 
from the vanqnisbcd Britoos. who spoke Celtic dialects. 
Edward the Confenitor's retatiom with Nonmindy Itret tn- 
troduced a alight actpninUDoe with Freodi. and the bottle 
of HaAiings rendered that language and Latin ahnoM paia- 
toouot for a time. Bnl English remained so much the 
langoage of the pcopk that the Itnowtcdge of it was never 
Uxtt, and on ooe stditary occasion Henry III actually istued 
aproclamatioa in tbc Dati«« language, on ibe tSlh of October. 
lagS'. Throughout his reign and that of Edward I all th« 
Statutes and Reports of cases in tlie law-conns were in 
French or Latin ; but there was always a sticcc»ion of 
various Ulcrai; works in English *. Tbc wars of Edward III 
brought tis into closer rclalion with French as spoken in 
France, which by thin time differed considerably from 
the Anglo-Ficncb into which the original Konnan-French 
had [tassed, along a path of its own. Trerisa, an English 
writer bom in Cornwall, recordK the interesting fact that, in 
the year 1385. cluldrcn leit off translating Latin into Anglo- 
French, of whkh many of them scarcely knew a word, arul 
were wbely allowed by their masters to express ihemseh<s 


■ BMea by A.J.ElUt. in the 'TnuuBctlain of tbc Fliilofaickil Society.' 
Aaotlicr copy of it wu eAivA \tj ayulf (or (he tune toclctir In i6$i. 

' Thii HCccnIi'iii of lj]gllih writing may noM cadljr be h«d b^ 
coiuollin);. \a oiAtt, Ibe fbnr fbUowing wa«b in the CUrcmkn frtB 
Setiei; lii. Swecl't Anglo-StXMi ttcada; 'Spednusi of EBjcltA from 
iifoto i3oei,'ed.H<aTif; 'SjiccbntM of EnKlUh ftoa ii^S to ijgj.' 
ed. Moirit aad SkMti 'SpwtmM of Engljik Iron 1391 to 1579.' 
ed. Skest. 





in their native tongue'. This drcumittaace, togelher willi 
the pcrtniiiw! use of English in (he law-courU, nuTlcs the 
period when, aSixt a long Btmgglc, English had completed 
ascendancy over Anf^lo-French, though not u-itbout 
iwing from the Utter a large nHinbrr of wonls. Down 
the time of the Wars of ihc Roses wc find three distinct 
id K-ell-markcd literary <Iialects of Engtiati, the Nortlierti, 
ilidland, and Soitthcm ; liui the result of tlmt Ktniggic ga^v 
ascendancy to the Midland dialect, which then hccame 
the standard Ikerarr dialect and has ever since so remained. 
"I'hc intrtxhiction of priming gradually brought about an 
normous didcrencc in the principle of sjiclling words, lieforc 
that date, none but phonetic spelling was in use. ei'cry word 
being: written as pronounced by the scribe, and soraelimes 
according to a nite of hi$ onn, thns producing considerable 
Taiicty. This variety was gradtially lessened, till at last it 
became uniform ; htit this gain in tiniformity to the eye wa» 
ccomiunkd by a far greater loss, vix. the absence of 
phonetic tnnli in representing the sounds, so thai the nn- 
phonctic and indeed tinsystctnatic spelling of modern English 
\% truly deplorable. 

i 14. Modom Foriod. The discovery of America gatv 
an enormous impetus to foreign commerce and irawl, not 
iy opening out a new world, but making us better 
^scqaainlcd with <fistant regions of itie old world also. 
Tyudale's New Testament marks the period of a grenl 
refomution in rdigion, and of a large ad^'ancc towards 
freedom of thought. The Icactiing of Greek had much 
influence tipon the reriral of ' classical ' learning. The 
marriage of Heiir)' 11 of France wiili Catharine dc Medici 
made Italian popular at ihe French court ; whilKt Wyalt 
and Surrey again iniroduccd among as the study of Italian, 
wlach had fallen into neglect since the days of Chaucer 

' Fm Ikb curloQi pudj^e, «cc 'Spcdmeui of Cnglbh, iigS-ijgs, 
, >4t. Of Ke p. jiof Ihe [vnciit volume. 

VOL. I. C 


tnd \.yA^Mt K The m-olt of the Neil>erUnds against Sp 
induced nianjr Fnglieh vx>lunic«re to senv in the Low 
Countries against the Spaniards, and brought us into 
closer coniaci both <riili Duicb and Spanish; the latter 
also became pariiallf known in France during the wont 
of Hcnrj- IV (of Navarre). Our sailora frequently obtained 
some knowledge of Spanish and Ponugnese, besides gain- 
ing woids from the new lands which diej vlxitcd. The 
inRuenccof the Authorised Version of ititi and of the ptajn 
of Shakespeare requires no comment. It is rematliable thai 
great dianges ta English pronunciation Men to hav-e taken 
place about the time of the Civil War * ; but some obscuriijr 
still rests upon this diiKcult subject. In 17J0 a Dational 
reproach was taken away by tiie tardy confession that Eng- 
lish was a fit language in which to rccmd proceedii^[S at 
law. I'he %'iclorics of Cii^'e opened up to us Ibc great 
rcsoiuices of India; and the discoveries of Captain Cook 
largely extended both our geographical knowledge and our 
territory. Perhaps the mosi remarkable fact of all is the 
almost total ignorance of the German language among Eng- 
lishmen down to 1814 ; ewn to this moment the nurked 
neglect of Gcnnan in our English schools proves an amazing 
lack of wisdom on the part of parents and teachers. Still there 
has been a great advance of late years towards a moie general 
admission of its I'alue; and this hopcAil sign of progre** 
bids us not to despair of the coming of a time when not only 
Gcnnan, but even English itself, will be consdered worthy 
of careful and sdeniific ttudy in our schools and colleges. 


■ Tlicte SDtbon tttt leqaaialed wMi Itsliaa Utentnic, b«t tbej in* 
tioJiiccd into KnglUh do lialiaa «««<U. 

* Some tec; imtNirtsai chugt* look pttce tiill cmUtr, looa afiei , 


Tkx Nativx ilhuht: DiALicn or Midm-k EjicLfsn. 

$ IS. It is worth while to consider vrhelher there is any 
[test whereby words of tuili\-c English origin may be known 
'fivu others. It b h«ra ihai even a small knowledge of 
gmninar is of great service. Wiij] all our woiil-ljorrowing, 
nearly the whole fr^iincwork of our gr%mni;ir w»s Knglish 
at the bc^nning, and has so remained ever since. Borrowed 
words lutve usually been wade to conform to English grsan- 
mar, irrcspcctiiv of ihetr souroe. Thus the Latin plural of 
index is nu/icft, but the use of the form indias is not to be 
conunended. The Enj^Ii&h jJural imiexts is mudt better, 
and will sooner or later prevail- For a list of pure English 
words, 9CC Morris, English Accidence, 5 31. li may suflicc 
10 say here that all the commonest prepositions, coujunc- 
liooe, and adverbs of time an<t phce lielong to this dims ; all 
suong, sniiliar)-, and defecitix: verbs; all pronouns and 
denonstrttiK adiecti\-cs; adjectives that fonn their degrees 
of compariMin inegtilarly; most substantives ending in -dom, 
-ho^, and -Mp ; all the cardinal numerals except million, 
iillim, Ac; aU the ordinal iiumeralA excejit tucfiJ, millionlh, 
hiibmii, &c. ; and finally, a large number of substantives 
exprcs<>ing the tnosi homely, familiar, and necessary ideas. 
It is quite easy to form sentences that sluill contain no word 
that b not purely English ; sec e.g. the first four verses of 
Sl John's Go«)iel in the Authorised Veision. Pure English 
woida are often characleriKd by strength, pith, and brevity, 



being Ercqucntly moocreyfLtbic'. Tbcjr form, in fact, lh< 
tacUwDc of the bnguage, and give it vitality. Words ftoa ' 
other bnguagcs an annexed and, as it were, mlijugatcd, 
being usnaOy made to oonTorm to the native words in 
their tnfleiions and i^Tanuuaiical use*. This is ranark- 
ably excmplilkd in the case of borrowed verbs, which 
(with the exception of the Scaiulinarian taJtt, rivf, tkrm) 
invariably fonn (he [>a»t tnue in -ed, -d, or -/. Thiiii the 
F. thim and Lai. adapt make the post tense daim'td, 
ttdapt-<d; and the verb to b^tidt (see sect 6) makes the 
past tense b^tcsi-fd. 

1 16. By way of furtber example. I here repeat (but tnl 
modem xpelling) the (luotation from Shakespeare already 
given at p. 1, and piint in italics all the wonb thai may be , 
considered as purely English. 

' Till [f), si/'t a iamt, a Ave, a Ibol to him : 
FU ttU yett, sir Lac«nlio ; ttnbw th* pric^T 
Skautd ask, if Kaibarine should bt his ^/e, 
Aft, hy Gojfs nnmii't, gu«^h ht, and /awv sa laid, 
Thai aji A-muied the prkst /W /ait hit be»i, 
Amd, as ht siMfid djfinM to talce it up. 
This mad-iraintd hide-groom look Mm suck a cufl^ 
7%at dovH fell priest Mtd book, and hook and priest ; 
No» take them up, ^uoth he, if amy list' 

This result is not a Uitle remarkable, but might perhjipa^ 
have been expected, when the force of the ]>as5age is con* 
sidered. As for the words ith in roman t^pe, it may be 
remarked thai foel, sir, are French ; pritsi is a Ijitin word 
(of Greek origin), borrowed in the Anglo-Saxon period; 
aye, take (pt. t took), cuff, are Scandinaviao; a-mattd is a 

■ Tbe Mid czttptlont *tv Mairanly Fmdi : u air, hot^ifruU, 
groin, gf^ft- i'iie > Ami/, fna. ih»r, ftrh. irai. rcit, raf, tool, &c. 
SoateucScaiiiliaiTiaa. Sec Monte, bf. Accidence. 1 jl. 

■ Foe ■ lid of lexiie fMctipt wnmb wklch keep ibor anf;laal ptsimU. 
M« Morrb, Edc. Acddcnoc, | Sf 




hybrid wonl, the toot bcinff ScaniliRnvian, while the prefix a- 
b English; Liutnh'o is an IiaHan name of Latin origin, 
whilst Kalkarim was formed from a Greek adji-ciit^e. 

§ 17. Changes in pronuncintioa. The diffi;rcnce be- 
tween ihc above passage in its original speUinjf, and the 
same in modem £iigli»h, is •><.> Uighl as to cauire hut little 
trouble 10 vay one who Iricx to the former. Itut there 
is really a <oa<taleJ diiTeicnce between the two of the most 
sianUog chatacier ; one which hundreds of teadeis «i>uld 
never su!i|)ecl, and which many who are ignoiant of phonetics 
will hardly credit. The researches of Mr. Ellis' have proved, 
past all conttoTcrjy, that the f-ranuncialion of words in the 
lime of Shakespeare <Jiffcrc(l so widely from that now in use, 
(tiat f^hakespcaic himself, if he could now be heard, would 
6carc«ly receive a patient hearing, bui would probably be at 
once condemned as .ipvaking a kind of foreign language, or, 
at lean, a kind of bod broad Scotch. Such U the prejudice 
due to mere cu&tom, that scarcely one of his hearers would 
care lo coii>ider llie iiueslion — is our modern pronunciutioD. 
ufter all, .a teal improvement? But the scientific student of 
language knows perfectly well that the diifcrcnce is rc.illy a 
source of trouble to us. We have, in fact, so modified and 
altered the old voircl -sou nils, that modem spelling, as com- 
pared vith the louini of the words, is a mere chaos of con* 
fusion. The vowel-sounds expressed by our written symbols 
now dlETcr from tbo«e of every nation in Europe, however 
doaely tliey once agreed, as ihcy certainly di<l, with the 
cominental Gystcm. A single ciiampic will illustrate this. 
We iKiw pronounce Ua so as to time with he, we, lAt; 
but no other nation venlutcs on a pronunciation so extra- 
ordisaty. The F. t^, G. and Du. tAu. Swcd. and Dan. A*, 
ate all alike pronounced as an K. /air, timing willi ttiy, /ay, 
gay. b b not long iigo since we said iay outselves; as is 

'Duljr Gi^lUi PtoDiuiciation,' by A. J. EUji. 



witnessed by the Tamoas lines of Pope*. I hvK frcqueodj'^ 
net with people who were entirely unaware that the tbJnl^ 
line of Cowper** poem of Alexantler Selkirk, ending in 
gives a perTct-t rime to survey; and ihai the same pronun-' 
ciztton of stii (as say) reappears in the third line of his hymn 
tieginiiing widi the word»< — 

'God mores in a myslerioiM way.' 

Sta, In fact, iras in Middle English spelt itt, and was pro- 
nounced wttli the tt lil^e a in Mary ; not far removed from 
the tt in tlic Duich ttt, G. .Sir*, The A. S. irf*. though cDf- 
*'* ferently spell, was pronounced pLSt the same, ^^^lence we 

deduce the pcrplciing rcsuli, thai the A. S, id, M. E.' ste, ex- 
pressed precisely tlie .taine sound by different symbols ; whilst 
Tudor-English and lilodcm Kngli»h express, on the conirary, 
different sounds by the same spelling rnt. This ought to shew 
that some study of Middle- English and An(;lo-Saxon pro- 
nunciation should precede all our atiempis to trncc back- 
wards the et)'nioiogy of Kngiish words; otherwise we, literally, 
cannot pretend lo say that we know what ti»rd it is thai we 
arc talking alwuL For the rtalword is, oJ'courte, the uttered 
sound, not the written symbol by which it is truly (or falsely) 

5 18. Since, howewr, it is only with tlic written synibob 
that I can easily deal in a book like the present, 1 propose to 
trace chiefly the variations in tpitling from time to time ; and 
ill quoting words from foreign languages, ] shall quote them 
at they are written, wi^out at (he same time indicating their 
pronunciation, li may, n>e%«rthele», be clearly undeistood, 
that the difEcuhy of ascertaining the pronunciation b for 

* ' Here tbon, ^rau Anna. whoM tlirer rolmt obqv 
Doil lomtiliiin coao>d Uike~ai)il wiartlma tea.' 

iCa/v./M(/w*,iii. 8(1711), 

* A- S. ■• Anglo-Saxon, the dUlcet of Waiei before tbc Cooqncfl. 

* M.E, •Middle Eoglbh; frMD ■bout aj>. iiooio rjoo. 




greater in the cue of English than of luiy olher language, 
eqicciaOj in the case of the vowels. Nearly all the con- 
tinenul langu&ses, including Latin— the uetul Souihcrn- 
Engfish pronuncUtion of which is simply eiccrablc — agiM 
in a nniforni s)-etcm of simple vowt-h, and imially emploj* 
the symbols a, e, i, o, m, lo repKAeiii (nearly) the sounds 
heard in E. iaa, tail, tetl, boat, bmil. 1'hc fact that old 
French words were inlioduccd freely and in great number 
into Middle English m'lhcmi any ehang* <^ sptlting, k quite 
enough lo shew thai tlie pronunciation of M. K. did not 
materially differ from that of Anglo-Krcnch ; for the spelling 
U that date u-as still phonetic This enaldcs us to say, 
definitely, thai, in the time of Chaucer, ilie symbols n, *, i, o, m 
bod their modem (and ancient) continental values*. 

$ 19. Hiddle-BngUsb Vowels. The student who has 
as yet made no special study of Middle Kngli^h may, at any 
rate, gain some ckar notion of it by making this bis siarting- 
poaot. That ia, he may lake the words iaa, tail, hul, boat, 
toft as mnemonics for remembering the sounds indicated by 
a, t, i, p, H ; and he should at once learn these fi^'c words by 
bcsn. This will girc him the sounds of the long vowels; 
and some idea of the short ones may be gained by an 
attempt lo shorten ihese sounds respectively. Thus the 
M. E. tal, l/ul, were pronounced like <aai, hot, but with tlic 
vowels somewhat shoilcned. There arc plenty of Northern 
Eagfishmen who pronounce them .so still ; for the speech of 
the North is much more archaic, in many respects, than tlte 
clipped, affected, and finical pronunciation of the South- 
erner, who has done his worst, only loo successfully, in his 
altempts to ruin our pronunciation. 

Fton what has been here said, it will be manifest that, 

' It U quite OTtwi that CtlUc. Engliib, rad Kroich (crlh« »I1 olv 
Iiiiud (hclt lij-ilibdli faun the Latin nlphabct ; uid cmploycl tiicm, it 
the (trd, with notitf tbo ume powcn. Oui bnilu poviiou has olictcd 

if we wish lo choose good symbols for ll>e representa- 
tion of sounds, aod cspedaUy if vk «ish thctn lo be in tlw 
least degree understood by foreigners, such symbols ss ai, tt, ' 
M, a> (in iai/, itti, btat, io«/) arc itie worn jiMsible to Uke. 
It bowing to this considcratioD that Mr. Ellis h:is founded 
the alphabet which be calls pat<i6lypi, upon the «tf' or 
foreign valuer of tltc vowel -symbols ; and Mr. Swcel has 
similarly conslraclcd the alphabet which he calU Romit^. 
As Um subject prescnu some difficuUy, I shall not now 
furtlier pursue it ; but I must remind the reader thai be will 
never ckariy undenttand what Kliddlc EngliiJ) was hkc. 
unless he will at least take the trouble to read some passages 
of Chaucer with attention. If he will do this, lie will find 
llic selections in the Clarendon Press Series of great use. 
The best and clearest explanation of the pronunciation of 
Chaucer's English is that by Mr. Ellis, which will be found 
near the begiiming of the iiiiioduction lo my edltloo of] 
Cliaucer's ' M;in of I^w's TjIc' 

§ 30. Chaacor'8 spoUlng. Midland Dialect. In order 
to exemplify the sptUing of Chaucer's time, consider the 
ibllovii^ passage from the Maa of Law's Talc, lines s8t— j 

'Alias ! VD-to the Barbrc nadoun 
I moste gon, sin that it is your wiUe; 
But Ciisi, that starf for our stmaciotin. 
So yeue me grace, his hestes to fulfille ; 
I, wrtcche a-nmmiui, no fon ibougfa I «pille. 
Wonnmcn ar born to thraldom and pcnanCG, 
And to ben vndet raannes goueniance.* 

In modern Engli»li this would be »pclt at follows : — 

'Alas ! unto the tlArhar' nalion 
I must go, since that It la yutu will ; 

■ Pial*»-lypt, L e. uld tn>e, old tymboL See EUis't Eorty Eosliih 

' Rfmii, i. «. Mcordios wilb tlio fC«nuoi nluc* of llie qmbots. See j 
Swtcl'* Ilwidbook of Pboactlc*. ■ JJubwiai. 


Bflt Christ, ilat xiarved' for our sulratioa, 
So give me graced his hcsis \a fuliil; 
1, wretch' woroun, no farce' thoujih I spiU'i 
Women arc burn \a ihrnldom and penance. 
And to be under luau's sovemanoe.' 

The leader will at once perceive ihat on* of two aiter- 
naii^'es must be true. Eiilier Chaucer bad no ear for 
mvlodj-, iiod wrote wvj bad poetry; or else hw English 
must bave materiall/ itiffered in accent and pronunciaiion 
from that now in use. The former of these aliemaiivex is not 
found to be true. A careful examination of Chaucer's metre 
shcvs that he had an unusually deltcaie ear for melody, and 
ihai his ventitication exliil>iLi surpciatiig rcfcularity. There 
is aUo roawn to believe tlal poetry, at least, was then 
pronounced with an utterance more deliberate and measured 
than we should now use. The word na'ci-oun had three 
All! sylUbln, aiul ta-vit-ti-oun had four. But the most 
reoarlubtc points are (i) that the old plural in -es (now -t) 
formed a disdnct syllable, a» in die diitsyllablc htsl-^t; (i) 
thai the same is true of the genitive singular, :ls maaa-ts; 
and (3) tliat in many instances the final -t also formed a 
distinct and separate syllable. Hence there are iwo syllables 
in mittt-f, tci/J-e, tereah-t, spiU-<; three -lyllalJca \aful-Jitl-€, 
pm-iit-a; and four in giv-<r-H4n-a. Observe also die 
necondary accent on the final syllables of nA-ti-o&a, M-r4- 
ti-dai and on the penulLimate xylbblu of gdv-tr-Hin-ft. 
Lastly, note that the accent of ptn-in-ct was, at that dale, on 
the lalier part of the word, not (as now) at the beginning *. 
If the reader will now take the trouble to read t!ie above 
pauagc sJoad rather slowly, at the same time bearing in 

' DU<L ' 1. 0- may He give rao tucli ff»ix. 

' WrtteVJ. ' li ii no mittct. ' Pciiib. 

* Fjij-liili hM a way oS lArevin£ taik ibe a«txM. acaicr tbc bcKUuing 
of llic word. Thm Ulc Ilal. biUitu luui utiutllj. In modern Englidl, 
become UkaHf, ibuagh fiiM inliudncod s* taMny. Wc crca tuTc dnlit 
aanrkat ofdW/fw; aoil ^iJfM/ at well ai m^^. 


mind die abo\-e liini::, he uiO, even wilb ibe roodern (very 
wretched) pronunciaiion, gain a Taint notion of iu mctod)*. 

$ at Another lesson may be drawn from ibc same passage, 
by priming it so as to shew, by ihe use of italics, the words of 
native orijjiit. WiUi this undcrslanding, it appears 
follovs x-^ 

'Alias! vit-to ikt Bailire nacioun 
/ mSiU gon, sin t/nU it it yaur TtnlU \ 
But Crisl, tktU star/ for our iaiiaciouo, 
S« yeue mt grace, his AtsUs lo fulfilU; 
f, vrrttekt oMmuHOH, tu fora Ikougk f s^hf 
IVctnuuH M- k^m /o (bialiAiw ami penance, 
And to ten wider maHHts t^ucrnancc' 

H«Te once more there is a remarkable preponderance of tme 
English words, u-hich may be thus grammatically distributed. 
DcGnilc anicle: Ike. Pronouns: /, mt, il, fiis; air,^nrr, 
dial, iM. Sobslantivcs : wilb, nvnimim; genitive, manai} 
plural, Aetftr, nuMinnv. Adjective: urffrJit. Auxiliary and 
anomalous verbs: awU; Iren, is, or. Strong verbs : slur/, 
^tue, bom. Weak veibs: goa,/uifillt, spillt. Adverb: «i 
Preposilions : unlD, /or, to, wtdtr. Conjunctions: sin, thai, 
tut, though, and. or the remaining words, one is of hybrid 
formation, vix, thrai-dota ; its first pliable is ScatKlinavian, 
bttl the suffix is English. Barbrt and CritI arc French 
spellings of words which arc nliimatcly Greek. The re- 
maining words are aIIFr«nch; natunat, savacimn, grace, fors, 
ptnanct, gopmuuuf, being mbManlives, while aHas / L-t an 
interjection. All these French words are of I-atin origin. 
The remarks in $ 15 lend us 10 expect, tn general, (hat 
word* of foreign origin are likely to be subMantivcs, adjectives, 
adverbs, or weak verbs. We may indeed go a litUc further, 
and expect the weak verbs lo be of Scandinavian, French, or 
Latin origin ; whilst words frotQ remoter languages are com- 
monly mere names, that Is, noims substantive. 

§ aa. OhangM io apelliag. As regards the spelling of 




English words in tliis pMsage, w« may first remark that 

^bK ISC of r for initial u in in-Zc, vndtr, has mcrcljr a eon of 
ornaiDCRtal value, and is nol otherwise signlficanL ll laued 
for maof centuries ; indeed, we liave alre-^dy seen the 
spelling vp for up (twice) in ihc exlnict from Shakespeare 
on p. I. This nsc is not found in Anglo-Saxon, the MSS. 
of U'hicli have llie same spelling of tm-lo, trntirr, up, as we use 
now. The word tiuuU is not only dissyllabic (ns already 
noted), but is rcmatkable for having the o long. The A. S. 
word was misU (= mdii-e), also diisyllabic, where die accent 
denotes the length of ihc towcI. Wc thus sec the word* 
history clearly enough. U was at lirst mSsU, the past tense 
of an obsolete present mi/; but the present being lost, Ute 
same form was used for both present and past. Then the 
final < dropped off, giving ncs/, riming with Am/; next the 
vowd-soond altered till it rimed with rvos/; after which, 
the vowel-sound was shortened, and altereil in character by 
what Mr. Sn-cct calls ' unrounding,' till it rimed with riui, as 
at present. These clianges were slow and regular, and can be 
explained by analogy with other words. Tbl.t is indeed ilie 
chief object of this present woik, viz. to exhibit so many 
example* oJ" regular changes in the vowcl-tsounds as lo enuble 
ibc lUiclent to observe some of the phonetic laws for hitnscir, 
or at least to understand ihcm clearly. And it may be 
remarked, by the way, ihai the comparative bteness of the 
discovery of printing was in one respect a great gain, since 
we now have an abundance of MSS. written before that date, 
in irbich the spelling wax free and phonetic. In fact, the 
£ii£li»hinan wtio hastily ru^es to the silly conclusion 
Chaaoer's MSS. are remarkable for their ' bad spelling ' will 
some day ditcover, if he cares lo take the pains and happens 
to be open to conviction ', that the spelling of the thirteenth 
and founccotb centtuies is, in general, fairly good. As a 

' Oar very bmllUritjwitbnioclcm Fnj^tlili Is* MnKcof much fooliih 



giiidi: to ilie rounds of wordit, U fs vastly superior lo that a\ 
the pr«cnl day, which is uiu-rly untiustwortby oft !n<ticatii% 
the sounds which the 6)tnbol)> mean. It is not for us 
moderns to talk of ' bad spelling.' 

4 Sa. The fact that wUl-i is. In Chaucer, dissyllabic, is 
due to the fact that the A.S. wiBa vu the same. Here 
again, the word's history is easy. The A. S. form was 
uiUl-a ; the final a wa» weakciK'd or dulled Into an obscure 
eound denoted by a final -t ; after which tltix light syllable 
dropiied off, giving ilie modem toill; just as the A.S. 
tpill't is now sf-i/l. The word ilar/ is inieresiirig gram- 
raatically. The M.E. infiniliw iltrvtn (usually wrinen 
lUruta ') meant to die. The verb vts a. ilrmig odc, forming 
its past Icnsc as slar/, and its past participle as tiwai or 
y-slorven (written sloraen, yshrum), often atiortened (0 
siorV't or y-itorv-t by dropping the final n. But in courae 
of time the true past icnsc and past participle were lost sight 
of, and ileretn became the iiwdern weak starve, pL (. and 
pp. jlarfed. At the Nime time, the general sense of tbe 
word was narrowed, so thai it no longer tncatiB lo die in any 
manner, but only lo Jie by/atnint; or more frequently takes 
itie causal sense, lo makt io dit f>y famim. These curious 
changes in the form and sense of words arc full of interest 
lo the student of language. Of the remaining words in this 
jnssajfc, 1 shall say do more at |)rewni. 

% 24. The threo main Dialoota. In the ihiitcenth and 
frjurtccnih centuries, and in liie former part of ilie fifteenth 
century, there were three distinct literary dialects, ihc Nonh- 
em, Midland, and Southern, Roughly speaking, the Uum- 
ber and the Thames formed a pan of ilie boundary, lines 
between them. The Nortliem cfialecl occupied ilic land to 
the north of the Humbcr, including a considerable port of 
Scotland, and enicnding as far north as Aberdeen, of vdudi 

' Tbe trmbol » b tounded aa v wlicn a rowd vaaxtAt iL 




tftwn John Iktrbour, author of the poem of ' The Bruce,' was 
a oatiw. The Sootbern dtnleci occupied the country' to ihe 
aoutb of tlie Thnmcs; and the Midland dialect, ihe ilistricl 
between the other two '. These an only the main divisions ; 
sub-dialects arc found vhich frequent))- combine some of 
■be cbaractcridics of Am of the above dialects. The Mid- 
land disuict contained the very imponant ciiy of London, 
built on ibe itorik side of the Thames; and Chaucer, as 
a I/mdoner, em|>lo}-cit this dialect. It is a curious reflec- 
tion liiat, if London bad been built on tlie other side of the 
river', ihc speech of the British empire and of the (p'eater 
part of North America would probably have been »-crjr 
(BffcTcnl from what it is. It might have abounded with 
Souibem forms, and we might all have Iwen sajHng vex for 
yfer; as indeed, curiously enough, wc actually say vixen 
instead o\ fixtn. 

1 25. Tlie Southern Dialect. By way of excmplilying 
this Southern dialect, and illustrating the whole question of 
dialects Rill further, I now quote a part of the famous pas- 
sa^ fron the transbtion of Higden's Polyditonicon made 
by John of Trcvisa, a Cornishmnn, in 1387 '. 

'As hyt y% yknowe hou)* meny mnner people bu^' in )ns 
ylond, ^r bu^ also of so mcny people longsgcs and longcs ; 
no^ks X^'aUchmcn nnd Scottcs, \&\ bu|> DO)t ymelled wi^ 
u{>er aadooa. hulde^ wel nyi here furste lonj;age and ipeche, 
bot*-Kf* Scoiics, \a.\ were som tyme confederal and woncde 

' For more exact inromialioi], we Specimnu of Kngtisb. ciL Honit 
*»d Skeaii birad. sect & 

* nil lappMldoa U merely made for the uJcc of fllnilMlion. Pnctl- 
eallf, tl b >t«BRl. No Miie 'nen wiiuki hm iil.iccit > Uwn on the I«m 
oooTcnicDl riik or > liver. 

* See Morm btA Slcnt, ' Spedmcnt of EaE'i*^-* pt iU p. 140. The 
■fade i&ew( ihal TreriHi wu piecliely Chanccr'i eonlcmpomy. In 
inuitbtlai; from HIkJoi, tie tAA» tcvrnl icmarkii of hit own. 

* Th* tjintnl i {except wlieii initial; imticatw ■ ^tvnl sound, nnd 
b now miitea gh. i^dj^ the true lowid I* loat. Ai mi iniliiil Ictlei, II 

* II1C ^(Bibol/ ii DOW ni|>p1sutRl by ih -, read Ah/J, tlas. 



wi^ \k Pktes, clratre aamwbiit after here spechc. Bote ^ 
Flcnuii>'ngcs, \ax wnnc|i in \t wcit »ydc of Wales, habbeti yleft 
here suaflge apechi^, antl :i{)eke|i Saxonlych ytxivr. Ako Eng- 
tyscb men, («yj hy hmldc fram J* begynnyng (>rc mancr spectie, 
Sou^eroo, Noi^on, and Myddd spcche (iit )v mydcld of ^ 
lond) M fay come of ^ man«r people of (rt-.tmaau ; noficlcs, 
by commyxstion and mctlyng, ftirai wi^ Djidcs and a/tenrard 
wi^ Normans, to meafc ^ contray-longagc yi npeyred, and 
som vK^ strango wla%Dg> cbyleoi^g' harrj-ng and ganyng, 

pis apcyiynK of |>c bur|>-tonge ys by-causc of Iwcy H^^S**^ — 
on ys, for cliyldtrri in scole, ajeocs ' ^ vsage and tnanen 
of al o^ nacinni, bu^ compelled tat to Icue here oune 
longa^-c, and for lo con&true bera lenon» and bere ^ges a 
Frcynich, and bibbcli, au^he ^ Norm.-uu come furst m-lo 
Engclond, Also, gentil-ntcn children bu^ yiauit for to speke 
FreynM:h fram lyme ^t a bu^ yrokked in here cradel, atxl 
oonnc^ speke and playc w)[i a child hys broach ; and oploodyscb 
men wol lykne ham-syif to gentil-men, and fonde|> wi^ grel 
bysynes for to spcke Frcynsch, for to be more ytold o£' 

$ 36. In moderD English, this will run as follows : — 

'As it it known how many manner (of) people be in ihb 
Uland *, there be also^ of so many people, lanstrnges and tongnes. 
Nonc-t he-less, Welshmen imd Scots, that be not mixed * «itb 
other nations, hold [J. e. preserve] well nlgb their * first language 
«nd speed), but-if {i.e. except that the] Scots, that were (M) 
some time oonfederate and dwell ' with the Picis, draw MMDcwhat 
after their speech. But the Flemings, that dwell ' in the west 
^de of Walcs',bave left (heir strange speech, and speak Saxoa-ly 

' tkn ) bc);iii9 die maia pari of the word^ «• bdng ■ mere pnfia. & 
tboefote rcprnenisj'. Read a-jKnei. 

■ The modem 1 In iltibWItdne tocanfnaion aUbF. iiJt. Thertchl 
^UinC 1* nther i-UnJi to Ihii Titvlia's^invif b •ell etiiMigh. 

' liL 'nicUfd,' or mnldled. 

* Here for ikfir U Soolbem : fram A.S. Ura, of iben, gts. pL of 

■ From A. S. tatmiam, to 0**11 ; die pp- wmJ a lb* M. £. coiwar, 
mod. E. wtnt. 

' T^it b a» ialcNsting nnioe of ibe colony of FI(ini*b DteTcn i 



awagb. Abo EDKlishmen. though thejr' bnd from the begin- 
ning time nujiners <oO speech, Soulbcrn, Northern, und 
Middle-speech (m the middle of the land), as ihcy came of 
three nuiuien (of) people of CcmiRn)^ — nonc-ihc-less, by com- 
mixture and miagliog, fir&c with Oanc^ and aflermrd with 
MomuuUiin many (of thein}[bccfluniry-Uft^iaKcis imp^tircd'; 
snd >ome use xnangc babbling, chaticring, giouling aiid snarl- 
ing, fond) 2na<hing (of (ccth|. This impi-iiring of ihc birth- 
tongue is becauw of two thiogs: — one is, for (i.e. because) 
children in school, againxi the usage and manner of ail other 
nation), be compelled for to leave their own language, and foe 
to construe their lessons and their tilings in French, and have 
(done vdU vaxx ibc Normans came first into F.ngUnd. Also, 
geattemen's children be tuught for to speak French from (the) 
time that they be rocked in their cradle, and can speak and 
play «itli a child's* brooch ; and uplandi^h men' will (i.e. 
desire to) liken themselves to gentlemen, and try* with great 
basineas (I.e. diligence) for to spenk French, for to be mora 
totdof (Le. held in higher estimation).' 

The remainder of the passage is al^o of sudi imjiortancc 
that I heie subjoia ifac gcocml sense of it in modem 

' This predilection for French was common before the first 
pestilence of 1349, but wuaficrwards somewhat changed. For 
John Cornwall, a master of gnmniar, changed the mode of 
leaching in hi<t grammnr- school, and substituted £ogli»li for 
French coDstiuing ; and Kichatd Pencrich le^mi that kind of 
teaching from him, and other men from Pencrich ; so that now, 
U) the >Mir of our Lord 1385, in all the grammar-schools of 
England, the children leave French and construe and learn in 
Eoglish, whereby ihcy have an advantage in one way and a 
disadvantage in another. The advantage is, that they Icam 

* A. S. 4/, kig, they : pi. of kl. he. 

' A-ftirrti mil im-fiaital nicnly tlilfer lii the prefit 
' tit. tkiUAU, wUdi if ui idiom nut fouraj taiiicr thsa the twelfth 
aUmj. The A. & it liiJii, mod. E. ckiWi. 

* I.e. «DM»y people. 

■ AS..^mAa«. toendcavdor, tiy: orig. to ii? layftt^, aa U ia a lU- 
ritatlve oijSwdat, to tad. 

* For (be url£inil, loc SpKvuiCQs of £ngliib, 1 198-1 39 j, p. 141. 



tlieir grammar \xi less lime than they used to do; the disad- 
viuiiaKc- ll"' ft™' children from the granimar-scbool know no 
luorc French than docs their left heel, which U a lim to ihcm if 
they hn»-e -to cruw the iea and iravc! in sirang« Unds, and in 
many oihcr o.iscs. Morrnvci Kcnilcmcn have now much left off 
teaching their children Krench . . . Also, a» regards the afote- 
snid Saxon tongue that ix divided into three and rcnuiincd 
here and thete with a few country people ', it is a great VL-onder ; 
for men of the cojit agree more in prnnunciation with men of (he 
west, being aa it wire under the same part cf heaven *, than lueo 
of the mirth with men of (he aoutli. Hent-e it is that the 
Mercians, that are men of the Middle of Ensland, being as it 
were pnrtnets with the extremities, belter undeniand the side- 
language'. Northern nnd Souiherii, than Noilhcm and Sniiihem 
underiiand eachotlier. Al! the lanKuage of the Northumbrians, 
and ctpecintly at York, is so sharp, slitting, gratinf;. sod 
unshapen, that we Southerners can scarcely understand that 
Junguagc*. I believe it is because they are nigh to strangers 
and aliens that spcalc strangely, and also because the kings of 
England always dwell far from that oouiitry. For (hey turn 
rather towards the South country ; and, if ihcy go northwards. 
%o with a greai army. The reasons why they liw more in the 
South than in the North may be, that ihcrc is belter comland 
there, and more people ; alsio nobler citieit, and more profitable 

§ 27. This pasitagL* contains many points of interest. Bf 
Welshmen and Scots, Trcvisa means, of course, Uiosc who 
retained the old Celtic dialects. The remark thai Ensltsh- 
men canie of ibrve kinds of jieojile of Teutonic race, may Ijc 
true. In the North, the Angles prevailed ; in the MidJand 
diairicl, the Angles and Saxons'; In the South, the Saxons 
and Juics. Thetv were also certainly a consi<lerabIe number 

' This tlBtemoit ii Hlf^en'i : it is c«Ttunly too rtrengly pot 

* I.e. unda the umc panllcl of latitode. 

' llii* )• TrevU*'* own Kilamenti nMn dttlike any itUleet Ikal b 
uufauulUr ti: ihdr ova ean. 

' Or, poaibly, the Frinans : wr ihoali) then have three chltf nces, 
Aflj^es, Fiiiiaos. and Saaont, the Joia being limiied to Kent and the 
Isle of Wight. 





of Frixiant, but it is hard to «a/ in what pan tbey weic 
located; ihcy were probibly distributed over ibc Midlaod 
and Sotubem ratlier l!ian the Nurthern pan of tlic itlnnd. 
TrenSB also distinctly recognises the miilurc of Engilish with 
Scandina>ian and French, and bears witness to the great. 
but tusuccessfu]. efforia made to rvjilace Englisti hy Frencli; 
the latter being in especial &vour with the up|>er classes'. As 
regards the hnguistic points of the passage itself, it may first 
be mnarkcd thai the graminatical inflexions in Southern 
English are more nuaieioux and elaborate than in the 
ftlidiand, whilst in the Northern di^ilcct, on the contrary, 
diey arc fewer and simpler. In this respect, modem English 
shews more of the Northern than the Southern manner. 
Especial characi^riMu-s of ilic Southern dialects arc ilic ose 
of bm^, a \-aricty of bith. L c. be ; the use of the buffix -tih (-4^) 
in the plural of the present indicative, as in holdep, worn/, 
M^befi 1 the frequent use of the prefix^ before post participle^. 
as in y-itmttf, y-mtUtd*. etc. We should also notice the 
use of Aj- (A. S. hSg) as the plural of ht, where modern English 
employs the Norlban they, wtiich is of Scandituvjnn ori^^in ; 
also the carious use of a, oatx with the sense of ' in,' as in a 
/^reyntth. aod once with the sense of ' ihey,' as in ^ a iup 
yrokied. One more letnark of great imporiaocc may be 
nude beie, \\i. that it is the SoaiAerH dialect which agrees 
more closely than cither of the others with what is called 
Anglo-Saxon. Turning to the consideration of the vocabu- 
Urj-, we notice that the French word« in this |iassage are 
ruber numerous, viz. mtmer, p<oplt, lengage, y-mtikd (where 
lite pre&c_r- is llie A. S.^'-), nacians, ifrangt, mtU-^tu; (with an 

' Angto-Fraidi wu the court -tangunj^. I iu|ipiM(t tlut, nen ilown 
to ne>rij' the rod of the foxKRcnlli oentoiy, many of tlie nobis babiluillr 
■poke DixbinK die. 

* Tbc Mlilbiid dialect iomrtiinn cmployt this picfix, and fometJina 
dtofB ii. Tl>e Noitbeni dialect, like modem Eiigluh, dropi it (Jmyi. 
BM ia Biiiiei's (modctn) DonctihiR pocmt, we find *>um/ far nsf 
(H.E.^uw/), o-jvw im putt. 




E. suffix), mtlray, aptyr-td, apiyr-yng (both with E. suffixes), 
vt-tlh (with H. suffix), cauit, vsagt, ltstws,gtniil, hroach. As 
Trevisu ix tranilattng from tbe I^lin, he keeps several of the 
Latin words of his original ; these arc em/rdtrat, cmamyx- 
ttioun, seoU, nmptlUi, tonstrne; »ec the original Latin in 
the note It> Specimens of English, p. 344. The word rokkf^ 
K Scitndinavian. Crttdt! is found in A. S. as <Tadol, but is 
probably of Celtic origin. The remaining words arc EngUsh. 
$ S8. The Northorn Dialoet. It lus just been remarked 
that the Northern dialect dispenses with inflexional suCTixes 
more than either of the others. This it did al so early a 
period iliat poemx in tlii» dinlect often present a curiously 
modeni appearance, and would do bo to a still greater extent 
if it were not for the frequent introduction of Scandinavian 
words, many of which are now obiiolete in our modem 
literary language. In other words, the difference between ibc 
Northern English of the Middle period and the English of 
the present day Ues ratlier in the vocabulary and in the 
pronunciation than in the grammar. Barbour's Bruce is as 
old as the poetry of Chaucer, but has a more modent ap-| 
pearance*. By way of exhiliitiug a short specimen of the 
Northern dialect, I here quote Hampolc's description 
heaven, wriiicn about 1340'. 

'Alle mancc of ioyes er in that stede, 
Tiiarc es ay )yfc witli-ouicn dedc ; 
I'hare es yhowthe ay with-outcn elde, 
Tharc cs alkyn wehh ay to wclde ; 
Tbare es test ay, with-outen tntuayle ; 
Tharc es alle gudcs thai neuer sal fayle; 
Tharc es peso ay, with-oulcn siryf ; 
Tbare es alle manere di tykyng of lyfe ; 

■ It was wiSiicn b 1375. Unludcily. the MSS, arc a cealury Uter; ' 
but this It nul the ml c>me rA th« diScimce. On (he olltet \obA, Ibc 
esuaet from Tmiw hu x tnore arehaic appcanacc. >nd this nuy lie 
ulicn ai a jpncral nile. Hut ii. Nonhcre pocin* look laleri ftad 
Soalhem wiiuiiip f>rl in, than they really arc 

* See Spcuittdu of Knglisfa, 1198-1391, p. IS4. 



Thare cs, wiih-oui«i myrlcnes, lyghl ; 
Th4re es ay day and neuer nyghi ; 
Thare c» ay sonicr fuilc bryght lo »c^ 
And oeuer nmra wynter in that coniFC.' 

'Here it Ehould be particularly noted that the scribe's 
spelling is somewhat faulty*; he probably added a fioal t to 
roan)' words Trorn liabil, but tiiey are not lo bt prouetatctJ, so 
Ibat Ij/t, in 1. 8, is a mere monosyllable, and rimes with the 
word itrj//, wbkb is correctly wrilteo. In roodcni English, 
the pauage is as follows : — 

'All maimer of joys are in tliai stead ; 
There is nyc life withiout(cn) death*; 
There is youili ay withomfen) eld', 
Tbcra is all-kind wealth aye to wield. 
There is lest aye, without tiavail ; 
There is all goodi that never shall fail; 
There is peace aye, wilhoutfen) stiifc; 
There is all mannec of liking* of life; 
There is, wiiIiou[(en} murkncu*, light ; 
There is aye day and never night. 
There is aye summer full bright to see. 
And Devennixe winter in that countr^.* 

' I HtbjiMO ■ more phonetic ipelling of th« nbove puuge : — 
Al mtmo of toyl cr in ihac *tcd, 

Thar t* ay lyf with-outcn dcd ; , 

Thai <« Jnuth ay witti'ODlen eld, 
Titoj n alkin wellh ay lo welil. 
Thai e* ml ay, with-ontm tiauail ; 
Tbai a al gndi thai ncuci al fsUi 
Thar et ptet ay, with-ouii-n tiryf; 
Thar c* al niwiR of iykiii;; of lyf; 
Thar e», witb'ontm mitkncs, lyghl; 
Thai ta ay day uid ocuer nygbt ; 
Thar n ay sonicr tul biyK'tt lo u. 
And seller mar winter in llial conlii. 

* DtJ u Dill • pravindAl Enslish fonn of diath ; It anmr*, not K» 
AS. JM i^MlH), but to the Doii. and .Swed. daJ. 

■ /iiJ, old a^. Bled by Sbsknpcaic and Spoucr. 

* PIcBiBni fykitig efly/i, picanirc in life. 

' DadiacM; we itill uic the adj. •aitiiy, aad the lU murii-ma. 
D a 




The gicat chaLracterisiic of this di:;ilect is the abwnce 
fiiul / as an inflexion in ihc spi^cn bngwtgc, at least 
in ihe fourtccnib century. Tlie words which exhibit the 
final t shoukl niilicr have been written At, tlt4, Thar, fy/, 
dtd,yMlh, (Id, xotid, tmuayl,/ayl, />en, manfr, fyf,/td, mar. 
A cbftracteri«ic fonn is tai, for shaU; this is never Tound 
cxccjit hi Noilhefn wcirlLs. Anotlicr characteristic mark oT 
this dialect is the use of a for long o, W in mar, mure. As 
re)^ds the grammar, there is little lo call for remaik beyond 
the use of cs (is) for tr (arc) l>efore allf gudes ; this is really 
due to the use of the preceding word Thart (tliere), just as 
Shakespeare has, ' There it no more such mastery' Cym- 
beline, iv. 3. 371 ; Kee Abbott's Shakcsp. Gram. 3rd ed. 
5 335- As regards the vxjcabularj-, the French words tn 
mantr, i»ytt, irauayU, fi^-h, ptu, tmtrt, all of which arc 
of Latin origin. S/ry/ (O. Fr. et/ri/) h a French form 
of a Scandinavian word (Icel. Hr0). The forms rr (are), « 
(is), dfdt (death), ay (aye), sat (shall), are specifically Anglian 
or Scandinavian, as distinct from Anglo-SoxoD. The rest 
are ordinarj' £ii]i;lixh. 

{ 29. East-Uidluicl Dialoot of Bobert of Brunna. 
Now that the three main dialects have Ix^rn thus illuAUutcd, 
it is worth while to add one more example, which in some 
respects comes even nearer to modem English than does 
the lanK:uage of Chaucer, though written before he was 
born. We huve aUcady seen ihat modem English belongs to 
Ihe AIi<Uand dialect, and bax a somewhat closer affinit}' with 
Northern than Southern. ^Ve find, fiinhei, that It is (airly 
represented in the dialect employed by Robert Muinyng, 
of Brunne (Bourn), in Lincolnshire, who translated ^Villiam 
of Wadyngton's 'Lo Manuel dc» Pochies' into English in 
1 303, with the title of ■ Handlyng Synne V He tells a story 
about PciB (or Piers) the usurer, who never gave away 



Sec SpcctmcM U Enslidi, 1 *98-i3»j, |i. it. 




anjrthing in charity. One day he was standing near hit 
<loor, wheo an ass came to it, laden with loave« of bread 
At the same lime a beggar approached him : — 

'lie Mgh Fers come.-' thcr-with-al ; 
Tlie potjt* tboght, now atk I shal. 
"I ask thee sum good, pur charite, 
Pors "fii lliy "illf be." 
Pen stood ftnd loked on him 
Folunlicb*. with y-i-n' grim. 
He siuupi-'d AiYSR to scke a stoon, 
Hat, ns hap was, than fotid he noon*; 
For tlie sioon he took a loof, 
And at the por« man hit drnof. 
The port! nun bent hit vp bdyue*, 
And was tbcrof ful Icrly* blytlif. 
To lus fiElaws' box. he ran. 
With the ioof, this pore man. 
"Lo!"' he seide, "what 1 haoe 
Of Pcrs yift'; so God nic sauel" — 
"Nay," they swori; by her" thrift, 
Pets yat« neuer swich a yift ". — 
He »cid, 'ye shal wcil \Tidcrstonde 
That I hii had at Peis ho[id« ; 
That dar 1 swerc un tlic h.-didom" 
Hcex bcfiote yow ecboon".*' 

Of llUs passage it is hardly necessary to give a roodern 
Engtisb rcndeting, although we have now traced some 
English words back to the very beginning of the fouttecDth 
cetitary. As reganU the grammar, wc may chiefly notice 
the granunatical use of tlic final -t. Thus (6m-< is short for 
tetn-m (A, S. eum-aa), iJie inRniUvc mood of the verb. The 

'I nutkvTihitrodottfBcli fmtX f'lMtretobediallnGtty pronoimccd. 
1 alM BiDcnd ibe Sully ({idlinK of th« M!>. 

' Tbo poor ooB (wuknUnd MaH\. ■ Fdon-ly. angrily. 

' Eyar, L e. cyn. * Thca foonii be Qcme. * Cat^ht It up quickly. 

* WooderfnUy. • Fdtoui, companlUM. * Gift. 

•• Tbeb. ■> Gave wm luch ■ pA- " Holy relict. 

» EKfcOM. 


fir-* his a final •*, because ibe adjective is «)nt b called 
iifimilt. thai is, is mrtl mth the definite anide preceding 11 
An adjecd^T is also definite, if preceded bj a demonstntive 
or pouessive pronoon ; hence Ait ptr-t Hkevise. Wt'U-t b 
from A. S. wiU-a, u bas been explained onoe before (p. tS). 
The {oTtajfft (dissjrOabic) answers to tbc A. S. ^^-01, cyoe ; 
for which ve now use grts. la the sc^vDlh line, A uke u a 
gerund, and should take dte final -< ; but it happens to be 
elided before the following vowel. BtiyTht stands for A. S, 
U iif-t, Ul by life, but here meaning ' with life,' in a livelj 
way, qaickly. Bfyih-* is frooi ibe A.S. tUayllabic bH9^ 
{^Sh-t\ Sad-t is the past tense of a weak verb (A.S. 
tag4-<\, and is dissyllabic ; but tbc final -t, in such a case, b 
oAcn dropped, as in ttid four fines below. Stoor-* is the 
pL I. pi. of a strong verb (A. S. nnfr-M). Vt>dertlemd-t is an 
infia. mood (A.S. utKUrtiand-an). llettd-* b a dat. case 
(A. S. heid-t, hamd-t, du. od^mi or iattJ). Bt/oT-< is sboit 
for hrfor-*n (A.S. bt/or-am). All tlie grammmical formStin 
fact, arc ea^l}- explained from Anglo-Saxon. As regard! 
llie vocibolarjr, the French words are few, via. Pert (fnna 
LaL Pttrut, originally Greek); ihe lA], pcr€ (O. F. pmre); 
the pbrasc /«r thorite {four thariW), for charily ; the sb. 
/tlim in /tlun-liih ; and the verb lave. Five words are 
Scandinavian, via. h^ Iwi, filawt, tkr^, and haiiJom. 
The rest are FnnKiJi. 

§ 30. East-Midland difTbnmt f^^»n Weat-MidJand. 
We have thus seen that the standard Ittenty language 
agrees more closely with ibe Old Midland dialect than 
wilb either ibe Nonbem or tbc Soutbcm. It is worth 
enquiring if we can find out any limits of it ».-> we pass from 
East to West. This b a more dilRcali question; ycl we 
find that tbc Midland dialect can lie subdivided into East- 
Klidland and West-Miilland, and that it is the former of 
these that comes neatest to onr current speech. It ts not 
easy to define the limits of these dialects, but pciha{)s we 





may gay thai the Wcst-MIdUnd included Shropshire, Staf- 
fordshire, a pan of Derbyshire, Cheshire, and South Lan- 
cashire'. An concerning the area from wliich ihc chief 
characteristics of our modem lilcrar)- language are drawn. 
«« can hardly do more than define it as one of irregular 
sJtape, botuulcd more or K'.sk exactly by the German Ocean, 
the I lumber, the Trent (?), ihc Scwrn(?), and the Thames; 
and wc can only assign to the dialect ihc general name of 
Eaai-Midlaud. It b toleral>ly certain that it contained numer- 
ou* subdirimons, so that it can hardly be said to present any 
perfectly uniform tj^ic, until ilie lime came when ii at last 
b^an to supercede ilie oilier^ and to spread bej-ond its 
original borders. Wc can, however, ttafcly draw ihe«e con- 
clusions, tit. (i) thai it contained fewer Scandinavian words 
llian llie Nortliern diakct, but more llian did ibe Southern ; 
(a) that its gramnur u-as somewhat more complex than that 
of tbc Nonhcm dialect, but much less so than that of the 
Southern; and {3) tliat, as Tic\'isa says, it was tolerably 
inletligibk to men of all jiarts of England. These facts 
wostd be quite sufficient to suggest the probability of its 
ubttnaie aKcndtncy, and the matter was entirely settled by 
the tmportanci; of I^ondon as the centre of traffic and ttic 
seat of go*cmmcnl. To which considerations we may 
perhaps add yet another, that both the univcnities of Oxford 
and Cambridge lie vritliin Ihc Midland area. 

Inttod. to AtliL roccns, «d. Morrit, whcir WcM'MidUaii I* lued to 
r the diilecl iiUili Uuactt mUoI Merciui. 





Tki NATivt Elemext : thc oldist dialbcts. 

§ 31. In llie last Chapter specimens have been given of ihe 
thicc principal ilialcci* of ilie Middle -Knglish, and one of 
tlie^, that Irom Kohcrl of Drunne, ukcs us bach almoai to 
Ihc beginning of ilie foorWcnlh century. We now proceed 
to push back our rnquiricK a. liltle further. There uc 
suCTicient specimens to enable us to do this during thr 
t]iirt«cnth ccnlurj and a little earlier', but at ibe eaiUext 
period the cxtani monumrnts of the language relate abnost 
esclusivcly lo ow dialect only, the Sonihera; vbercas we 
Khould t>e extremely glad of more information conceniinK 
the Mi<Uan(l dalect. For the period iKlbn: iioo, we still 
find traces of the same three dialects, but {especially before 
iioo) ihcy are called by diffcnrni naine^ Tbe Northern. 
Midland, and Southern, as found in the carliesc period, are 
called Northumbrian. Mercian, and Wcssex or Ang'lo-Saxon*. 
It is a common mistalce to suppoie that the lemu ' Anglo- 
Saxon ' and ■ Old English ' (or • Oldest English ") arc con- 
vertible terms ; for ' Anglo-Saxon ' only accounts for a third 
part of Old English. Yet the mistake does not lead to much 
eonfunon in practice, owing to Ihe unfortunate and deplonUe 
KanlincM of the nuterialH rei>rettentinj; the other two dialects. 
Wc can only deal Miih what wc happen to poses; so that, 


1 The Middle En£lUh of the petiod from 1150 to ijoo i* MOKti^ 
callvil Kitly Englltk, > name vkldi ii coaicsiceil. wben icqaiioL 

■I bat! the ttix ol dtanaa-tiieXhUuX ntkijol Smilbtn 
EaglUi ; tbougli its 6miu ue Cililv well etuufccd. 

• > — s J-! t -- ,-A-M ; 




in the alwrnc<^ oT woikK vrilten in Nortliumlirian and Mercian, 
wc are vcr)- llunkful to accept such evidence as can be 
obtained from the very considerable ictnains of i]>e Wcssex 
dialect ' that luive come down to us. It «iU clear iIk my 
for future consideration to cnumc-rate the sources of our 

\ 3a. Old Northern Dialect : Old Heroian. The old 
Northumbrian liirrrtiurc must, at one time, tiavc been ron< 
siderablc. The gn-^t historian Bcda usually wrote in Latin, 
but we are told ttiat he was ' docluj in nos>iris cartninibuR,' 
i. e. learned in our native fOngK, and live lines have been 
preser\-cd of a poem written by him in the Northumbrian 
dialect *. He alw telU ns the famous «iory of Caedmon, a 
monk of Wiitby, who compodted, in that dialect, a long poem 
coDceming many cwnts recorded in the Old and New 
Testaments, beginning; with the history of the Creation. Of 
tfaix poem only tlie (ir« nine bncs have been preserved*, 
although there is a later poem, also frequently attributed to 
Cxdmoo ', upon similar subjects. These thirteen lines form, 
unfortunately, tlie num total of tlie remains of the Old North- 
ttmbrian poetry, with the csceptioD of the 'Leiden Riddle,' 
printed l^ Mr- Sweet in his Oldest English Tena, p. t49, 
and the Nonliuinbnan Runic Inscription u^von the Ruthwell 
Cram, printed in the same, p. 135. The incursions and 

* To wkich we iiMjr iild tlie extant iviniiiii of Kmliih. 11)0 Old 
NortbumbcMn mi (be dial<cl of the AckIci^ uid vu llrni % VvoA of 
■Aricel DuiUh. IV W<wcx dialect »>•■ the ilmtivt of ihe .Siuont. It 
b wtU liwnm that gnat nomben of Friniaiu accompanin! the Soions ; 
and I thraw onl the MjxcaioD, for whai it U worth, (bit Ihe Hctcian 
(lla]Mw*ip»1lrarOMFriiiuion£ln.<^ V^ ^-y 

* Sec IV- cililkm, bv Mayor aiiil Lnmliy. of Bookt 111 and IV of 
Bola'i Ecdaautiol HiiDory, p. 177; Esrlt, A. S. Utentue, p. tioj 
Sweet. OlileM Enc. Teitt, p. 149. 

.£arle, A.S. IJJenUure. p. 101 : Kweet (u abofe). 
It li, howevtT, a dllTcicni vcnloa. with x lUffertnt, thoaeh dnilar, 
It H only lUKaBaTy to ny here, tlkal It Is not la the 
Lbdu, Um the WcBH dialect. See Eailc^ K. !>. Lit,, i>. 1 1 1. 




ravagCB of the Dines s«'cpt i( all aim}', so that king Alfred 
feelingly deplores ibc almost total decay of learning in 
England cniiKd t>/ ttieir devastaiionH '. Fortunately, how- 
ever, wc poswss Bomcwhat more of tlie old Nonlmmhrian 
piosc. The famous copy of the four Latin Gospels, known 
someiimcK us the Linditiruriie MS^ sometimes as the Durham 
book ', contains Northumbrian glosses or explanations of the 
Latin words, throughout The MS. known as the Durham 
Riiua], edited by Stevenson for the Suriees Society in 1840. 
bIbo aboundii id Nonhumlirinn glosscK of the f^tin prayen 
coniaioed in it '. Another copy of Ihe Latin Gospels, known 
as the Ruxhuorth MS., is also glossed throughout*. In Ibis 
copy, the glosNC* or explanations are ir» the Northumbrian 
dialect ihroughoui the Gospels of St. Mark ', St. Luke, and 
Sl John ', but the glosses upon ilie words of Si. fttalthew's 
Gospel are in the Mercian or Miilland dialect, and were 
formerly supposed lo furnish the only extant specimen of this 
dialect before the Norman coMquesl. But in Mr. Sneel's 
Oldest English Texts, jiuhlishcd for the Early Kngli'ih Text 
Society in 1S85, we find some additional and highly im- 
portant examples of Mercian, ilie pnncijial being (i) Ihe 
•Vespasian Psiilter and Hymns,* i.e. a copy of a Latin 
Psalter and Hymns with Mercian glosses, extant in MS. 

' S«t Eailc, A.S. Lilmluce. p> 190. 

■ Sm the Norttiumbiivi iin<i A.S. GatpcU, lynoplicolly fl(nuig«<l, 
pobllthod lij ilic Plti PrcM, ed. Kemble and Skot. (The Caqicl«f 
St, Muilifw i> nutr Iiciog leptlntol.) The LindbfuM MS. b in Ihe 
Hrilith MusFum, moiked ' MS. Cotton. Neroi D. 4^* The RiubwarA 
MS. i> in the Bodlcun Lltmiy. 

' The gluun lie not vcfy coirectlr ptintid. Sec mj C«IUUca of tW 
Daibam Uiiual, iiuhtiibeil fof tlw Philolcf ictl Soulclf \a 1 1>;9, Ajipcnilii. 

* The gloBs (D St. Uuk, chAp. i, Bod dup. \o, fine* t-l;; are «o«nc- 
Uncs nld to be Mciviui, but IliU U a miiulke. Tbe kiinJwrili 
cbas)E« in tbc mUttU vF v. i§ of St. Mult, chap, li ; but Ibc dlioAiri 
chaagiB il the ivrjr bcgioniiic of tlnl gmpei. 

* Eccepting. iinngely cAougfa, the {loMCi i» the did Ume 
dtap. xviU, whleli we M c re i m . 



(nc- ^11 





Cotton, Vespasian A. i, tn the British Muwum, and (>) the 
•Coipus Gkxuan',' Le. a collection of Latin words with 
Merdan flosses extant in MS. No. 1 44 in the library of Corpus 
QiTisti Colifgc. Cambriilgc. These »caniy remains are all that 
we poeeea of the Northumbrian and Mercian dialects, and arc 
not toch ta, to give us much help. We can neivc judge of a 
dialect so welt from mere glotaes as we can from a connected 
and original compo^ilion. What we mosl desire, viz. a fair 
specimen of what the Mercian dialed was like before the 
cODqoest, is precisely tite thing which is almost analtainable. 
Being ihui deprived of the very gt<;at help which might have 
been obtained from fuller information concerning the Mercian 
and Northumbrian dialects, we are almost entirely thrown 
back npon the cxiani specimens of the Southern, or ^^'cs»ex 
(Ealeci. usual!}- called ' Anglo-Saxon '.' Fortunately, these arc 
abundant, or we should l>e badly off indeed. For specimens 
of iliif dialect, sec Sweet's Anglo-Saxon Primer and Anglo- 
Saxon Reader. 

§ S9. Uodom Literary Snglish derived from Old 
MerotOQ. It ought, then. 10 be carefully borne in mind, 
that, when we say a word is 'derived' from the Anglo- 
Saxon, we commonly mean that it w deri\-ed from an Old 
Mfretan form, which in some ca^cs probably coincided with 
the recorded A. S. form, but in other cases certainly did not. 
This it an obscure poini, ciipeciaUy as the Mercian glosses 
which we pofisess do not alwap exhibit the dialect very 
distinctly, but rattier shew some slight variations from (he 
Wessex (A. S.) dialect. Still iJie following ublc (compiled 
solely from the Mercian glosMs ujion a Latin text of St. 
Matibev's Gospel) may be of some slight interest, as fumish- 

' Some all it 'Old' Eoeliili*: but ' Ant-lo-Sawai ' It bnt rvMlntd 
I bdDE Kcatnllr iuKkt«lo«d. Bcuiln, it h«i > ipnn>l utini-ral mnn- 

3, rli. Ibc old lanUMni dklwt of Woux. It doci not in the l«H 
low that liw finfii of alKiml tjii;luid. nt irtvii ai Ibe South of il, 
o^ht to be calied ■ Anglo-Suoii*.' Tber tliuuld tw called 'tluifllih.' 

H ^^^^Hi 


^^^B ing oxamjJM: in which the motlcni Knglish form seecas cloMf 

^^H to ihc M<TciaD than to the A. S. type. ^ 

^^^1 MonRRX. 


Wnnx <AA). S 


«U. j. IS'. 

call. ^^ 


ortin, 19. 38. 

[itofuuJi. ^^^M 

^^^H betwixt. 

bctwix, 27. 56. 

bdwcox. ^^^H 


oeke, 5. 39. 

c^acc. ^^^H 

^^H cold. 

csild, 10. 43*. 

ccnld. ^^H 


ck. S- 39- 

«ac ^^M 

^^^H elevea. 

enkCm, 38. i6l 

endlufon. ^^^H 

^^H eye. 

^e«. S- =9. 

6ixe. ^H 

^^P Metb. 

(ullets 10. 29. 

feallet>. ^^M 

^^^ fat,//././/. 

fcllun, ;. 3$. 

■- ffC 

fch, 37. 6. 

^B -fi)ld(4M in tenfold), -fatd, 19.29. 

-frald. -^ "■>♦ S|fi 

■ X»!l,t«. 

giJl^ 17. 34. 

geallii. ^ 

■ bair. j». 

hal^MX 33. 

beair. ■{ 

H hall, adj. 

halt, 1 1. ;. 

bcall. ^^1 

■ beard,//. /. 

(ge)h6rde, a. > 

(ge)h{eTde. ^^H 

■ lie [tcit lies}. 

ligan, 5. 11. 

Uogaiu ^^^1 

H tight, sh. 

libt, ;. 16. 

U<>ht. ^^H 

H Kjiht, <K^. 

liht, 11.30. 


^1 nattow. 

Duru, 7. 14. 

neaxu. ^^^H 

■ old. 

did ', 9. 16. 


^1 ^i>«]>. 

srfp. as- 33. 

&c4fap. ^^^H 

^H shoes. 

scons, la 10. 

scf OS, scf. ^^^H 

^H silver. 

sylfur, 10. 9. 

scoHor. ^^^1 

H l,\':pl, 

xleptun, 13. aS- 

sl^pon (i/rwrg/arm). 

■ >old, /^. 

said, la 19. 

scnld, 1 

■ »pil, V. 

sptlian, 37. 30. 

splhan. ^H 

^^B K'«U. 

ft-All, 21. 33. 

«eaM ^^M 

^^B jmrd (rod). 

icid, to. ta 


^^^^ yare (ready). 

iaro, 33. 4. 

gearo. ^^^H 

^1^ yoke. 

ioc, II. 39l 

geoc ^^M 

^^■f youth. 

h)gu%, 19. to*. 

gwigulS. H 

^^^H * The tdisenoei 

aie la the CluMcn 

umI Venn of St. Milthnr'sH 

^^H Coipcl (Rusliworlb Clon). 


^^^P ■ Tbo tcribc luLi 

mUirrittai aildtt for <aUti. aa «t»i«Dt MnMt ; ^| 

^^^H th« LbclUfjitne MS. tuu fd^Ui 


^^^^H * The icixnt b 

rantVtA In the MS., 

ihowh the vowel wa* not ^1 

^^^^1 orlcloxlly \oaii- 


^^^^^^^ * Smnl ol tb«N McrcUn lonoa ■£■«« Dcarl) wllh 0. Fliwii. Cf. ^H 






{ 84. Anglo-Saxon ' broken ' voweU. Evcu a glance 
Ht ibis comparative table will reveal a pcculiariiy of the 
W*s«x dialect which properly belongs neither to the Rfcr- 
cian dutM:t* nor to modern Ei^lisb. Tliis is the ihc of ta 
for a berote tl>e ietteni V, r, h, x. The symbol ta denotes 
Uiat the vowel was, to speak technically, ' broken,' i. e. waji 
resolved into the diphthoi^ fa, tlic two vowels being pro- 
notuurcd in r^tpid ucooision*. Hence such fonns as tali, 
ftald, ftaiUp, -fitdd, gtalh, heat/, heall, tiiarv, {aid, staid, 
weatt, gtaro, where the Old Mercian dblect preserved the 
old vowel a in its purity, and ttie modem F.nglis)) has partly 
done the lamc, though vrilh the slight change of eaid, -/aid, 
aid, raide, to roJd, -fitd, oid. Kid. In all these words the 
Soutliem * breaking ' is due to ilie influence of the follow- 
ing I or r. Sinilarly, wc notice the Southern use of the 
*brokcn' soani] iv, substiimcd for t. In the words hdmeox, 
atol/ar, where modern Eii{;ILih has kept the original sound. 
Still more maikcd and curious arc the cases in which the 
Souil>cm dialect baa /a, fy, diphthongs in which tlie former 
element is long*. These would require fuilur cxplnnaiion, 
which I pass o^-er for the present, li is suflicicnt to tiotice 
Uut out standard modem Eti>,'lisb follows the Mercian 
ifialect here also, and know» notliin^ of ' broken ' vowels in 
sadi instances as Ibosc above '. 

O. Fr. ^U, ■!■ ; Ma. check : *ttttm, denm ; /alia, lo bll ; -/aid, .fald ; 
half; halt; )itrdi. b««f<I; litlil. adj. light i /fOjo, va tit; aU, old; 
uJjMvr, lihtT, tilvn: mil, w»!l ; itrdt, % (od. 

' Tbe tcnbe c< Ike Kuihworth {loMca Mwutima inccniiiUntlj writes 
taSra a; he do«bOo3 knew Ibit the Scnllicni tcrltvt ucd itic hjmbol, 
and ocwilculy fdllowed tbcii ciniEplc. 

* Fe* ta Mcmnl of A. S. jiioBunclailon, kc Swcel'i A. S. Prinuf, or 

■ In ny Elym. DlcL, 1 hare mfiMtuiutclr plaotd the accent, or maik 
of loimth, vyc/a the latlrr alcmcnt. Thin w*t the roclbod farmcttj In 
vo|^, bol It h iipobably I^ oom<t- 

* Bui thsj arc bond In thr iltilccu. Humes >>■ kU DonetihiR potm*, 
wdlei MMtv f M annh, tieaay tat ikaiy, Itiidy for la-fy, &c. 




% 36. Chronology. The neoessily of paying due regard 
to chronology is just as great when we deal with Anglo- 
Saxon writings as in any other case. Strange mistakes have 
arisen from neglect of it. Our maietiaJ* arc at)U»(lant, and 
some of them are of very early date. We have MSS. con- 
uining Latin words, with 'glosses' or explanations in Anglo- 
SaJton, going back at least to the dghih century. We have 
MSS. of the time of .illfred, who died in 901, and many 
homilies by jGlfric, which, in round numbers, may be 
dated a little earlier than the year 1000. Other late A. S. 
MSS. were certainly not written till afltr the ConquesL One 
copy of the celebrated A. S. Chronicle tvcords events of the 
year 115+. It is obvious that MSS. ranging over direc and 
a half centuries ought not to be treated as if they were all 
contemporuneuu.t. Some change in llie languagi; might be 
expected to take place during that time, and such is found 
to be the case. Curiously enough, the Anglo-Saxon of the 
fctienaties is generally given according to the siietliiig of 
the later p>eriod, i.e. of the eleventh centuty or the btler 
part of the tenth, merely because ihc MSS. of that period 
were most accessible and first received attention. This 
stage of the language was taken as the standard, and any- 
thing that differed from it was kxikcd upon as 'dialectal' 
A curious example of this occurs in Dr. Bosworth'a editioit 
of j^^lfred's translation of Oroaius, llie preface (O which 
exhibits much painsuking and care. The editor giws an 
accurate description of the two extant MSS., one of which, 
called the Lauderdale MS., ix pfove<I by him to be coiiader- 
ably older than the other, or Cotton MS. He next proceeds 
to pro%v that the Lauderdale MS. is the crigiml, and the 
Cotton MS. nraply a ialt cofy of it. He truly says : ' It is 
not only the antiquity of the 1.audcidak MS. for which It Is 
distinguished, but for itsuseof accents, its grammatical forms, 
and important readings. ... It b more accurate than the 
Cotton MS., in distinguiiJung the icrmination of ->» and -on 



both ID Doans and ^vrbs. In tlic Cotton MS., there is 
great confugoD in these termiualioiiK ; whilst in the Lauder- 
dale MS., thejr are genera!))- <cirrc(.i.' I!c c^'cn goes so Hi 
as to say that ' there arc so many instances of great careless- 
aeaa in the scribe of the Cotton MS. as to le-^d a casual 
observer to say, it is the work of an illiterate scribe.* After 
this explanation, it is clear that, in editing the work, the 
correct courae would have been to take the older MS. as the 
banii of the text. Curiously enough, tlii.s was not done, the 
reason for the other course being thus assigned. 'The 
Cotton MS. was made the basis of the text, as iis siylc and 
ortbogrjphy hare more tJie appearance of ]>ure Wcst-Sason* 
than the Lauderdale, which, though older than the Cotton, 
has a moce northerly aspect.' Mr. Sweet, however, has since 
edited i)ie earlier MS. for the Early Knglish Text Society, 
and we now know that the peculiar s[>elling!i of the Lauder- 
dale MS. are due solely to its siipcdoi antiquity*. 

§ 36. Speoimen of Anglo-Saxon. A simple specimen 
I of late Anglo-Saxon i* here snbjoined. U is uken from an 
A. S. version of St Matthew (xiii. 3-8), made in the tenth 
century, as. extant in MS. Corp. Cbr. Coll., No. 140. 

I 'Sd^ioe'dt fodeiesdtdere his sid t6 sdwenoe. And ^A ^ 
U sfow, sumc hig Ijiollon vii^ wcg, and fugbs c<^ntun :ind ilon 
\i^ S^icesumcfifallononstiniliic, |>irhii n.Tfdcmiclccor^, 
and hixdlice op $prungon, for ^m ^ hfg nj^dun ^rc eor)ian 

■ I.e. the Wcu-.Siion of the dlMldnaiicL I ove so mach to Ibe 
boonly U Dr, Hcswonb tbil I with tu clear hini fiom blunt in Ibk 
natter. Writiof n t8j9. noie thsn a quino of a coalury agu, b* hail 
BOl nftdenl confidcDcc lo make wtui would tkai hive been cimdeiDDed 
as an Innmitlu*. Wa ■i|;unitiiu mlly |;i> to ihew that he would have 
pwferiTil (he boldet csune. 

* Mr. Swoel baa latclj pabliihol lome ' Eitnctt bom Alfrol't 
Orod^' In a <cry cheap foira ; ta tbut the hpeltlnj; of tbi* famoiu MS. 
can be eullj ttadied. 

* The > donole* Ik, as lo M. E. The ococat indJoitD thai tb( vowel 
i» tcog i thM i woold b« tnailcol S, If wc adopted the notatloii oi the 
L4lin Grammar. 


dfpm ; <4^Bc^ op spcoacenre saman, big idjliwudoa atA\ 
ibncniacaa, fw \ha ^ fafg oxfdon wynnim. Sd^ice maw 
tiollon OR ^oraac, utd ^i ^onus w^caon, and br)*yimu<bio ^ 
Sume vd^icc ftolloa on gdde tor^cut, and scaldon weastm, nun 
hniKUBUiie, sum sCxtig-fdildne, Mim {nrtitig-fcaldDc '.' 

NonrithsUn&ig the imDunilar and siraiig« appeannce of 
the 4pdliog And gnmnur. a k^e number of ibe words in 
ifaii pueagc arc only ok) focms of words still in use Tbe 
word /or^fytmudem 9ood pemhed, aod has been obsolete fcr 
tnanj centaric*, liat to moKt of the others there is some cine. 
In very literal modem English, the passage nu» thus : — 

'SootUy, out wcni* the somr his seed to emr. And when 
thai he sowed ', sotdo, they kU with (i. c. betide the) W3>-, aod 
fowU cane and ate them. Suuthly, same fell ua Mony (pUcesV 
where it lud-not (lit, «*/- nc had) micklc car^ and quickly* 
(they) Dp spniDg, for ihai that tliey hail-noi of-the eauth depth ; 
iioathly, ap-spirut^ sun, they dried-sKay and for-shnink (Le. 
shrank cxuemdy}, for that that they had -dm root*. Soothly, 
•OdM fell on thorns, and ihc thami waxed, and choked tbem. 
Some loothty fc>I on good earth, and produced (lit. sold) fruit*, 
Mxne hundred-fold, some sixty-fold, some thirty-foid.' 

S 87. So tmponant is the studf of Anglo-Saxon to such 
as are interested to modem English, that some f;ood and 
useful letdon might l>e leaml from ncarlf every word of the 
above pon^e, A« regaids our grammar, for example, such 
words 3£ fi^l-a3=/i>wi-i, p«rn-at=lMoni-t, at once sliew 
that the modem English plural commonly ends in -r became 
a comiiderahle number of A. S. plurals ended in -at. This 
•at V.-3A weakened to -rr, as in the tkl.'E./irul-it. Ihcm-ft, and 

' Com^aie Sweet. A. S. Primer, p. 6l ; where ihc ipelUiig b ionw- 
wbat normalitcd. 

' M.EL/i^, wmti DOW olisolcte. 

' The tne mo-lcni eiparklciu U Mtc, ttie vtib bclii|> oocc trmif. la 
CaDiklcl|;ahin; they uy ■ I uta the Acid,' tJtA ' 1 Mfw tke gra«.' 

* Lk. ntUj ; bom ralk, won, wlKfiee raiitr, Moner. 

* C<itDpue E. iMr/. 

* Lit. powtbi allied to WAX, i.b grow. 


then Uwee dbsyDabic words were cniahcd into monoEylUbks. 
wtlh loss of tlic mdixtiiict sound denoted by <. Leaving; 
rach things 10 the grunmarisui, we niA)' ttim 10 the vocabii- 
, and Uic first word iclls us two facU. The first is, that 
the adveriwal suffix -ly was once spelt -U(-t (two syllables), 
an cxtcnifion of -He, wliicl) i.s noibing but an unaccenlcd 
fonn of the adj. tie, like; so that sPo/A-ty is soath-litt, i.e. in 
a manner Hkc sooth or truth. The second is of far greater 
importance, becauje it concerns phonology. It 13, that the 
A- S. long *' (as in irf?) came lo be written 00 (as in s«oth), 
the doubling denoting; length. After ttiis, a change came over 
thefrnvutiuria/ton, but llie Jfnsiirj/ remained the same ; llic resull 

, [hat (W no longer denotes the soimd of oa in Sojt, but tlie 
,d of M in iiw/, or <v in ioup. This latter sound is strictly 
represented, according to the Italian method, by long u, or i, 
wbercas the original sound is strictly represented by a. We 
ace, then, that as far as /At viritim symbol !s concerned, the 
S, 6 has (at least in this instance) been replaced by 00, 
whilst Mr sotind iniiifaitd his shifted from 6 to A. The period 
at which this shifting look place seems to have been between 
ijggo and 11S50; see Sweet, English Sounds^ p, 56. If the 
reader follows this citplanation, which is not diElicult, let him 
al once learn this example by heart, and treasure it tip. 
Whoc%vi knows tilts fact, lias laid bold of a great general 

rtnciple, some of the bearings of vfhith will be shewn in 
next Chapter. 

* I'TOMnHucI nMiljru m ia /m/, but widwuit mj >lt«-«Oiiiid«f «; 
Fgactlr ai *A to C. S«ht. 



TOt. L 


Ekglisb Long Vowbls. 

§ 36. Reluming lo the contideruion of ihc comparison of 
A. S. s£3 with E. sooih, the fir« question vrc nuunLlI)- ask b, 
wtieL)i«r tliiK i» an isolaled instance of a changed pronuncia- 
tion, or are there otlier »-ortls in the same predicament 
Wc find thai it b no isolated instance, but only a panicul. 
cxamjtli; of a general bw. If we look lo the older forms 
such words as eont, *fof/, loci, tooth, gooie, soon, mwa, Bewi, 
broom, doom, gloom, brood, mood, rood, and even loot (in which 
the vowel has been shortened), we shall Und that the M. E. 
scribes wroie Oiese words sometimes with a double o, hat 
sometimes also with a single one; in the latter case, tbcf 
meant the long sound all the »anic, but this sound was to 
them a long o, not a long u. Siran^e .a it may seem, 
is certain that miLnf millions of Englishmen have for years' 
accepted the sjnnbol oo (pbinly a long 9) as expressing ihc 
sound of the Italian long u, without ever stopping fo wonder 
how lliey cvne (o employ so extraordinary a spelling I To 
Rtiun to the coDsideraiion of the words cited abm-e, it may 
next be observed that the words m/xm and toon were formerly 
dissyllabic, written m^fUH or mon-e, and toon-/ or 3<m-e 
whilst Ihc ^'e^b look took, in the infinitive, the suffix •«, earii 
-un, and appeared as /«>*-*, lok-im. llencr, the A. S. form; 
of the abo\-e words are, with perfect regularity, as foUoH's : 
(H, lUl, ISl, ti/i, gfy\ tfil-a, min-a, »4h\ irfim, dim, g. 

* The (inil f in the mod. E. gaau a a nitre (hue) onho)(hplik txf 
diail (Le. • pbaaetie •pclUng), in «id(( to ihew that tbr > li 
M ((Khnkallj) f^iicclcii; If wiittoi gau, It nij^ be rad u jwm. 
also In the CMC 6( <brM, M. K.»nil A-& A«ra. 

' The A.S. Wh i* boirewcd (ran Lat. itM^l.e mAu jbro, 1 






br^, nM, rSdy IScian. This A. S. S vnll b« agiiin discussed 
hcresiftcr, when sonM apparent exceptions to the taw will 
reccm attcotion ($ 45). 

j SB. BhifUng of ToweUsounds. Another unponani 
rcKult in this. Such > change of pronunciation as that from 
long K (m in boat) to long w (00 in f>ool) could not have 
Uken pJace witltout a general Kltifiing of pronuncistion nil 
Along the line. If in the series $aa, bail, btei, boat, boot, wc 
disturb one of the set, wc run the ri&k of upsetting the whole 
BdieiDe. This b pirccisely u-hat took plAce; the wtiole of 
tbe long-vowel scheme fcH, ns it were, to pieces, and n-as 
replaced bj a ncu- scheme throughout, the net result being 
thai ihc A. S. sounds of 4, /, i, 6, 6, (a» in laa, bail, betl, boat, 
bpot) have been replaced hy the modem English soun'ds At- 
noKd pAifiuliciiIfy by if. I, ai. H, an (siOtindcd as in hul, btU, hilt, 
boot, bout^. Three ol the old sounds, /, 6, 6, are Khifted; 

iwo of the old vowelti, (, H. are developed into diphthongs, 
hilst the rcmaming A, S. sounds rf, / (as in baa, bail] seem 
to disappear'. From this brief account, it will Ix; at once 
that the iDwj%ation of the old sounds of modem 
,Dglish vowels requires great care, and must be conducted 
on regular principles, radi sound desen-ing to lie studied 
separately. This is even the case, as we have seen, with the 
/o^ vowels, which are tbe easiest to trace ; the rfcr/ vowels 
icqnire even more attention, and should therefore, in tn)' 
opinion, be studied aficrvsids, when the changes in the long 
wd-BOUDds have become bmiliar. 

Meanwhile, ii will prove uwrful to commit to memory the 
fact that the A.S. sounds, as occurring in iaa, bail, ttrl, boa/, 

ham, oripiMlljr 3 p.m., but afkctwud* ibifttd to middaj'. Thi* diiocf 
boRie tbe bet that the A.S. / - Lat. ■<. 

' Tb> woitl iaa b atnlf imititiire, and the pure ammd of tbe Italian 

4 U cMk« KaTCC in Eoglidi, fai>ttT bting (h« Kodc evtmple of li, and 

ita wwdi iaim, la/m, Ac, bdng of Prtmk origjn. Thcaounil in hait 

fawWDW W , hot amwmlo A.S. a,«,M,<^ot ^,EK)t toanjof tbeabo*e 

, jakso(A.S. Icog vovcU. 

■ 3 





loot, have most commonly been tcplacwl by ihc modem 
Ejiglish sounds heanl ia loaJ, htti, bite, &W, boul^. Tbc 
ea»ext way of rcnicnibcring this is by ihe l*dp of simple 
examples, such as these that roUow. 

I. A. S. i-dt (pronounced haal), is our rood £. b«ai, 
a. A.S. &//-t' (pronounci-d nearly antaily, ott^baiHr 
with quiescent r], is our mod. E. btrt. 

3. A. S. bit-iin (pronounced Iftt-Sfm), is our mod K. kitt. 

4. A. S. 161 (pronounced nearly a« 6otU) is our ho9t, b dte 
BCDSC of advanta^, as in the phrase ' to boot.' 

5. A. 5. d-iii/<tn (pronounced ai-ioot-tiAi), m our a-ttti. 
All ihi.4 liait been ledrnt from a full consideniJOD of llic 

first word S6/>lift of the A. S. extract in { 36 abow. This 
may serve as a faint indication of ihc kssons to be olXained 
from a Mudy wliieti lins fallen into so great ne};1ecl. 

{ 40. English should be traced downwards ms well 
as apwnrds. Miihcrio my object has been to prepare ibc 
way by tracing EiiRlish words backwards from iJ»e present 
time to tile period i>cforc llie Conquest, when the literary 
monuments which have come down to us were mostly wiiiien 
in the Southern dialect, commonly calied Anglo-Saxon. Tbii 
course b a natural one 10 take, because we iha« pasi from 
what is familiar to what is less known. Yet this is clearly 
not the scientific course, becatise it reverses the order of 
sucocssioD. Hcnoe. when we hat« obtained the A. S. form, 
wc ought to return o^er the same groimd once more, as we 
can then more easily account for, or at any rate record, all 
changes of pronuucimion, and we are in a better position 10 
explain results ihat appear to be anomalous. Tliis it the 
course pursued by Mr. Sweet, in his History of Engli>h 

' Tlilt Kowml rilf bus (Mcral occptloni, noinc of which are 
below. Tbr prcicai aocount i* mertl)! gcnoal or popslu. For 
detail! see the ankle by Mr. Wctt*. uoljced al tlw t*id of f 40. 

* ThU U an txc<l1cnt cuiDple. bcuuic tbc A. S, Mt u &at ui Edgti 
word, Imt merely borMiml bom tax. t^tii, vhcic the i wm 
nearly at « ia hut, ot (Mrictlr} u / in F. Mtt. 




Sounds', and 1 now extract sc^'crat ciamples from his book 
iu order 10 comjileie the fabUwy of Uui Eiigliisli Iorj; vowels, 
as «% aie now in a position to andereUDd it. I beg leave 
alto to draw attcniioa lo an admirable artidc * On tlie 
DevelopEnent of Old English Long Vowels,' by B. H. Welb, 
whkh appeared in (he German periodical called 'Anglia,' 
fvoL vii. pp. 103-319. Mr. Wells gik« ihc results of hJa 
InvesiigalioBS in the following words: — ^'We £in<I that tlie 
extreme A. S. vowels / and & have, by 3 son of guna, been 
brought nearer to Ital. a, the one becoming ai [mod. K. fj 
and Hat other au [mod. £. ou, <m>\ *. The other long vowels 
on the coninry, sliew exactly the opposite tendency, for 
A. S. <C ^> i/t <^< <^ <^ have become ) [mod. E. w], while A 
has become 0, and 5, u. Wherever, then, the vowels could 
move towafd the extremes of tlic vowel-scale [given by 
Ital. u, f, a, t, i], they did to; where this was not possiblci 
Ibcy fonned diphthongs. Such is the development when 
tindistntbed b)' consioiiaiital inQuence.' He aikl.i that ' the 
only consonants which e]tcrci» a general modifiing power 
uc tp, r, g (A), but the mutes i-, d, t. and the labials /, m, 
have a modifying influence on special ^x>we!s ^vith which 
llieir aniculaiion is related. A following syllable also tends 
to weaken the preceding vowel.' He proceeds to examine 
tliese disturbing causes in careful detail. 

1 41. It IK found that vowel-xounds are often affected in 
tbeir quality by the consonani that follows them '. So much 

liuB tbe case when this consonant is r, that it alters the 
qtialiiy of nearly every vowel. The vowel-sounds in bal. 

■ I^blMwd for Ac PbUologiaal Society and for tbe English Dialed 

• A» to ih« iwtiue of lbl4 ehsngf, hk F-lIii, On Pronnnciatlon, 1. 133 : 
'la nub die (he chui^e rimply coiiusis io comnwncicg l)ie vowel with 
B •ODHd a4udi 11 too open (i.e. with tbc tongue not nSiciciitly r«iw<lr 
and, 0* il acre, conrcting ihai cnot in Ihc coune of utlenuioe,' 

* Alto by « friitJiax cOMoiiAnt, chiclly In ihc tam oi to Vt fU. 
Coin|i>rc EMM, qnaiUil/, with lam, ran, fan. 


[Cnu. 7. 

htl, bit rctpectivdy, arc noi the nme as xa bar, berth, ttnL 
Tbis must be carcfillly borne in mind, and shews whj' Mr. 
Sitttt arranges bis examples according to ibe oonsoniu 
vhich follows the vowel. Fortunately, r has comparaihvJ^ 
liulc inllucncc upon the iorig vowels, which wc slall lake fint 

We DOW proceed to enquire into tbe fortunes of the A. S. 
d, or long a, iircinoum^cd as ^a in ba-i, or tbe inlefjectioa ahl 

§ 4a. Tha A. 8. i (long b). The rale is. tfait A. S. tf 
came to be wri'Uen as long o in M. E., and in mod. E. sudi 
words are pronounced with a sound which we should now 
also call long o. Que this M. R. loitg o was probably an 
intermediate sound between aa and oa. and connnonly pro- 
nounced nearly as au in naught, according lo Mr. Swcrt; oc 
as M in broad. Thus A. 5. b^l is M. E. itoi, pronounced 
neatly as mod. E. bought, which gradually passed into E. boat; 
to that the order of sounds Is given (nearly) by &uiA btft^kt, 
boat. The M. £. sound is gircn still more closely by tbe ff 
in border. 

BzsmplM aie aa foUom. ri, a roe; if, lol i£^ iJoe; 
wi, woe ; Mi, no ; f <C I go ; lAf , a doc ; Id, toe- In the wonl 
stL-d, the w was dropped, giving the M. E. t«o, lo, E. ». Bat 
there are two wwds in which a u> preceded the vowd, and 
exercised a modifying influence upon it, causing it to pam 
througli /too stages. Thus it pasted into the nwdem hng t 
sound even in M. E., .ind instead of stoppii^; there, it shifted 
again, because the M. E. often shifted into long « ; cob- 
pare M. E. r>W, eot (pronounced as too/) with mod. E. avi 
(4 43). And further, the w, after (iroducing this naodiSca- 
tion, dropped out ; so that the A. S. j|^ Is now who (pron. 
as A09 in hooi), whilst the A.S. Iwd Is now Am (pron. as too)*. 
See Sweet, Hist. £ng. Sounds, p. 54. 

Tlie guttural sound denoted by h, and jironounced M the 
mod. G. rh in Miteht, has modiScd A. S. d^ into E. ot^ht ; 
probably by preterving very neatly Ute sound wliidi the diph- 
* TbiilalloiaMeofa pnoe^og ■> «iU iceciic atteotiaa twtcoAer. 




*-f VVd 

tJiong bad in Afi</4if English. Similaily, m^/ haa become 
tumghi Of ncughi, whence (with a suflbc -y) tbe word naugiU'y. 
B]r constant use^ naught was ofun ' widened ' to n«L, which 
bas DOW established itself as an independent word. 

kdt, whole; mdl, mole (n blcmiiih, Kpoi); </■{/', dole- Also 
hi^, holjr; a dcrivati^x of hil, whole. 

4rt oar : h&r, hoar ; r&r-mn, to roar ; /(ir, lore ; sdr^ sore ; 
m4/--i', (Oore ; ^rfr-a, gore (of a garment) ; gtdra \ ywe ; Afr, 
boar. (Note tK>w the r modifies the preceding vowel, and 
lends (o preserve tbe M. E. sound.) 

dp, oath ; «'r^ adj., wroih, but also wrath ; and simi- 
larljr <'^4V cloth, in which ilic M. £. sound of & bas 
been prcKn'cd; 1^3, loath; idS-iaa', to loaibc; ddS-tan, 
to cIoUk. 

^^, arose ; 3At, those ; ; 4x/, ghost (in which ih« intro- 
duction oT the 4 is quite unmeaning). A very curious and 
dflkult word b kdt, M. E. hops, also ig^s, now written 
hoaru; as far as the modem Southern 1% sound is con- 
cerned, the r is not aiUed, and the vowel hardly differs, if at 
ksU) froiD ih^t which we have already found iu ehih, from 
^ A- S. cl43*. Il probably rctaiiM very nearly the M. E. sound. 

firitv-an, to throw ; s4w-an, to sow ; miizv-aH, to mow ; 
erdw-OH, to crow; aidw-an, to know; i/dtv-an, to blow. In 
&U these the .4. S. to account.t for the modem spelling, but 
the to is neatly lost, being represented by a faint after-s ound 
of ». So also in tndw, snow ; tduxf, tAffl, coal /Tin ex-~.^rw» 
ccptional word ts pAo^n, to tlaw (instead of ik/a'); here <« i*** , '( 

H > It tppcin M jtHAf/. TheA.S.jire&ijr-bnll-abiiiiilaBl.oadinakci ^^^^-''^ 
^pa lUfltmo to tbc wonl. vf 1P <^ 

■^ ■ The A.S. x*-, u occardnE bcfe bcroie J. ivpmeat* Hie mudiI of ^_^/ ^^^ 
V'aod.E,^: otanrMte, UdldMia W< A.S. VT^ k r<t- 

■ 1 k«tp t! to wpiM>« Ibc mod. E. ri In clnlhc, whlUl > rcpieMnt* ^^^^^ ' / 
die mod. E M ia cloth. A. S. am bodi ■jmlioU coufiuoll)-. 

Thetonnd rams. I bert giveoiy «wn pcaottocialion, wbieh isUik« 
of haru. M«ay people totoA the «« is A«ar» m n dlpltllioug. 
* TlUtB, Mji Dr. I'«llc U tbc pronunciiUion in Nottb Ciu&lxnLutd, 
here ii rimts with mtw. 


^ dieni 





ihe &w has pr»er\<ed U>e M. £. sound, like that of an in 
naught. Compare naught, eiotk, wrath, above. 

hUf, loaf (A being dropped); 4rif. drove (llie finaJ/in 
A. S. (and in Xlcrmn ?) being probftbljr pronounced u o). 

A moat imporUnt vrord is ^ M. E. M<t (riming al fimt 
trilh dbzvw, later wilb hotu), bui now riminfr wilb ^wi. lo the 
fiAecnlh ccniiirjr, a parasilk w ^>rang up before die intlial 
vowel, which by that lime may have become like o in hom \ 
thu would produce a Tonn vxen'. then tbe w modified Uk 
long n into long u, after whtcb tlie w n-as shortened and 
' unrounded >,' giving tlic curioux K. Mir, in whicli (he intlial 
» b only wrincn by comic writers, who (correcdy enoagli) 
wriic wun. The spelling turn is found as early as in Goy of 
Warwick, cd. Zupiua, note to L 7927. The word Is doubly 
interesting, because the oompoumtt <m-ly, al-one, l-otu (short 
for «i-m*), t-0u-ly (short for al-cne-ly), at-^u, all prescrre 
the soond into wbicb it would have passed according 10 the 
itiual rule. Besides this, the A.S. &n, when laed as the 
inde&niie article, soon lost Its length of vowel, and bccune 
an with short a. Hence our modem an, or (with loss of 
final m) «. An-m is short for oK-eon. A'-me, short for 
ju «tu, not one, has foUowed the fonuncs of, cute, oa account 
of its obvious connection with it. Other examples ate u4 m, 
shone, put tense*; itdn, stone; grd»-ian, to groan; iSi$, 

Alter, home ; Ida, loom ; /4m, foam ; c/dm, prov. E- eleam, 
itKd in Devonshire to mean caidienware. 

4^t Uht low (the final guttural beii^ dropped); Jitg. fAk. 
ibe ; dig, 6dh, doogti : so dg-ai», to own ; dg-at^ own (L e. 
one's own). 



■ ' Rttmiing b a coDliadkn of Ube nuMRboirity bj Uloal 
ac«ia« of the «be(k-puMC« *"^ B*'"*^ oft^ lifhapeniuv ' J Swvet, 
rhcoclle*. { 36. UmrvunJa^ neu* Uw ictautiati of I]ic niK*CBlw 
(Sort cr^Inil [ot ntmiiag. 

' Pttiptiij iiM» ; hat oAhi AortcMd to itm. 





de, OiUc; Urie-ian, to stiokc; spSe-a, spoke of a wbed ; 
t4<-*n, token. 

rdd, road ; IdJ, lode (a vein of or«, courae); wdd, woad; 
g^, goad ; I4J, loid ; dbdd, al)odc. Hut trOd, M. F. ^riW, 
bas absolutely ictaincd its M.E. vowel -sound, and is spelt 
bread, because tluu sound was represented by ca in EUia- 
bethan Fngliih *. The A. S. sufltx -Md became M. F. -AcW, 
-hifd, wtuch, owing to its non-accented position in compound 
words, ba& been shifted and shortened into £. -hood, as in 
man-hood, ekild'hood, maidm-Aood. The O. Friesic fonn of 
this siiBix wu -h/d. and in Ihc T.auil MS, ot the A. S. 
Chronicle, nader (he year 1070 (ed. Eailc, p. 209, 1. 6 from 
bottom) it appears as -htd; this accounts for the vaiiani 
'Atad, as in GtdA/ad, mafdrnhoui. 

di-<, an oat, pi. dl-an, oaXs ; wrdl, wrote ; gdl, goat ; M/, 
boaL Bat W, MX .kool (pronounced as AaugAJ- in 
Adt^^^), has been 'widened* to /^; and ic tod/, MJL / 
wett (pron. u\tui), has been similarly altered to / ujo/. 

rdp, rojie ; td^t, soap ; grdfi-ian, to grope ; pdp-a, the 
pope, tn the last case, the A.S. word is merely borrowed 
from ibe Lai. pspa, a word of Greek origin, signifying 
' father.' Here the very vowel-nound and spelling of the 
mod. F. vrord are quilc sufficient to prove, witliout recourse 
lo higory, that the word was borrowed from Laiin before the 
ConquesL Otherwbe, we should have bonowcd it from the 
F. papt, and we should all be saying pape, as if It rimed with 
apt. Compare pap-al, pap-isi, pap-aey, all words of F. 

§ 43. The iuB. h (long e). The A.S. /had the* sound 
of IiaL long t, or the French ( in h(U, or nearly lliat of ai in 
hail', the M.£. usually preserved this sound; it has since 
shifted into iIk souiut oftv in bt<l\ 

\ > ■ In one wurd. the M. E. M ^ —mo hi ■nnr) bu bnm prcMrred op to 
d« pn*cui (Uy, vli. u the adj. MW:' Sweet, Eoc-SouniU, p. $■■ 
■ See bwect'i IliX. «f Eo][. SaDnds, p. 6i. 









Bxunplos. he, he ; ^, thct ; ic/.ve; mf, me ; g/, ye. 
*i The A.S. h/h prcscnis tome (iifTculty ; in M.E^ ihe final 
guttural was so[ncdni«s kepi, anil aomelliaea lost ; tb« vowel- 
sound was someiimes k«pt, and tomeliines sbiTied; ami 
hence sach varj-ing forms as htgk, htigk, hy, hy. Tbe 
sliij^cd form prcvmled, becoming Wi\aa\. hy (proDOOOCcd a 
E. he), out of wiiich wax regul.irly devdo|>ed a luod. E. ky 
(runing with by). But wc still preserve in our spelling 
reminiscence of ilie final {;unural, and spell ibe word htg, 
Id just Ihc itxae way the A.S. »^ is our mgh. 

hfr. here; ge-h/r-an, to hear: v&'ig, weary. The pC t. 
ge-h/r-de, lit heartd, is shortened to heard; such examples 
a» thi^ in which the sboitening is obvious, are of aime 

A*^%cd ; sin, stcci : ftl-m, to feel. <-<U-J* 

Ufi, iccih. 

gt-U/'an, to be*lkve'; sU/-e,' ^istyc; tbe A^ (an«l 
Mercian ^)Xbetv«cn the two vowels being probably sounded 

98 V. 

te6te, adj., K. sheen, lit. showy, but now used as a sb.*; 
wAi-an, to ween ; gr/a-t, green ; </n-e, keen ; ev^/n, qocen, 
quean. Bui Un \as preserved its long towcI only in the 
compounds fhir-tem, four-ken, &c. ; when used alone it 
ahortened to ten. 

stm-oB, to «eeiD ; dim-on, to deem ; Um-tm, to teem. 

fg-t (Mercian i^-r, { 33) is an occasional fonn of A.S. 
tagf, eye. Saictty, the word belong to tbe group coniaiiting, 
the long diphthong 4a. This ige became M.E. e^-e, tgi 
ty-e, the symbol ) (when not initial) being used to represent 
a gh or y. fiui ttie \'ov-c:l-w>und was ftcquenlly shifted ; 
Chaucer constantly uses the distyllabic form^--;, pronounocd 

' Ttw dioplc Tdb tkvi vu cammaia ia M, E. u inun. 

* Eridwll; from • popolftr ddodan llul it ii ctyinolo|{icaIty drnved 
fimn tbe verb to ihim, wilb wbich It has no euontclica. CnnooUy 
eaoo^, tbe ailj. ifutr really ti connected willi ikiae, bat popsLu' ctpiui- 
lo|[T doo nol KupccI h. 



sen! I 



as <v in ieei, follonrecl by a tight vowel, with a t^t interven- 
iagjf-stnuul, sticb as is lu^afd bcl«'«en a and i>^ in moiL E. 
ue-ing. Then ihc final -r dropped, and the M.E._f or long i 
developed icgularlf inio the mod. £. diphtfaoi^ sound 
vihicli ve write i*. Yet we .ttill keep, in our sjiellin^, the 
form ryt, tepreicnting a sound which has been obsolete Tot 
many centuries. It is thia unlucky and unreasonable con* 
■ervattun which hoii brought our modem .ipdling into mch 
dire confusion, Tbe history of ^ is paraUcl to that of Aigi 
and H^A, discussed above. 

A-an, lo eke ; rA, reek (smoke) ; J/c (sul»tituted for Uat), 
a leek ; tie-am, lo seek ; Mercian t/t-f (sec § 33), A.S. c/ae-t, 
cbcek; M-*, beech (tree); irAr, breck, au old plural fonn, 
aAerwards made Into the double plural ir/eit (hence also 
irtfcJi, irtttha). The inenlion of ihis word bntcktt oocure 
Opportunely; it reminds us that our u really means tbe 
Italian long i, and consequendy that, when sliortcned, the 
thoft form of it a short r ; whence it is that irnchts is pro- 
notmced triUhts. With this hint, we see that A.S, hr/t 
(substituted for krfyt), became hi. E. r^i, which, by shorten- 
ing, gave tu E. rict '. 

hM-an, (o heed ; rid-OH, to read ; tlfd^a, steed ; tpH, 
speed ; fld-an, lo feed ; tUd, need ; mfd, meed ; gUd, glccd 
(a bumii^ coal) ; brid-aa, to breed ; Wd-an, to bleed ; 
trU-^'^, cpwd. 

ttottt. sweet ; rrt/ (for tdat), sheet j /fl, feet ; amT-cm, to 
meet ; gr/]-<m, to greet ; M-<, beet. 

it¥^j», to weep ; <r4f>-ti, lit. one who cnwps, a creeper. 
M. E. erip-d, later cretpk ', but now shortened to tripftt. Cf. 
I ru4 above. 

■ ■ Kai, > Unw or Hnp of Com, Hay, ftc'— B>i1cy'( Dice., cd. 

■ Bixrowtd from l]i« £r>l wo«d of the Lslia cieed, tit. erhi-a, I be- 
Ben:. Ueiice tbe A.S. /-Lit. r, » •bote 

* ' la tUcm tlnl bee Ixnie or traftiUt' ; (tII7)J. Fcamplao, Joylall 




$ 44. The A.S. i (l(nig 1). The A.S. long i wu 
(Oundcd ax c« in Ud. Iii coune of time, a sound reMcnUiqg^J 
<M in baa was developed j^r/ ii [see p. 53. note i.^so tbu it^^^ 
is now pronounced as a diphthong, vhicb wotdd niosi cor- 
rectly be TC])re4cnl(:d by ai, riz. a sound Com|>osed of the 
luL a rapidly succeeded \iy Iial. t. I'lic principal inter- 
mediate sound through which ii passed is one which mty 
be rt-prcsc^nicil by Ital. a, very nearly Uie sound of a in man. ^y 

SxamploB. i4, by'; tr-tn, iron; tcSr, wire. ^| 

uil-e, wile ; Awf/. while ; mil, mile. In the last case, the " 
word Lt not English, but borrowed from the Lat. milia pa- 
sufun, a. thousand paces. Here is a clear case in which the 
A.S.f=IK ^ 

/f^r, liUie; wri<f-<m, writhe; ItiJt, blithe. ^1 

it, ioe, where the spelling: wtlh « is a mere ortho^pfaic 
dcnce for shewing that the t is h^rd, or voiceless ; rit-an, to 
rise ; Krfj, wise ; the 1 is shortened in the derivative uf^-rffin, 
wisdom, by aceeniua) stress. 

sa-weard, M. E. .r/i-Kiar<^ (llavelolc, I. 666), shoold have^ 
become tly-utard, in accordance with its etymology, but Un^ 
coalescence off with w ha.i resulted in a diphthong, whence 
J^ji 7 ■'4 E. ttnviird, In precisely llic .■same manner the A. S. t^uHtn 
is now sp^U} or spur ; and the A. S. hhv is now bttt. 

Uf, life; scrif-an, to shri»e, not a pore A.S. word, bul^ 
borrowed from LaL serthere ; cni/, knife ; wif, wife ; Jr^'on,^ 
to drive ; fi/-*, five. But fn llie compound fif-Og (lit., 
five-ly), the i is shortened by accentual strcts, whence E. 
fifty. Simiiaiiy the A, S. nif-men, later form veimi»cn (by 
assimilation ai fm to mm), is RliU pronounced as if written 
wimmai. It is, however, alwaj-s spelt womtn, in order to | 





Newn out of the Ncwe Foundc WorliEt, M. $i, lock. 
fi/lii'; Vork rUyi. p. Jjj. I, j6. 

' F_ baal i I* wtiataj-; w la Ay, mf, thy, aay, many. 

* Compare AW; Im, whether wc iltiivt lint horn Ibe A S. //«./, 
cord, or from F. Aj^m. either way we are led back to Lot. lima, a dc- 
tiMtiTC of tlimm, tax. 







oCr wHb tbe {more comipi) singular woman ; sec HWon in 
my Etj-m. Dictionary. 

Sia, ihiue ; laAn, awlne ; letn-an, to shine ; Jtrfn, dirine, 
not an English vord, bul borrowed from Lat. ttnnium ; zi^n 
wiDc, borrowed from Lai. uinum, and actually preserving ihc 
original sound of Lai u (^w); nuin, mine ; /win, mine ; J^a, 
pine-tree, borrowed from pinut. Tbe t^t. /^mr wu 
transferred into A. S. in the form f4H, whence the \'erb 
fiit-an, to pliH, to pinu away. In French die same poena 
became pdat, whence F. pain. 

rim, rime ; now almost invariably spdt rkymt, by a need- 
less and ignorant confusion with the unrelated word rhythm, 
which is of Greek origin, whereax rim i* pure Kngti-ih. 
Cnrioosly enough, the word really ctiliiled to an 4 is now 
spell without it; I refer to the \.S. hrim, hoar-frost, now 
f\K\l rime by less of initial k. A conxiderahlc nuinlier of 
A. S. words beginning with hr, hi. hit, all lost tbe initial h 
ewn in the M. E. period. Tbe A. S. Hm, lime, is puro 
£nglish, but allied to the cognate LaU lim-us, mud; ^m, 
tlime ; iim-a, lime. 

si^t, stye, Sly ; iligfl, a stile, tit. a thing to climb over, 
from tSg^an, to climb; stig-rdp, i/f-rap, st ' sly-rope,' or 
rope to climb on a horse by, now shortened (from t/arup) to 

ffc, like; M a stiffiT, 'fy {by loss of the last letter); ttrican, 
to strike ; iU-art, M. E. jik-fn, now sigh, by loss of the Unal 
letter as Id tbe sufiix -iy from like, though the spelling with 
gh prescrres a lr»ce of the lost guttural. The A. S. iittcan, 
E. to tsegk. presents an extraordinary example of the pre- 
servation of the original vowel-sound '. To these we must 
add Hft, rich, not borrowed from French, though existing a» 
riclu in that langnagc, which borrowed it from a Frankish 
source ; tbe AI. £. riche was regularly deve!oi>ed from A. S. 

' Comptrc tbe prov. E. (Cunbcrluid) ate, ■ ladder; from A.S. 
ttf-gOM, to dial*. 


riee by the usual change of A. S. -et into M. E. -eht, and die 
i', at first long, is now shortened. The \. S. dk, a dike, mi 
a masculine substaniii'e, niih a genitive Hc-is; but it vu 
also used as a remmine, with a genitive and dati\'e &-t. The 
latter case-fonns regularly produced a M. E. dieh-e, used in 
all cases of the singular ; hence mod. £. dich *, now almyi 
written dih-k, with needless tnserdon of a /. Here again, tbe 
t has been shonened. 

id-il. idle : riJ-an, to ride ; sid-e, side ; slfd-an, to slide ; 
tcSd, wide; gliJ-un. to glide: dd-an, to chide; &d, tide; 
Hd-an, to bide : irid-el, a bridle. 

smil-an, to smite ; wril-an, to write, in which the initial w 
is no longer sounded; white; bit-an, to Inte. 

rip-t. ripe ; grip-an. to gripe, the form ^»/ being doe to 
F. prif'Pir. a word of Teutonic origin. 

The words of Latin origin above mentioned, viz. mSe, 
shrhe, shrine, vrin,; pine (treeV are of importance, as proving 
that the A. S. i was really the Latin long i. and therefore pro- 
nounced as mod. £. te. 

§ 46. The A. S. 6 (long o). The .\. S. S was sounded 
as "a in bnal, and usually preserved the same sound in M.E. 
Hut in the modem period the sound was shifted, having bees 
'moved up to the high position*' of long u. 

Examples. sc6, shoe ; d6, 1 do ; 16, too, ta 

0h, tough. Here the final guttural has been changed to_/; 
whilst the vowel-sound lias been shortened and ' unrounded*.' 
The spelling with ou indicates that the A. S. 6 had been 
regularly reduced to the sound of ou in you before the 
shortening and ' unrounding ' look place. 

m6r, moor. But in Ji(;^r, swore; jWr, floor, the long o has 
been preserved, though altered in quality by the following r. 

' • A/'iVA, ordilte'; Minsbcn's Diet., ed 1617. 
• Sweet, Hist, of Eng. Souniii, p. 56. TLe asagncd for the 
chKiijc is A.I>. 1550-1650. 

' Sm note above, tIz, p. 56, cole 1. 




>tM, stool ; t^, cool ; Xd/. toot. 

»^, soolb ; «?, tooth ; 6Str. M. F.. i»«f»-, orti-r, first be- 
came what wc shoald now wriic oalhtr, aftci which Ibc long 

was shortened and ' niiioundcil,' ginnj^ E. ollur. So also 

bribe r is iroiifr. The modem spelling is consislent, after a 

son ; for if it be once accepted as a rule that m shall stand 

! for the sound of lung m. It ought to follow that o may reiLion* 

ably represent short u. Cf. rfn/A, s/m, gcvfrn, &c. 

;&, (.-oosc; butA'i»//)»ft' has been shortened to ^iA>y. ^«. 
boum, in which t)ie fonncr o has nt pretrcnt a variable pro* 
tiiina'aiion; in Ogitvic's Dictionaiy it is marked as hanng the 
sound of u9 in ^<ki/, whilst in Webster, It is marked as having 
the sotmd of m in/M/. The longer raund >h in acoordaitce 
with the rule ; the F^hortcr is that which I am accustomed to 
hear, irisl, roost, sb., A being lotl. In blMma, bUsma, 
bloftsoin, the t> liM iK-en shortened irilhout shilling to u. In 
vtAitt, 1 must, the w-sound has been modified precisely as in 
oUtrr, brcJher, above ; the only difference is thai it is now 
S|)dt plionetical})'. 

rfat-an, to row ; hifiuyan, (o low, as a cow ; fi&iv-an, to 
flow ; gr^UHut, to grow ; MSm-an, to blow, or flourish as a 
flower. In all these the it? is preserved to the eye, and the 
anentive ear will detect a slight after-sound of u. 

htf, hoof; it-hif-iim, to bctj^vc, which p^cser^-cs its long 
o; j^f, glove, with the same changes aa in ^krr, brf^Hur. 

sim-a, loon ; h^m, noon (rrom nAta); mSn-a, moon; 
mifi-i^ . month, tritb tlic same changes aa in brothtr ; M^ 
aM-4ug, Monday, like the preceding ; ge-^it^din, done, pp., 
lik« the sam«. To these add tj>6ii, n chi|>, E. sfc^n. 

gUm, gloom ; Jfim, doom ; Mm, broom ; ll^-a, bloom. 
Also £im-a, pL gim-an, the gums, parallel to iniitt, mu«t. 

filCi, slew (M.E. sbw); wig'ian, to woo; dr6g, drew 
(&L E. drat). But gt-nig b mod. E. e-fungh, just as /^ 
(ahcady cxplaincd) is now tougi. The word tih took the 
fona iaugk ctcd in M. K., and occurs, c. g. in Chaucer, 



Cant. Tales, L i98>. Tbis M.E. m bad the French souod 
of 0ir in i«up ; and tbe result of this eax\f shifting was tbn 
Utc sound i^ifted yet once more in the n>odcm period, tbtu 
becocning £. itvgh (sec { 46), in wiiicfa the final guttural 
sound, dtough preaerved 10 the eye, U cniiiely lost to ihe ear. 

leSe, yoke, has presented the long (; in e\iery o<her in- 
stance, words in -A- now end in -oek ; and curiously enough, 
all of ibcm are now pronounced with the abort a» 0S/90I, not 
the long M of bod. Hence hrie, a rook; iie-ian, to look; 
seSe, shook; e^, a cook; l^, book; brSc, brook; hSe, a hook; 
/ortie, forsook. No Ruch fomi as A. S. cr&e for ' crook ' has 
as yet been Tound, hut it is highly probable iliat it eitslcd; 
cf. led. h6ir, Swcd. krok. Similarly, the IccL Ok has givea^ 
the M. £. took. fl 

/6H-a, food ; mM, mood; irii^ brood. Bui Uk old v<90ti&il 
has been KhDrtcnccl in tt6d,9cai', gid,^X)d; and still fnnher 
changed' iaJKd, flood; mMr, mother; i^, Uood. The 
history of ihe A.S. rM ia curious; it nd only produced, 
according to rule, the mod. E. rvoJ*. but also the rood. E. 
red, in which the « is sborteocd from an older (M. E.) pro- 
nunciation such as road (riming with gamf) *. ^^ 

/it, foot; iA, boot, i.c. advantage, profit*. ^^ 

$ 46. The A. 8. d (long a). The A. 5. long u answers 
exactly to the n in the words mil, a mule, borrowed 
from Lai. mUlus, and m£r. a wall, borrowed from Lau miirtu*. 

' * la modern En)>li>h, we luve > vny anom&Inui cate of miniMdiBg 
of the back-towel n. (itii [limitig irilh fief\ becomiiig htl [itmln^ with 
(■r] '; Sarcct, iliiC. Eii2.$oui]d*,p.43. At th« nine time, tlie < 
been ' lowered (ram hlt;h to laid.* 

■ A'M^lnnW./^uiiI nM/(orUnd)M«thetuiie«onl. 

' "Yht Icn^^hnred ■omd of E- ihoit « U bc«nl in lb« aor nc 
OM of datpg tot 4eg, 

' Mr. Svcet kdiU iW/.«>, to whoop. But the A.S. AMf/ait mtwu 
• to threalTB-' The ui in n-*»ef btle^i t« Todor EnGllth. Tbe M. E. 
Som it Anv/fR. from F. futi/^r. 

* OlKcrve thst A. S. mill [from mi/tu) would hjn« beoani« ik^w/ in_ 
mod. C Hut flm/c wm m-bcRowod (loin Freodi M > Uler pniod. 

imlnf with 





Example of Ibe»e words are given by Grein and Ett- 

Tbc history of (he A.S. 6 (»>UTi(!e<l a.i oo in ti>of\ is parallel 
ro ihatof the A.S. i. Jusl as the Utter nras developed inio 
Ital. ai, mod. E. long /, so the former was developed into 
ItJ. au, mod. E. (w in Mu/. Moreover, the diange look 
pliwx mndi about tli« tuaat time, vii. in a.». 1550-1650. 
To this may be added, that jiisi as a final long i is oraa- 
uentally wniieo as y, as in by, my, Ihy, &c., !(0 likewise (he 
finn] Mf b oftirn omiuncntally writlcn m>, as in r«n>, Amv, 
not', and in a few words the same epclling; prevails even 
when the sound b not final, as in awi, shmLtr, lawn. 

Examples. h4, how; 3ii, thou; nH, noM-; <£, cow; ^rtf, 


Cr-«, our ; n£r, sour ; ttSr, shower ; hUr, bower. In 

<k'g*'Mr, n«igfa-bot>F, the Hi has Dimply lost its Decent and 
nglh, and the sound has become iadcfinitc '. 

tf/v, ow!j/tf/, foul. 

n07, muth ; m63, mouth ; iint£3, uncouth, which has pre- 
served its old sonnd. In e^-r. the m has been preserved, 
bat has been slionened ; ilie mod. E. is eoud (riming with 
gotMi), always carefully mist^ll ffuIJ, in order to sattsly iho 
eye that is accustomed to weu/J and should. 

h6s, liousc ; !^, louse ; mis, moii»e ; }!&smii, thousand. 

tfifn, down ; i&n, town ; br6n, brown. 

r&m, room, has pteserved its old sound, but is now a sb. ; 
originally, it was an adj., meaning ' spaciout ' or ' roomy.' 

hig-<at, to bow; r^it^^T&g, rotigh, has changed iU final 
puiuraJ to /. whilst tlie vowel was first shoncDcd lo ibc 
>oand of At inyiw/, and (lien altered by ' unrounding.' 

^r|£(;^, to brook ; this word, t)eing motMly used in poetry, 
has kept lis old sound, but in a shonencd form. 

■ Mr. Swwt derive* E. Amt 6rc>ia A. S. /r^hfr, with the nmc •cnse- 
BW t»vr fa ■ pwrljr noiltin wuni, bariinrtd from Dn. Utr. TbE A. S. 
_^' «c«U ban bccctw ttmer, m in tact (ia aooUier mate) It diil. 
VOL. t. r 




U£J, load ; tcrid, shroud. 

£/, out ; tW, clout ; d-i£i-an, ftboui ; fir£/, proud (with 
change of / lo d). 

J 47. The A. S. ^ (long y). Now iJut examples bi*e 
been gi\-<:n o( llie A. S. long vowels d, /, /, i, H, it is worth 
while lo txpl^ the long vowel denol«d id A. S. hyj. Tl»i 
ia DOlbtng but x lengthened form of the A. S. vo««l (Icnoted 
by jr. The Romans adopted this letter from the Greek r, 
io order to represent the sound of the Greek » (v) in words 
borrowed from that bnjj^unge. The Latin lud original)]' 
neither tlie Kymbol nor the sound ; hcDC« Ihc very speDing 
of such words as aiysi, aiiedynt, apetaiypu. a^'Uim, Ac, at 
once reveals their Greek origin. It is furllier iKlieved iltal 
the sound of the Greek v (and therefore of the Latin and 
A. S.^') was that of the German u in ubtL Hence also, die 
sound of A. S. j) was that of the 1or$ German u in Gendl/h, 

There can hardly be a doubt as to this fact. yrX we are, 
practically, independent of it as far as modern English is 
concenicd. For it is quite certain tliut ihi.s sound wu toM 
at nillier an eiuly period, and that long y and long i' w«rc 
confused, and merged into the common sound correctly 
denoted by the latter wymboL That i.i, tlie sound of ^ was 
identified wiUi that ofM. E.f, the sound now denoted by«f in 
bftt. Hence the symlwls i and y l>ecame coorertiblc, and 
Ihc M. £. bi was often written by, as at present ; and con- 
versely, the word ^-de was often written fir^. The hblory 
ofy since the Middle-EnKlish period is precisely the same u 
that of f, already explained in { 44*. 

Bx«mplM. hw^, why; */, ky', the old pltaal of con, 
whence the mod. £. ki-nt, by die addition of the same pi 
suffix as that seen in eynt, tbe old form of 9%r. 

' Wc find eonfuHon of / with i even in Iwluidlc. Ttm IceL 
WW crflcn wiitten/r>> ; ttx/yrir m (he lc«l Dictlniuiy. 

* We iinA Kit !fit ' cowt ' la Goldlae't ImuUilun of OvU, fcL 
I- tj (l^Oj)- Burna hu>»v In ITie Tin. D«p. I. j bom cod. 





gi-/yl-an, to file', an oW wortj now only used mih tlw 
unncccssai7 atktition of the Krench prcfli: dt-, and iherefore 
spelt SefU. In Ihe A,S. ^/J; filtb. tlie i hiu been simpl)- 
shortened from the old f-sound, wittiout clijihthongisadon. 
h0, A hiiJic, or hav^n. 

IJi, lice, pL of (&t, tousc ; m^i, nice, pi. of m6t, mouse. 
But tbe old f-mund has been simply shortened in ^t^ 
_fist ; wyse-^tn, to wish. 

hjd, bide, i. e. skm ; hfd-Mt, to tiide ; bryd, bride ; pr^tn, 
§ 48- The A, S. &, <Sa, 6a Other long sounds are de- 
noted in A. S. by rf, A, fo. The examination of these may 
tbe deferred for the present, especially as Uiey may be 
iu(lic<l in Mr. Sweet's book. It is, however, wurh olncrving 
that there arc a brgc number of instances in which all three 

t sounds ansvvr to mod. E. /r. The A. S. <i was pronounced 
like the lorifc or drawled sound of a in man ; or, accordtujt 
10 SicvcTs. like the G. long d. 
The following are regular examples: — 
xrf, sea ; /etr, fear ; riir-an ', to rear ; hir, bier. 
etl, eel ; mdl, meal ; hdl-an, 10 lieal ; ddl-an, to deal. 
id/f, heath ; idf-tn, heathen ; tctifi, ^heatli ; u/rd^, 

ta^-oH, to tease ; tift-//, /tti-l, a tea.<)le. 
<i/-fn. ci-cn. evening ; Mf-an, to Icaw. 

II A/<fnv, lean, adj.;. eltht^, dean; mdn-an, to mean; gt- 
mdn-t, mean, adj., in the sense of ' common ' or ' vile.* 
\ka)4g, wbcy ; hndg-an^ to neigh ; grOg, gray, grey ; el^, 

* 'Tot Hanptt'i l^at bane I fiPJ tay Mindc;* Mucb. HI. I.<5(c4. 
|6>3). ■ Tbrtt iiiouiBtfell cbuttt, /iUJ wiih nutf blood ; ' Spetuer, 


* Hi. Sw«t ditflnfrBlihei between the doK nad open loimd* of i ; and 
the dolisctioQ ii real. In uiMy cuct, liowocr, ihe moA. E. f/ tcnilu 
bom both slikc. 1 llicsefoie Tentnic, (ea Hnt pnaon. to camblne hU 

I two BU of examples 




cby. But here the g became a vocalic y, am) a diphthong 

td(-t, leech, (■) a physkUtn, (a) a worm; sfrtit, speech, 
(«ilh a curious loss of medial r); rdfon, lo reach; itU-^n, 
to teach ; 6/Uc-aii, to bleach. 

uufd, weed, Le. garment, chiefly in the phrase 'a widow's 
wreds'i iit4, seed; grifd^ig, greedy; dad, deed; ndd-l, 
needle ; niif-an, to read ; ItfJ-an, to lead. 

s/rtt/, street, not an A. S. word, but borrowed from ibe 
Lat //r<i/A, in the phrase i/rita uia, a laid or |iaved road. 
The representation of the Lat. d by A. S. tj is unmual ; there 
was probably an older form jrr4t. Soe I'rof. Coot's edittoo 
of Sicvcis' CM Knglish Grammar, § 57. Niil-an, lo bteai; 
Ml-o. heat ; hwdl-t, wheat. So also tl^, sleep. 

$ 40. A. 8. 6a (Ions ea). The A. S. tfi was a ' broken * 
i^owcl, i. e. the two elemeots were separately prooounced in 
rapid succession, wit!) a stress on lite former element. It is 
nearly imitated by sounding /M>vr or gaytr vrithout tbe 
initial pot g. 

fill, (lea (see examples of this spdting in Boswonb and 
Toller's A. S. Diet). 

iar-<, ear ; iiar-ian, to sear ; n^r, near, originally 
adverb in the comparuiive degree (from ti^ah, nfk, ni{ 
gfar, year ; Uar^ tear. 

/ai/, east ; /asl-ur, /dtt-re, HasCer. 

bt'T^-ian, w ber«avc ; liaf, leaf; sciif, sheaf. 

Idaxt bean, ^am, scam ; tUam, steam ; ttr/am, 
gUam, gleam ; dr£tm, dream ; Uam, team ; Ham, beam. 

jriir-n, beacon, tiial, neat, sb.; Ual-an, to beat. 

hiaf, heap ; Wap-ait, to leap; f^, sb., whence E. a 

§ fiO. A. S. 60 (loag c«). Tbe A. S. ^ was a ' broken * 
vovcl like the above, composed of the elements / and o ; 
sounded ncaily as M\.\y) without the initial M and no s ound 




/r**, three; ic sA, I see; «fe, ehe; ySSi (MercUn^, •/■S'f • '^ 
§ 33). fc« ; A^r frw ; */<''», glee ; li- «J, I be ; Aft, a bcc. 

ii^, a cbe«lE, whence was Tormcd xhe E. verb to Aw ; A'o/', 
deer ; dAi>r-<, dear; dr/iv-ig, drcarj- ; i^er, beer. 

AiMi^, wheel ; f/oi, keel of a ship. 

Mit^A, to leelhe. yJ-/ttf-<«i, 10 frceic; /r/u//, priest. 

etiiew, (»(», knee ; fr/iw, //-/o, tree. 

iK/; lief, i. e. dear : pf^, thi*f ; rl/</-an, to cleave, !<plit. 

ie-ht/M-an, between ; //omi, fiend. 

Az-Ad^ a rccd ; mW, a wgckI ; n/nd, need. 

jW)/, a ship, hence ijlttt ; er^-an, to creep ; afu/, deep. 

The uiimber of words omiiied, as not giving exactly the 
mod. £. tt, ia not at nil targe. 

f 61- Summary. Now thai wc have noted some of the 
priudpal ci'iiulu re^peclln^ the A. S. long vowels, a brief 
vxnauuy of the whole ma)- prove useful. 

The A. S. long vowels d. /, t, 6, 4 were sounded nearly as 
ibe vowels in E. Jon, hail, bed, h«al, heel. They corre- 
sponded exactly to the Latin <i, /, f, ^, fi ; as may be teen 
from ibe following (amongst oilier) examples. 

Tbe A.S. {■diia^ 2 pope, was borrowed from Lat. pSfai 

S. i^, beet, from I^t. i/ta ; A. S. Jfrlm, a »hrine, from 
lertnann ; A.S. it^n, noon, from Lat. nSini ; A. S. itrtf/, a 
mak, from I^t. mi/m '. 

'Vhc mod. E, sounds to wliich limy respectively corrcijxwid 
are those heard in itw/. iff/, LiU, boot, (a)boul, as may be 
seen from the A. S, forma of thove words, viz. i\U, Me, bitan, 
hit, 4Hlat). See $ 39. 

The A. S. y or long y was sounded like the Greek long 

(v) or the mod. G. i) bi griin. At a ralber early period 
it w>s confuKit with long f, and followed its fortunes; liencc 
nwtL £. mite bota A. S. mj^s, used as the plural of motut, 

S.m£s. See S 47. 

■ A- S. mul (at already nolod) wnuU Imtc bocAine mod. E. mtmti 
Out Uut E. ntiA ni bonowed bwo U. F. wtuU in ibe t^fti Odilocy. 



tCMW. V. 

tugbt, ■ 

Tlie sountls d«tol<M] bjr A. S. d, (d, do, \\axt all been most 
rrcqucniJy replaced by ihc mod. E. «. Sec fj 48-50. 

In the course of many centuries, whilst ihsx chaog>es vere 
taking place, it is hardly sur]>n&ing that tome n'Or<l9i sufliered 
cliangeS not quite in accorclancc «ith the general rales. 
Some of the more imporlanl of these exceptions hav-c 
discusiied, with liie following results. 

I. Under words containing the A. S. 4, we most al»6'' 
elude: Mt.rwd; who, /;wi ; two, AM ; ought, ■i^i'; naugbt, 
not, ndhi; wrath, aiij., wrdi; doth, cldp; hoarse, hdt; than, 
^4u}an; one, an, a, 4n\ none, ndn; shone, scHit; l>roard, 
hrdd; -hood, -head (suffixes), -hid; hot, hdi; wot, «*, 
We lind among the^ such toundi as do in boot, due to a 
preceding ai ; also au in gaudy, which wax probably Ibcj 
soundof ihc M.E. 00; c'vanoi; &c. SceS43, 

3. Under words containing the A. S. /, we must include;^ 
high, h/h {htoA); nigli, m/h {tiAih); eye, /ge {dagt); 
kr/t {hrdac) ; cripple, <r/pel ; ten, /A. Sec { 43. 

3. Under words comaJning ilie A. S. / we must inchidc; 
wisdom, uisJdm; fifty, fiflig; vfOmcn, wifiata, ami e»ea^_ 
woman, tsi/mon \ Kiirrap, sttrip ; rich, ritt ; <liich, ^')^| 
Also: steward, i/ftcMin/; spue, j^nun; Ato, hue ; inwrfaich ' 
the vowel is alTeclcd by u>. Also : sneak, sntean ; with ^^ 
unaltered vowel. See § 44. ^| 

4. Under words containing the A. S. tf wc most include : 
swore, sw^r, Door, fi4r, which remain tiule altered except 
by the loss of the irilling of the r; behove, brMfian, woke, 
««&■, which keep the A. S. sound. Also; tough, Att; other, 
titr; brother, iz-Afor ; mother, jwrfi/M'; flood, ^f^A^; blood, 
hl6d; gfwe,g/df; guiDK,gif/ita»; must, n^//; month, niAhi^; 
Monday, nfytan dtrg; done, ^a; enough, gmik. Also: 
bosom, Mfm; stood, fW; good,;Atf; shook, w4r (with ocbcr 
words in -00/) ; (ooi,/6l. Also: gosling, f<li/iJ^; bloesom, 
Hiiinta ; rod, rfd. Also : bough, bSh. See § 45. 

£. Under «x>rds conlainlng the A. S. tf we must include : 


WTE OX s/rour vowels. 


V neighbour, n^aMet^ir ; roogfa, rUh ; couid, d^e ; lirook, v^ 
hfiean. Also ; tincouih, vnc&$, room, nto, which presave 
Ibe A. S. lound. Sec $ 46. 

6. Under A. S. >words : 6Ith, ff!^ ; fist, y5'/A ; widi. 
wyiean ; due to aliention fioni the sound of ee in ^»/ to thai 

I of i'ia bit. Sec § 47. 
NoTK OS THB Short Vowkls. 
For the histoi^ of ibe Short Vowels, I must refer the 
reader to Mr. Sweet's History of English Sounds; especially 
as even the above sketch of the tiisiory of the Long Vowels 
b very bnperfect, and reqaires to be supplemented aDd 
modified b>' reference to thai work. I may note, however, 
that the ^tnbols e, i, and 0, frequency remained unchanged, 
so that the «'ords net, in, eft, m, for example, are spell in 
^K A. S. precisely as ihey are spelt now. 
|V The A. S. short <t in man, a mail, was pronounced as in 
Ibe mod. G. Afami; but in mod. E. the pronunciation of 
MttH is peculiar, and may conveniently l>e denoted, ]>lione- 
Ikatly, by the spelling mirn. The A. S. a had this very 
sound, so Uut the A. S. giird was jironotinccd exacdy aa 
its mod. K. equivalent g/ad. Curiously enough, Uiis is not 
a case of sunivil, for tlie M. E, g/aJ w-as pronounced with 
the sound of the G. <i in Afann or glati, which accounts for 

■ tbc iDodcni tptliing. 
Tbe A. S>. short u had the sound of eo in book ; so that 
jttH-nt, the tun, was pronounced nearly as the mod. £. sooner 
would be, if the m> of tcon were altered to the 00 of 6coi. 
The sound of w in the mod. E. stm differs considerably from 
this, Inivtng been both ' unrounded ' and ' lowered.' In 
Middle- Englisb, the A- S. u was, in some words, represented 
by by French scribes ; so that the A. S. rmtu became M. E. 
tarn, ino<I. E. joff. Hence the modern son is pronounced pre- 
cisely hkc the modem tun. Similarly, llic A. S. lu/n, M. £. 
loK-e («iib « for r), is the mod. E. /evf. 



{ 63. Vslae <a the VoveU. In the last Chaplcr. some 
Kcouiit has been given of the sounds of tbe English long 
i-owcIh, for the- (larticuUc iiurjioM-ii of .'stirwing thai a KcicRtific 
Study of ctj'mobg)' mwt take phonology into account, ind 
also of emphasising the fact that the study of vowcl-soundi 
in particular is of gieat importance. It was rightly objected 
agaiiuit ihc rcck1»3 ' etymologists' of a (bnner age tlut they 
paid hardly any regard to tbe consonants, and to the vowel 
none at aU. Scientific etyinoloj,7 requiieit (hMgreat altenti 
shall be p:ii<t to the con.sonaiils, but fiiU grtaitr to 
vowels. For after all, il is precisely the vowd-sound w 
gives life and soul to the word. The combination m signii 
nothing ; but, if between tliese two IcMcnt. wc insert vow 
at pleasure, we obtain quite different results. By insertion 
a or H, we obtain different parts of the same verb ; ran bang 
a past teiiM.-, and run a present tense or an infinitive tnood. 
By other insertions, we obtain words denoting totally diflerenl 
and unconnected ideas, such as ram, rrin, rOam, or new* ; 
and it is somewlat exuaonliiiary that the first atvd second of 
ihejc words sound precisely alike, and can only be diffcrc 
tiaicd or disdngui^ed to tbe ear by the context in wbi 
they are ascd. They are distinguished to the eye by a 

' Tlie encnniE et]mDloi;:lcti dcUght in it:iioFinj; the vowdL Thxj 
wouM icU ■» Ihat i rein jfuldci ■ b-nc In runmnx, <it tiM nam w m 
ttlled bteanie dip nuiic irnt* nm or Hoit ouiljr, Ac, JCc Sotfa ■!» 
w4!tla ue ttiU ntwrcd, I fbll; belkve, almost ctay day. u ksd la 

I casual 
becD < 
Tbe i 



casual and unmeaning diflereuce in »pdling, which has only 
becD otXKincd by altciing ihc epcllin); of M. K. rtin to rtuJt. 
Tbe etymological distinction is obtained only by the dis- 
covery that rain is of English oii^n, whibt rtia is Frencli. 

{ 88. Bd£1u1i Dot dorivod tcoxa. Oomuui. Wc have 
also Eccn in the last Chapter that the history of the vowel- 
sounds of many purely English words can be carried bock, 
luactically, lo about the ctghlh century. We ihUK find, for 
CXtmpfa, thai the sound of o in slone has descended from 
(hat of 4 in il4n. The next (jue^tion for consideration is 
plainly this: what do n-c know alwut tlm A.S.tlf Can we 
by any means trace back its history still further ? Wc have 
no Eiigiiih records iliai can help ua here ; it only remans to 
Be« if any help can be obtained fioni any external source. 
This leads us at once to a previous question— is English an 
isolated language, or are there other langtiages rebled to \\i 
Tbe ihhiU ansver that generally occun to the popular mind 
is one ibat ignores about six-sevenths of the truth, and is, in 
ibe main, grossly nuNleading. All diat many peojile can tell 
as is that, by some occult process, English is 'derived 
from German.' fr/ / < r» / 

$ &4. Tbis mistake Is due to a strange jumble of ideas, 
ami has done immense harm lo the ttudy of English ety> 
moiogy. Yet il is so common that I have often beard 
something wiy like it, or statements practically based upon 
this asstunptioi], wen &om the b'ps of men whotc course of 
'clasncal' studies sbould have Uught them better. Ask what 
is the etymology of itie Knglinh iitt, and not unfiequently 
ibe reply will be, expressed viih a conleinptuoas confidence, 
that ' il comes from tbe German Mistn,' as if iArre, at any 
rate, is an end of llie matter I II does not occur to some 
men to enquire by what process a i has been de^-eloped out 
of a douUe f ', nor b any account made of a possible allinity 

' As > ha, tbe dnclopmcnl li the oihcr ^ny, the Gtnaui ti bilug 
doc la tlu <vtste1 TcMOiiic l, wlilcb *eiln uuwci* 1« an A>7aa i. 



of ihe word with Latin and Sanskrit. It is easy lo s«r bo* 
thb singular idea arose, viz. from Ihe persistent use \s$ 
Gcmutns of the word Gtrmank to cxpieSK what is better 
called ■ ihc Teutonic group of languages.' By a confiuioo 
natural to half- knowledge, the English pofmtar ruind his 
rushed to Ihc conclusion that what halt thus been calkd 
Grrmanif b all one thing with what we ikw call ' Gcrmsn,' 
whcreaii the two things [m)>lied arc widely different. A liule 
attention will preserve the reader from malcing tliis mistake 

{ 66. Thg Teutonic Group of Langungc*. A carcAd 
cotnparlaon of English with other languages shews that it] 
does not stand alone, but is closely related to many others. 
Our modcm/rw/, K. ^./Sl, is expressed in Gothic \iy /otus,'\n 
Old Kriesic and Old Saxon hy /it, in Swedisli by/b/, m 
Danish \>y/od, in Icelandic hy /6tr, in Dutch by tw/, in Low 
German (Bremen) \>y /eol, and in German hj/uss. Accord- 
ingly, all these languages and dialects are, in this case, 
obviously allied [» each other, and wc might hence Infer 
(correctly, as it happens) that Ihc fundamental base of the 
word is obtained by combining r, long o, an<I t; omitting 
for the present ibe question ns to whether any older form of 
the word can In any way be traced. We might also infer thai ^ 
Dani.ih hns a liiibit of turning llnal / into d, tint Dutch Ins a«| 
habit of turning initial _/inio i', an<l tliat Gernun luis a habit ^ 
of turning final f into as. But if the modem German has a 
habit which so obscures a word's true form, and so di^uises 
its original type, surely it be but a poor guide, and indeed, 
the roost misleading of the whole set. A similar eurotna* 
lion of a targe number of words will deepen iha impression ; 
and it may, for the purposen of Knglith philology, be Eiirly 
laid down chat, amongst the whole scries of Teutonic lan- 
guors, German (in its modem form) is practically the wvrtt 
guide of all b tkt tminitinUJ, tliougti it can l>e put to esccl- 
Icnl use by students who know how to inietp<ot the roodem 


EAST rEuroffic. 


fonns whkh its words assume'. According to the latest 
method of dinsion, the Teutonic languages have been divided 
into two btanthcs, vit, the Ea« and West Teutonic •. The 
East Teutonic Unguages are Gothic (now extinct) and those 
of llw Scandinavian groujv Tliis group containjt two sub* 
davnions, viz. ihc eastern, comprising Swcdisli and Daniitb, 
and the western, comprising Icelandic and Old Nornegian. 
Th« West Teutonic brunch all ilie rest, viz. English 
with its older forms, such an Northumbrian, Mercian, and 
Anglo-Saxon; Frisian (wliich, together with English, sectns to 
form a se|>araie branch); Saxtin or Low German; Frankish 
(including Dutch); and Upper German or High German. 
There were numerous other dialects which have died out 
wkbout Icavinf; sufficient niatcriala for their linguistic classifi- 
cation. A few words concerning the principal languages of 
ibis group may be useful '. 

§86. East Teutohic Gothic. Gothic, or, as ii is also 
caUcd, Moe&o-Gothk, being the extinct dialect of the Western 
Gotlis of Dacia and Mocsia, provinces situated on the lower 
Danube, is the oldest of tlie group, and ihe most perfect in 
lis inflexional fona». This must be onl^ taken as a general 
I statement, for it is not uncommon for otlier languages of Hx 
group to exhibit older forms in spcda) instances. The 
titeniry documents of Gothic reach bade to the fourth ccn- 
ceniUTjr, and arc of «;ry great lingtiisiic value. The chief 
work in Gothic is a translation of parts of the Bible, made 
abotu A.D. 350 by Wulfila, bishop of the Moeso-Goihs, better 

■ I cooilnae to icuiic Icllvn aMcnln); thai our ffiiliwitJtty U dc- 
rll«J tnm Ibc moitnt Gcimm Pfingtitn. I itn u>lil, pracllollj, that 
tlK hiittry of ibe word »nd phearlit ia^'s ooghl ocruint; W be utglccttil, 
b»C*«»P ll 11 Ul ■)tnkiu* (act which ought oa no ftccounl to be COD- 
mdicUtl. All {irvof is withbcld. 

» Called £aii ui) W«j Gamftole by German writers, becauMi Gn- 
toaa it, with tbcni, conicndre wlih Teutonic 

* CoanfOic Monii, Outline* of Kng. Aocidmcc, ( g : and jiartJcDlttlj 
The \Miiorj of tbe Genuan Ldosuagc, hy U. A. Strons and K. Mc^ei, 



[Cur. Vl. 

known u Ulphilas, (houg:h this form is merdj k Gred> 
corruption of his Gothic name. The most important of the 
MSS. dates from the sixth century. The great antiijuily of 
Gothic )^ve» it a peculiar vahie, and tlie student of Engtidi 
dyiDology can hardly do better than gain tome acquaintance 
with it aa soon as possible. It is by no means difficnll to an 
Englishnun, owing to the very close relationship in many 
funiiamrnUl particulars lietween the two UnguAgcs'. 

Svedisli and CaniBh. These arc national aod litcraty 
languages, best known in their modem form. Neither of 
' them poetess monuments of any remarkable antiquity. 

loQluictio. The numerous remains of the early Icdandic 
literature arc of the highest value and interest to EngliahnMin. 
and the language itself is still in full activity, having sultetcd 
but very slight diangc during many centuries, owing to lU 
secure and isolated positioru Its great interest lies in ihc 
fact that il dots nal greally differ from, and, /or frotticai 
^rpoKi, fairly refirtsMts Iht laitguagt of Iht ^Id Danft n-bo to 
frequently invaded England <luring many centuries before the 
Conquest, and who thus contributed a considerable number 
of words to our literary language ', and many others to our 
provincial diakcls, especially Lowland Scotch, Yorkshire, 
and Kai^t Anglian. With n few important exceptions, the 
cxlani MSS. arc hardly older thin tlic fourlecnth century, 
but the forms of the Language are very arclok. One great 
value of Iccbndic is iliat it comes in to suj^y, especially as 
regards the vocabulary, the loss of our old Nortbumbrian 
Htcraiure. The old Danish {a; preserved in Iceland) and 
our own Anglian or Nonhumbrian must have had much in 

* See B7 cdilkn of the Goipd of Saka Mitk Id CotUc (CUivnicn 
PraMSvin), iMcndcd m an Plenntaiy bouk fut bcgbncn. AikI ■««, 
•■ the wkofe fDbfNl, LectoK V ■ Mu Miiller'* Lectsra no Uie Sckaco 

* The pcopk wbo derive til Ehi^iA ftooi Gcnnan dnddet M the 
Un of dnttiaj- Cat[IUh won]* (rom Usbiullc. Iltte Ibe; ue vtiwc 



tpssr TBUTomc. 


common. 7*bc Icelandic has onen been called Old Norse, 
bat Norse b & name ubicb strictly means Nonve^an, and 
tboold be avoided u lilid}> to lead to ambiguity. 

§ 87. West Teutomic. Anglo-Saxon. Tlii» \a* been 
explained abeadx> lu cKhibiiing tin- old<-sl form of KnglUb 
in ibe Souihcrn ot Wcssex dialect. Tbe MSS. are numerous; 
many arc of great importance, and llie oldest go back to 
tbc nghlh century at least Old Knglish comprises the 
ficaaly remains or Old Northumbrian and Old Mercian as 
well a» tlic abundant remains of Anglo-Saxon, 

Old Frieaio. Ttiis language is dosely allied to Anglo- 
Suor; perhaps still more ctoitely to the Old Mercian. 
•Tbe Frisians of ibe conlinrm,' sap Max MClller, 'had a 
Biersture of their own as early, at least, as the twelfth ccn- 
varf, if not earUer. Tbe oldest literary documents now 
extant dale from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.' 
Notwiihstanding ibis comparative lateness of dale, the forms 
of tbe langnage are often very archaic 

Old Soxoo. This is the name usually given to the old 
dialect of Westphalia, in which the oldest literary document 
c£ continental Low-German is written. It is called the 
HeliaiMl, i. e. the Healing one, the Saviour, and is a poem 
founded upon the Gospel hisiory. It is 'preserved lo us,' 
B73 Max MQller, 'in two MSS. of the ninth century, and 
ms written at that time for the benclil of the newly con- 
verted Saions.' 

DQtch. This is still 'a national and literary lanf^uage,' 
>nd 'can be traced back to literary documents of the 
Ihinccnth century.' Closely allied to Dutch is the Flemish 
of Flanders; and not very far remowd from this is the 
dialect of Bremen, which is worthy of particular mention '. 

Qermsn. Tbc particular language now usiully called 

* b tay Diclioatry, I have niod the tcnn 'Lo«>Gennan*ln ■ ift€i«i 
MwM, M bu loaf been uiuu! , wlih irfcicncc to the ircak Imawti u Ou 
bcBCB Wuitcibod, jiiimcd m 17O7, ia five TolBmCi. 




Gcman is commonly called High German by phUologbia. 
It was foimerly considered as standing ajKirt from 
other languages of the Teutonic group, because of its 
mn;irliable diversity from the TtM as regards the consonants 
which it nov employs. The remarkable fbrrnnfai of oaor 
sonantal Bound-^tflings usually called * Grimm's Law' pn- 
supposes that tlie High German occupies a class by iiselt 
But Ihis apparent diversiiy b really dcluxivc, liccMtse it is 
only the more modern fonn of the language which eshibiu 
Kucli cliancteriKtic I'aibtioRt. In the dghih century, or M 
any rate in Ihc seventh century, Ihc German consonantal 
system agreed sulficiently closely tvj^h that of the otbcf 
Teutonic languages ; but this 1.1 do longer the case in Ibe 
modern Kiage of the language. 'If we compare lilnglid 
and modem German, wc find them clearly distingui^e^Hj 
from each other by regular phonetic changes '.' One wooM^ 
think the diflcrence is so marked that it cannot wdl be 
mistaken ; yet ii is a curious example of the force of | 
error, thai many students who are perfectly aware of 
material dilTerenoe between the two languages at onoe fo 
the fact as soon as ever English ct)'mology is discu^cd, and 
go on deriving bite from the modtrn German btiisen juM the 
aune as ever*. The High German is subdinded, chrvmh' 
gieally, into three stages — Old High German, from the se^<cntl^H 
lo tlie elei-erith century; Middle High German, from ihcH 
twelfd) to the fourteenth century ; Modem High German (<w 
German), from the end of the (burteeuib century to ibftB 
present time. ( 

§ 68. TeatODio ^pea. By coiiq)aring all the above 
varieties of Teutonic, we can practically construct, at least 
as far as relates to the forma of many words, an original 

' Morrii, Hiu. OotllBet of £. AecUmcc. { 10. 

* In the CAriitiaa It'erU of Jnlj 9, t SS$. a wrr^'ODieat touf 
tbM a leformcd ipellinx would looMii ' iLe tla ihat Uad tXB ' 
lo the Gerouu wboioc it ounc*-' 




Teutonic vocabulary which shall rqircBent and include lite 
whole serirx. Tlie fomiit thus obtained &re caltc<l 'Teutonic 
types ' or ' ttcms>' and are of high value for Uic purposes of 
etymology. In coosinicting them, wc must talte into account, 
DOl merely the mononyllabic Ikwc ' of each mbstantive, such 
u rfir iax ftot, but the vovcl-suRix which delennincd the 
character and manner of its deden&ion. The type of a 
substantive, thus obtained, may be called it--» stfut. I define 
a ^tm of a substantive as the (usally loonosylUbic) bast 
with the addition of the suffix which determines ilie character 
of iu dcclciwion*. Tlie exact weaning of ihii is best seen 
from an inspection of the modes of sub<<I»ntival declension 
in Gothic, which, on account of its antiquity and ^neral 
adherence (tn many particulars) to the earliest Teutonic 
word-fomtB, may frequently be taicn as the standard to 
vhic^ the oiheTB may be reduced. By way of further expla- 
nation, I quote the following (Kliglitly amended) from my 
IiUroduciiOD to St. Mark's Gospel in Gothic, p. xxiv:— 

' The Item' or crude form of a substantive is tlie supposed 
ordinal form of it, divv^ttcd of llie case-ending. To tbi» 
Stem the case-ending has been added, aficr which the case 
has frequently suiTcrcd dtgradalion, and appeals in a 
weakened form. Thus the sictii piska signifies 'fish,' whence 
was fonned the nominaiive fitka-t, afterwartls contracted to 
fith' I'his voxA fists belongs to what is called the A-form. 
«- A-dectensio« of substantives*. The vo\d/ool, Goili. iiom. 
/otfs, twtongs 10 the U-form, so that die true stem of the 

' I ilefinc ilic i<ti4 at a wcmt to be that jsit of it whicli ii Ifft vhai 
diratnl ufiufiitn. Tbui tbc base oi\at.fisc-i$, ■ lUh, b/iVc-. 

* Tinu, in the LaL nam. fiiiO, a titli, fiii^ i> the bsM, fini- ii the 
Mem, and -i li the oir-ciulln]; drnnitni; ihe ngmiuallTC oie. Thnr 
may not b« tht ben Icrmi, lini I fiail them nacfut. 

> Callal tmu In tiie paiucc bere qnoted- (I bate tincc fniuid It cea- 
veniaii to tetette the <ue of $Um unit iait at (onunlj j^ven by me.) 

* Soch U the accoaot xually \pyra Iu Gothic grummari. 'llie <li- 
clonloa mljEht mom oadly br dUol tli* 0.4(ClQnuoii, tod the Utm 




word is rflTP, which may be taken as the primilive Teutonic 
type of the word /oel. A large collection of Teutonic typ«i 
bo;h of Bubslantives and verbs, is given in ilie ^-cry valuable 
work of Fick, entitled * VCTglcicIicnd« Woncrbuch der 
Indogermanischen Spracben.' This book is especially ser- 
viceable to the student of Teutonic philology. Generally 
speaking, the English forms are tolerably dose to these 
archnic types, whilst the modern German frequently dcviatts 
from them in some remarkable way. It foUows from this, 
as a matter of course, thai whilst it is contrary lo all troe 
principles to itrivf Oiie modem Teutonic language from 
another, it would practically cause less error to derive Ger- 
man from Kngtiab than conversely. Those who think tl 
pntiteworthy to derive hilt from the German htitsttt* would 
do much better if they were to say that the German Uitta 
is from the E. bik ; and if they were to take into account ait 
older form of Kngliikh, and so dcri\« the G. heitsm from the 
A. S. UloMi they would do better still. In fact, Fick acluaDy 
gi("c8 bItak' as the Teutonic type of the infinitive mood of 
this vetb. 

$ 60. Totitoaic dontal sounds. The phonetic changes 
by which German is distin(::ui&hed from English were at the 
outset few, but afterward!) iKcarne e^vn more nunn-rous than 
tbcy arc now. Modem German has given up a few of the 
old distinctions, thus practically returning, in such respects, 
lo the ancient type. It will tlierefore l>e simpler lo leave oat 
of sight, for the present, such distinctions as no longer 
exist in qicUing, and to give examples only of such as still 

Tlic most important of these cbanges arc exhibited in 

■ 1 feel obliEw! to ccoiinne to protcM >£*uA thi* ehlldUh «mM be> 
canw 1 lind, \aj aperiencc, that h t« Att:\^f rootol, wtddy qii«u], and 
ex<iein«l)' mUdilevom. 

■ Tbe dtcnmSex oror iW I denote* Im^, i.«. It Iwt precl*cljr the 
Mone naloe at the went ovn t hi Mwt. 




^Budi n-ords as begin*, in English, witb the dental soiumIb 

Hirf, /, or th^. In Bud) woida, it is die Englisli which |mv 

KtervM iIk original Teutonic denials, and the German which 

^bu changed them into something; ebc. Thus GermaD has 

changed </ into / : / Into z (if / be initial ; otbem-ise it gener- 

ally employs m tne<liiitly, and a, t:, is or t finally, making 

four varieties of (be changed /); and tA into d. 

$ eo. Teutonic d becomes Oermao t. Initially ; as in 
I E. dim/A, G. 7W. Medially; as in M. M, G. a'Ul. FinaUy; 

IBS E. M, G. &a; E. rrf, G. rort'. In further niustraiion 
of these changes, see the numerous exain]>le3 collected in 
ArpsKBtx A. 

$ el. Teutonic t becomes Oermsn z, initially; or sa, 
medi&tly ; or i, ts, as, or s Qnally. Initially ; K. tanf, 
G. taim (]>ronounccd tsaam). Medially ; E. watrr, G. 
Wauer; E. nttHt. G. Nts»l. Finally (chiefly after /, r) ; E. 
sali, G. Sait ; E. htaH, G. /Tirrs ; or (chielly after a iJiort 
vowel), E. tul, G. .Vi-rt ; or (cliiefly after a long vowel), E- 
jchife. G. tm>/ ; or (rarely) E. ihai, G. das. But (he ftoal / 

^lE not changed when prece<led iiy E. gh, /, or j ; as in E. 

H^A/, G./teht-en ; £. efl.G.c/l; Y- gwsl, G. G«u/. Initial / 

Kremlins when followed \i^ r; as in E. tftad, G. irdm. For 

KfiuthcT examples f«c AprxKntx A. 

HI § 63. Tentonio th beoomos Oormon cL Initially ; E. 
ihartk^G.dank-tn. Medially; Y-. fi<tlhtr,G.F<dtr. Finally: 
E. A"**. G. ^rf</. Rut O. H. G. d&sunt, answering to F^ 
ihmiand,'^ vav tcuunJ. Ii is amusing to find that beginners 
frequently found (Iteir Ideas of the resemblance of English to 
GcTman upon the word iuUer, G. Buller ; but it ha]>[)ci» 
tli4t this is a non-Teutonic word, being of Greek origin. 

I Simiki ehangn oAm loJce place trbeo Ibe dental lellabotfriDtcial; 

' Till* it a tlmplo •amd, aurkwanlly denoted by ibe luc or ttec 

* The G. ti b (now, nt nay mtc'' noibing but > /, and ii to proncraiioed. 
Mndcn G«niMB ipeUlns-reformeit wrjle ret for tvtA, ray Mntibly. 



(Cur. Tl. 

Funber QhistraliORS will be foand in Arrastsnx A. The 
remarkable exceptions to tbc general law which sue piv- 
senled l^ ihc E. /athrr and molhtr (G. Vakr, Muittr) an 
diKQSsed below in Chapler IX. 

$ eS. Toatonio labial s<nmd*. The changes !n ihe 
dental letters d, f, l/i, nbich distinguish German from English 
«])elling, are thus seen to he tolerably rej^ar and complete. 
Less complete arc the changes in the labial lelten, viz. i,p, 
/ (:i). For a Teutonic b, the O. H. G. often has p, as in 
pruoder, lirotlier; but tlii» dislinclion is not made in the 
modem kitguage. German often ttiras p into /^ as to E. 
path, G. Pfad; E. appU. G. Apfil; but most English words 
beginning with /, and most German words befi^nning wilh 
pf, arc non- Teutonic. The most regular dunge is in the 
sntistitution of German/" for the Teutonic^ final. 

BxMnplw: deep, lit/; heap, Hauf'i; leap, lav/-m\ 
sharp, icharf) sheep. S<haf; sleep, v., tthiof-tn , ihoip, 
Dor/; up, au/. Occasionally the/ is doubled ; as in hope, 
hoff-fn : ship, Sehiff. 

\ M. The Teutonic y) when initial, usually remaitts as/ 
in German. The Old Hi;;fa Gcnnan frequently has e> for 
initial/ and a few archaic forms tiiU presen-e tins peculiariiy 
of spelling, though the v is pronounced precisely a» E. / 

Bzampleai (ather, Vakr', fee, Vkk. The English/, 
when final, usually represenu a Teutonic v, and appears as 
G. ^ ; as in E. dtaf, G. lti»A. Sec Appemdix A. 

§ 66. Teutonio guttural ROtindB. Tbc Tcut. guttural 
MWnds^, k, k usually appear unchanged in modem Gcnnan. 
The O. II.G. has k (or g, as in iant, cognate wttli K.g«os*; 
bat this distinction ia no longer made. Tbc M. E. (obeoletc) 
guttural aound still lepa-^nted by^A in oiu- modern spcUtii 
answers to G. M ; as £. %^/, s^ G. Lieit. We may notic 

' The 5L H. kp*^t, A. S. kUapan. often neasa ' to nm,* like itte 



insunccs ia which Tcut. final k becomes G. fA; aa 
in E. hreak, G. krtcktn; sci- Ai-pexi>ii A. 

j ee. English nod Oomuui. It will probably haw 
been observed that, in some words, two changes have taken 
plaoc. Thus, in the word Aorp, the initial th lias become d 
in Gennan, vihiUt the final p lus become /; the German 
form beinjT Horf. But, as these changes arc in ftccprdance 
with rule, no difficulty arises. There is a matter of more 
importance, vijt. the question of %'owel-soiiiidM, ujiun which I 
H have ahvady eiukavomccl to laj- much »trcM. It is easy 10 
sec ihc relation between thorp and Darf, because the identity 
of the vowd-soun<b is obvious. But let it be noted that, in 

Imtry pair of equivalent English and Gennan word$ quoted 
above, it is absolutely esscniial that Ihc original identity of 
the vowel-sounds must be capatile of beitig csLablislied '. 
U^ for example, the G. Ftus is really equivalent to the E. 
foot, U is not enough to say that the change from / to u is 
regular; we must further invvsiigate tlie ineiining of the G. 
long u. By tracing the word b£ickward3, the O. H- G. formsi 
arc found to \x fuH*, fuaz. fnas, fiz, so that the vowel was 
once a long 0; and as the A. S. tf>r/ool is /St, the vowcl- 
toundH arc equivalent. In precisely the same way it may be 
&Iiewn that K. do = A.S. d^n, whilst O. H.G. sliews the 
changed or ' shiAcd ' form tin, also written toon, luatt, luoii, 
mod. G. Mm; and again, that an original Teutonic long is 
ibe vowel-KKUid common to the following pairs of words, 
viz. E. iltod, G. Blut; E. brood, G. BntI; E. hood. G. Hul\ 
^E. rood, G. Ritth-t\ TL/other', G. Fitder; see | 74. In all 

^B^ ■ TbiT« Kn name ctcc[>t]o(ii, cla« to wlixi is c«1Ui1 viiuvl-eraduion. 
I^EBnt ilitn ue nila ia th.ii cmc ■!«». The subject will be mnuinl wlicii 
vowel -iiriiilatiMi hta b«cD cxpkincd. 

* KiiUcc the final t, wliicli I* ihc mait rtgular Getmaii rabttltatioii 
kilLt. TV (i. : It, ia &uX Bunnilixl as ti, nod is nothlug bot ± kind 
oil to vUdi B pondtic itbilaat toimd hu been added. ' • :• ' ', ^ 

* The mod. E./itier b almoct obwUlc ; horcvct die # may now be 
•osnilnl. It WM oace tmif, the A- S. tana being/lCtr. 

G I 




Other itimilar ca»e8, certain relations between E. and G. vowel- 
eoiuids can be cstabtished by Investifpiiin^ tlie sounds in A.S. 
and O. H. G. When this has been done, so lliat ibc ultimate 
and original identity of the E. foot with G. F»tt hM been 
fully demonstrated, we can Ihen say that either of these wordi 
is cogkate' with the olhcT, i.e. ultimatciy identical, or ai 
least very closely related, at a remote (and indeed a pre- 
historic) period. This is a point whidi muse be very cleaily 
understood before any true ideas as to the rcUtionshtp of 
words can be formed. If we say that the Y..fo6t is dermd 
from the G. Fius (as is actually said by many), we ate then 
talking nonsense, and contradicting all history; if wc say 
that the G. fuss is dtrivtd from tlie 'E./cot (as is never sacA 
by any, because Englishmen dare not lay so^ and Germans 
know belter), we tire talking a Irific more sensibly, and con* 
tradicting history a little less. Wc must, however, use ncitbci 
phrase ; wc must drop the Icrm ' derived ' altogether, and 
employ ilie term ' cognate.' It follows thai Kngli&h and Gei- 
man are sislcr-languages, as they arc rightly oilkd. 1'hoagh 
orig^inally of twin birth, time has treated them diffciently; 
we might say that English ha.t presen'ed the features of the 
mother more exactly than German has done. Similar re- 
marks apply to all the other languages of the Teutonic 
group. They are ali risters ; but the features of Gcnnan are 
more altered than those of the rest Such cognation or 
sisterly relaiionsliip is a totally different thing from derivation ; 
for the latter term impUe* an actual borrowing. 

§ 67. English words borrowed fVom Qenawi. It 
is true, however, that l^nglish has aflually bomwtd a few 
words from German in quite modem times. This is 
altogether a differeni maucr, and in such cases the word 
* derived' can be correctly emplo)-ed. As tliis matter ii one 
of conadcrabic interest, and it vill greatly dear ap the whole 

* Alcnn ofLu. orit.'in, ineaQine'co-boni.'M iprang (Mm the 
Mvrcc; icIUed tu brotbcn or lUCcn we. 




matter to shew the nature of these borrowed or derived 
words, 1 bcrc subjoin the whok Itat of E. words direeily 
derived frora Gercnan, copU-d from my Etymological 
Dictionary. Tbe list is as follows: — Bitmulh, eatntlUa, 
Duteh./fldtpar^/iuhsia.fygkman.gntiis, ho(k (wine), huseah, 
itmdau, nauitlKi, mttrtcAaum', mesmrriu (with French xufFuc), 
plunder, p90JU, ymarlM, shah, ni'indltr, Irttll, waeke, waJtt, 
wkttdU (?), WW. To ihcsc may be added vtnttr, a French 
word in a Gennanlsed form ; and a few Dutch words, vii. 
dtMSfar, rix-<hllar, rich, uiiuaerc, borrowed by Dutch from 

This is a nrj remarkable list, as the words are all of 
ino<Icm date. No less than live of tliem, fitdspar, gnojt, 
juatia, shaJe, watk, are terms of moclcm geology ; bismuih, 
.tutf, are metals; Aaei, landau, are mere place-names; 
^keanullia,/u(hiia, nusmtriu, arc from personal names. There 
H b Mp/ ftitgif Wfrd in ibc whole of the English language' that 
f out be shewn to have been borrowed dirtclly from Gccnian 
before- A. D. 1550. There arc. however, some which have 
been borrowed indirt(Uy, through French, from various 
Gennan dialects; this is merely iieveral French 
words are of Frankish or old Danish origin, having been 
iisported into Frajice by Teutonic invaders and conquerors, 
H48 will be duly explained when we come to treat of French. 
Tbe real use of the cognate Gcrmao forms is that ihey help 
us tu the consuuction or inx^stigalion of ]>rimitive Teutonic 
types and ' bases.' 
k I 88. Oosnate words. The occurrence of consonantal 
Bcbange^ in (lerman words, whereby they exhibit deviation 
from ibc Teutonic types, is called stiimxo, or in German, 
iXAWtvrfr^V^wV (sound-shifting). Thu», in Uic Teut. type 

' ^r«naaii«td mttrAum, with iv u Jit <rrr lOi[llvic)i irhcTcu tba 
, M RMiiibIca ai in hait. Tbo Tact, ibti wc on Iho* alter % Gennan 
ad tlnoU at «oc«, b«lF« ut lu umlcnniuii] tlut we hare kitend 
Jle Eni^Ul toimd* In the ooone of ccalurin. 



[Cmu-. vt: 

fAtu, 'E./mI, the / ha*, in Genrian, tMfltA lo », Uler « ; tbr 
Genmn word being Fuss. Ai the Englnh ko rrrqumtlf 
prcKrvcs Uie Teui<>nic consonant intact, it is in Ihia Tes]>eci 
more primitive tbdo Gemiiu]. But we cannot txy tbii 
German words are ' derived ' from Enf^lLih, Iwcausc it ohvn 
happeni, on the contrary, that modem German preserves the 
original vowel-«ound intact, where (be English has altered h. 
Thus (he E. heap (A. S. Map) answer* to a Teutonic type 
HAuro (Pick, iiL 77), O. H. G. hau/, hmft, mod. G. Hanfe; 
and in many olhcr cases the German TOvrel-sound i« more 
primitive llian ihc English. By such considemtione the true 
sisterly relationship of English to German is fully established ; 
i. e. wc can only, in {general, coniJdcr pairs of related words 
as being <ogtuite. 

% 68. In precisely the same way. wc can only say that ibe 
¥../boI and Golhieyo/ar are cognate ; wc must not talk about 
English words as being ' ticrivcd ' from Gothic. Yet Gothic 
13 so archaic, that it often preserves the ori^nal Teutonic 
type correctly, as in this very word /otu-t, where s \* merely 
the suHix peculiar to the nominative case. It must also be 
rcDQombcred that modem German is the only Teutonic 
language which shews a shifting of consonants (sudi at </, /, 
th, Ac.) from tlie original Teutonic type. The other Teutonic 
languages commonly resemble both English and Gothic in 
their use of consonants ; the chief exceptions being that. In 
Danish, a final k, t, p,/, are commonly ' voiced,'' and apprJu 
as g, d, i, and v ' ; whilst initial th commonly appears as / in 
Dani»li and S«edi.«ti, an<l as 1/ in Dutch*. Hence loosi other 
Teutonic Languages present, lo the e)^, a more familiar 
appearance than German does. Vet few notice tins, because 
they seldom make the comparison till ibcy have partially 

'Co M o na ua are either 'TO}crftw.'««t./,/./&c.; or'wHoed.' Tile 
ncHiInK oJiMi dlnlDctioa wll] be cxpUiaed licmifler. 

Sved. tfnf^: Xhii.tcnti Dn. 4mit. 




Icami German, and at ibe same lime neglccted Uie rest. If 
an Englbhnum were 10 learn Dutch or Danish >?/*«/, he would 
find either of them easier tiian Gcnnan, as be could more 
oHcn gve» U the meanings of the «-ords. Surely the Dutch 
and Danish 4aad are more like our diid than is the G. That. 

5 70. If the reader will kindly refer to the beginning of 
this Clupter, be will see (j 53) that the ori};l"^ question 
wiih which we elartcd was this, vii. What can wc find out 
about the A. S, 6, or sboui any other of the A. S, long vowel- 
sonnds? Thia i>rob!cm has not lieen lost night of for a 
moment, but it was absolutely necessary to consider other 
questions l>f the way. Wc have now considered ihei«e 
tuffidently to enable us to proceed wiUi it. By way of 
digresEKO, in sections 64-ii9> we have seen (i) that KogUsh 
b not derived from German except in a few moilera in- 
Mances of word-borrowing ; (j) ttiat German is neither the 
sole ^hrr Teutonic language, nor our easiest guide; (3) 
thai we ought rather to consult, first of all. such biiguages as 
the extinct Gothic, ilie monuments of 01<1 Fricsic and Old 
SaioD, and the modern or old forms of Dutch, Icelandic, 
Swedish, Danish ; (4) that German is distinguished from all 
the rest by certain curious consonantal shiflirifrv, whicJi ha%'c 
been sufficiently exemplified ; (s) that, from a comparison of 
all llie Teutonic languages, primitive Teutonic types of words 
can be, and Iuk^ been, deduced ; and (A) tlut tlic relation of 
English 10 all the odier Teutonic languages is, speaking 
generally, that of a sister to sisters ; English being a language 
which, so to speak, has fairly well preserved many of the 
more striking features of the primitive Teutonic mother- 
tonguc. Wc now proceed to consider the value of the A. S, 
long a, or &. 

%1\. A.S. & = Tent, ai (r&rely 6). 

'a) To take a q>ecial Instance, the E. ttotit answers to A. S 
; see § 4a. Otlicr forms are Iliese : Gollj. ilain'S, nom. ; 
tUtM ; lecl. tlann ; Dan. tUu ; Swcd. siea ; G. SUin, Prom 



[Our. VI. 

a comparison of all tliese forms, and consideration of a \ugfi 
numlicr of otlicr A. S. words containing (he fame symbol A, 
and by calling in the aid of phonology '. it has been con- 
cluded iliat tlie primitive TcuL sound was thai of Ita]. a 
followed by Ital. t, thus producing the diphiliong at, the 
sound of which b not very far removed from that of nod. £■ 
long t, as heard in lint, minf, Ihini; though perhaie the 
ini-sound should be heard a Utile more cJearly. The priini> 
tire Teutonic type is staiko, it being a masculmc sobstaniivc 
of the tt-dcclcnsion ; cf. Kick. iii. 34;. Judging from this 
example, we should expect to lind, at least in many cases, 
that the A. S. if corresponds to Goth, at, Du. m, Icel. ei, Dan. 
' (long), Swed. e (long), G. it; and wc shall find that thc«e 
equivalent vowels occur, tn the various languages, witb sur* 
prising regularity. I give half-a-dozen examples: — 

I. E. iDk^t. A.S. Ml, Goth, hail't*, Du. httt, Icel. ktai, 
Swed. htl, Dan. httlj G. hiil : Teut. type haOjO (Pick, 
iii. 57)'. 

J. E. dde, A.S. ddl, Goth, dail-s*. Du. dttt, led. diila, 
Swed. dti, Dan. 4«i, G. Tktil\ Tout, type daiio (id. iii. 

3. E. ealh, A.S. df>, Golh. aith~t\ Du. te-i, led. t^r, 
Swed. a/, Dan. id, G. Eid: Teut. type AtTBO (id. uL 4). 

4. E. hoi, M. E. keet, A. S. hdl, Golh. (mis^ang), Du. htti, 
Icel. htitr, Swed. A-/, Dan. htd, G. An/*. Here, though the 
Gothic is missng, it would clearly have been 'hait-s: Teut 
type HAiTO (id. iii. 75). 

5. E, / BIO/, ^t.E. umt, A.S, wrf/, Golh. waif, Du. aw/, 

' Phoaoleor detU wUi the liutory of the ititmi$ wUch, in each lu. 
I^age, the wiltttn tyatitli ilenoic It Is kU-ttnpottaiii, bol It b cmIr 
to deal, ia ui dcmottuj liMtiie, wiih tbe wriitlw ^mbob- 

* The -4 ii merely Ihc nom. cmcmiISx. 

■ l^ck tin* ttw ITpa In the (aim* nAiLA, daila, ftc; b« the fimil 
tvsel oftheTcuL ijpc is cow niiMUy taken tube o; xeSievert. Hence 
the tTpe* dionld niha be wrklcn a« iiailo, dailo, Atmo, UAmt, ^ 
WAIT, RAiru, 




MBce). ttit. Swed. tv/, Dan. vttd, G. vxissx Teut t)-pe watt 

M O. »l. 304). 

^B tf. E. rtyw, A.S. ri^, Goth- raip (in the comp. siauda-raifi, 
HR. a -iJioe-tif, hucliet of a tlioe), Du. »-«^, Iccl. rti/>, Swcd. r*;^, 
::^ Dan. rtl>, G. fli-y (a hoop, ring. gomctimcB a rope) : Tcui. 
KAiPO (id. iii. 247). 
It i» ea&y (o siec Trom (hcse examples Uiat tlic Teutonic 
vowel-sounds cAn often be cioctly analysed, and wc ue 
]^nerall>' able <o account Tor any slight deviation Tiom 
rcguUnly. Thus the E. Acnif, A. S. idm, Gulb. haims, should 
answer 10 Dan. fitm or hum ; but the Dan. form is hjem. 
irbcfc the j U plainly an tnseriion, indicating a parasitic 
|Somid of short i introduced before the long t. 

{i) Teat. fl. BqI there are other cases in which the sounds 

Doding lo A. S. if are so different that the original Teu- 

sic sonnd cannot have licen a». Sucb a case is seen in K. 

t/, A. S. idl (do Gothic form), Du. boot, Iccl. bda-, Swed. W, 

, iaadiflx G. Boffi bcini; borrowed from Dutch) : Tcui. 

: dXto (Fick, itt. 300), tliough it should rather be written as 

>; cf. Sievcrs, O. E. Grammar, $ 57, where be insUDces 

.S, m4g-it, pi. kinsmen, ag cotnparcd with Icel. mdg-r, 

ISwed. mSg, Dan. maag, Goth, intg-s. Here tlie A.S. d 

\ wiswen to Teut- / (long r) ; but the history of this word is 

obscure, its origin being quite unknown. But certainly the 

moil usual oh^ijial value of A. S. i is Teui. ai. 

§ 72. A. S. d oommoDlsr oriAos from Tout, d (long o), 
Lttnless it is due to oontraotioQ, 

(n) Certain A. S. words cotitaiiiing long ( require individual 

lion ; the long t seeming to arise from contraction. 

'Thus E. iw=A, S. nv; answers to Goth, wm, a fuller form. 

(J) In otlier cates, / occurs as a variety of a more usual 

fy\ as in &Ct, high, usually iUixh; n/h, nigh, usually lu^; 

such n-ords are best considered togetlier with those ibat 

contain /•>. 




frequently arises rrom x changed fonn of oHfpna] 6, as 'at/il, 
feet, pi- ot /SI, foot. This [wcnliar dian^ is dac to what it 
specifically called vxrttmo^ (in GcnnaD umltuii). a subject of 
such impoHaoce ibai it wilt be specially coDHideied >fler- 
waixl*. By way of example, we may notice /£ (as above), 
pi. f>i fSt, fool ; I0X teeth, pi. of 163. tooth ; gft, gccse, pi. t5 
gSt. goose; lUm-an, to dc«m, derived from the sb. ddm, 
doom; k(d-an, to bleed, from tlie six hHi, blood; ^//, 
glee^ a glowing coal, from the verb gUwan, to gfow. 
Similar examples are rather numerous. Comparing ibc E. 
fttl with other languages, we rin<l iliat Cotliic and Dutch 
keep tbc <[-\'owel unchanged, as in Goth, fi/ftu, pt- ol/olux; 
T>u. rot/en, pi. of voet. But Iccl. /Sir has pi. /ttr (written 
ToT/irfr); Swcd. /f/has pL_/o//^; Dan. /aJ lrA» pi./dddtr; 
G. Fuis has pi. Flhse. lienoe, in this instance, A. S. / is 
(Kjuivaleni to Iccl. ir {tr), Swed. and Dan. a, G. S, routaiioRS 
respectively of Iccl. rf. Swcd. and Dan. o, G. «. 

§ 73. A.S. I = Teat. 1; unloM it is dae to oontraotloiL 

(a) The A.S. f i» coniinonly an original sound, represent- 
ing ft in iff/. In Gothic, it in written ei, \nji the same sound 
is meant. Dutch denotes the long i by tj; mod. German 
denotes it by tt; Iiut KnglitJi, Dutch, and Gennan have all 
altered the original sound, with the same final result. Thai 
is to say, tlie Du. rj and G. ti are non' sounded like E. i' in 
mi'ie, hut the original sound was like the A. S. / in ar//, i. e. 
as in E. infa/. This parallel development of sotmd in ihreo 
separate languages is ctirioiis and interesting. Jkleanwhile, 
the Scandinavian languages have preserved the oM soond; 
the Icrl. /, Swcd. and Dan. long / being still pronounced 
as ff in ifff. 

Three enamples may suBic«. 

1. E. whir. A. S. ktii, Goth. itenTa, DtL irv/f, Ic«L ivffa 
(only in the special sense of rest, or a bed), Swcd. Avfla (rest). 
Din. AviJf (test), G. unAr(0. H. G. J^iia) ; I'cui. i>p« owtLo 
(Fick. iii. 75). 


a, E. wrillu, A. S. wriSan, (not in Gothic,) Iccl. fiSa 

lUial w being lost), Swcd. vn'da, Dan. vri4ie (not in Dutch 

' German) : Teut. type wxtiHAx (Fitli, lit. 309). 

3. £. rhymt, wrlach should be spelt rinu, A. S. rfw, Dn. 

f0^ Iccl. r/«d, Svred. rim, Dan. rfViw, G. y?«iw ; Tcuu type 


(S) An interesting instance in which long 1 arises TrOm 
contraction is seen in E./iv, A. ^./i/e,/i/, Du. vij/. Com- 
paring this with G./imf, O.H.G. fin/, Goth, fm/, we see 
that a li(|ukl ha* been lottt In con)<equcn<'c or ihin loss the 
short *', as seen in O. H. G. fin/, Goth. Jim/, has Iwcn 
agibened by what has been called the piiiiciiile of com- 
asalion; the lengtii of ilie voikel-sounti making uji, as 'a 
B, for the loss of the consonant. It is a gencnl rule that 
Dplc contraction commonly produces long vowels. Such 
ction may arise either from the loss of a consonant, or 
,' the conirtction of a diphthonir into a pure long vowel. 
§ 74. A. S. =Teut. 6 (lonj; o) or A (long e) ; mr is 
■ds to lout of n in on (for an). 

■ (a), Tlie A. S.^ commonly represents an original Teutonic 
i, which appears in Gothic as o ', in Dutch as iv, in Icelandic 
\ 6, in Swe<lish anil Danish \% o. aiirl in German as long u 
DCDClinKs written uH). Three examples may suffice. Com- 
K % 45. 

E. (iteo/. A,S. rW/, Goth. Hols, Du. .Uo,l, Icel. slSll, 
red. and-Dsui. xjW. G. iV«A/(aH.G. itml, ituO): TcuL 
: stOlo (Fide, iii 341). 
E. ^»/, A. S. A4/'{noi in Gothic). Du. Am/ Ice!. A^/r. 
krft Dan. Ai»p, G. /Aj/"; Tcui. type hAfo (id, iii. 80). 
£. br«llur, A.S. brSHor, Goib. Brelhetr, Du. iroftter, 
irS9tr, Sur-d, and Dan. trader, G. Brudtr: Tcut. type 
fAK (id. iii. 204). 
1(^) A.S. ^, before a following n, sometimes Stands for 

: GMliic ae«d) no ueent, u (like tiw Goth. <} it k alwqyi Ung, 



[ciuF. n 

W«t-Tcut A or general Teut. i; see Sievert, O.E. Gram. 
f 69. For the \-aIucs of Tcot. £ in different languages, sec 

I. E. spom, A. S. fulfil diroiwrly a cliip of wood), Du. 
tpaan^ IceL j/dinn, j^w, Swed. j/A», Dan, ^^n, G. A>i« 
(with long a), ^/^« (a diip, splinter): Teut. type wRxi 
(Fick. iii. 351), 

a. In the pp. of the verb to do, the A. S. ^n. done, answers 
to Du. gt'daan, G. ge-lhan, where llie original West-TrtiL 
vowel was plainly A (from common TcuL £). 

(r) A. S. ^ also results from the lengthening of a short e. 
by conijien.^iiiinTi for the loss of n in the comhination on, 
originally an. This happens when the an \% Ibllon'ed by t 
or k C^)- Thus g^, a goow, b for ^gons, a changed Ibnu o( 
gaHt\ as shewn by Du. and G. gam, a goose; Teut. type 
CAKSi (Pick, iii. 99). So also ti^, a tooth, i^ for *Aw/, ehanged 
form of lan/A ; cf. Du., Swed., Dan. Awrf; Teut type tamthv 
(id. iii. 113). And thirdly, 'E. Mer, A.S. ^er, is for *enfer, 
changed fonn of an3fr, as shewn by Goth, anihar, Du. and 
G. ander: Tcui. lypc astiiako {id. i. 16), 

{ 75. A. S. u=Teut. tl (loag a); or is duo to Io«v of 
n in MB. 

(a) The A. S. (i answers to Golh., Du,, Swed., I>an.. and 
G. It, IceL £; all long. See $ 46. 

Example : E. now, A. S. tuf, Goth, nu, Du. tm, Icct. m£. 
Swell. an<i Dan. nu, G. ntm (from 0. II. G. tui): Teut. >0. 

(i) We find also Du. w*, Dan. uu. G. au. 

Example: V,.foul.K.%.f&l, GotiL/uis, Du. viifl,lod./lUI, 
Swed./*/, Dan,/Mf/, G./aul: Teut. kOu» (Fick. iii. i86>. 

{e) The A. S. ^ also arises from loss of s to um (oltowtd 
by t ot Ik; compare the loss of n in mi (^om) in | 74. 
Thus £. ut, A.S. dt, b for *«ax, as shewn by Goth, and G. 
tins. Du. atts. Also E. ukuIM, A. S. m£^, is for 'munlM. as 

' A.S. mi it cocuUMly ttplsoed hj em; m often lind 4»b/ A 





shewn bjr Goth, muntht, Dan. and G. Mund, Du. nmd\ 
Teut lype montho (Kick, iii. aji). So iil^o K. tmid, mis- 
written for <md, A. S. fi^rr, is for 'cui^t ; cf. Goth, htniha, 
"thL Jtoiuff, Swcd. and DaiL Xwadr, G. iitMWic ; and, in fact, 
tlK M is prcxn'td in the present tan. And K. south, 

. S. Jift', is for ^sunth ; cf. U. H. G. iwi4, south, now tfid; in 
, the word soulk means the sunny quarter, and is a deri- 
vative of tun. 

§ 78. A. 8. ^ commonly arisea from Teut. (long u). 

(a) The A.S./, like the A.S. /(seel?*), arises from 
mtilation, but is modified from £ inElead of from long £. 
Tbua ibe pL of mCt, mouse, is mys, mice. 

SimHaLT modifications are seen in Icel. m&t, \>\. nyts, Swed. 
pl. mUsj; G.Maui, pl.Mdust; which shew that the 
A.S,y, in this case, is cquii-alem to IccL^, Swcd. 0. G. an, 

Aootber inicrcsting example is A. S. ey, pl. of rif, a cow ; 
Dan. tdrr, pl. of fc; G. A'aAr. pi. of fCuA. Here A.S. / 
answers to Dan. a. G. B. Cf. E. ii-Mt (p. 66, note a). 

{i}. It may also be observed here, that the A. S. jf also 
auiies lixxn a modification of <^ or A ; hut it will be found 
bcreaflcr, that these represent Teut. au and eu rcspcciivclj'; 
Kc {$ 77i 78. The net result is that/ always arises from an 
Ofiginal lonji v or from a <lipliihonj; containing v. 

} 77. A~ S. 6a commonly repreaents Tout. au. This 
is an tm^iottani and intere^iiiiii fiict. as it enables us to trace 
the derivation of many wonis which contain A. S. <& ; sec 
I 49. To lake an example; £. ttr/am, A. S. strfym, (do 
Gothic fonn,) Du. stroom, Icel. sfraumr, Swcd. and Dan. 
ttr6m, G. Slron (O. 11. G. itraum, j/rtrinit): Teut. type 
STKAVKO (Fick, iiL 349). We shall ftinhcr find, hcrcafler, 
that -MO in sTKAV-uo is a suffuc, and that the Teui. au arises 
from what is called a 'gradation'' or 'strengthening' of a 
primitive su; (hit would shew that strau-mo is founded 

' The term gndalioii wlD be fDlljr tiplalacil hereafter. Sec Clwp. X. 



[Cu#. VI. 

upon aTcul. rcoC&Tittu, wliicli ootuinly meant 'lo flow'; >o 
Uiai sirta-m merely mcuns ' that vfliich Qovnt.' 1 subjoin 
liucc oilier examples. 

E. fKof; A. S. h/ap, (no Gothic,) Du. k^. I«L hipr, 
Swed. hop, Dan. hob, G. Haiift : TeuL ly])e HAtTO (Fick, 


£. Mi/. A. S. /asl, Du. ivf/, lc«L autlr, Swcd. iVr^iii*), Diul 
m, G. Oj/, OjJ((h): Ttm. stem .*ts-TA-(Kiugc', s-v. OjAw); 
from the root vs. lo burn, ithine bi^lilly. 

K. ehntf, A. S. c/af, s. barlcr, Ou. /w^ S. a lutgnJn, led. 
ittuf/, s., Sn'cd. i{(^, ». Dan. isv6^, s., G. AVa/*, s. ; Goctuc has 
Uic verb kaupon, (o traffic, bitrgain. 

§ 7S. A. S. 60 commonly represents Teat, ea (Ootli. 

E. iu/(A(Ar), A.S. i^. Goth, liui-t. D«. A5/; Icel. lf£/-r. 
Swcd. ^, G. /i'<^ (O. H. O. liup)-. Teui. tjpe leubo (Fick. 
iii. 278). 

Y..frttu, K.%. fr&t-oM, Du. rrw«-*w, IcA. /tj&s-a, Swcd. 
/rys-a. D2LR./ryst, G./ritr-tn: TctiL lypc freus-ak (Fick, 
ill. 191). 

§ 78. A. 8. 16 commonly mrisiw from a mutatioD 
A.S. d. 

(<i). This will be more fully treated of bercafler ; It Duy 
»illicc lo say here that A. S. hMan, to heal, U a derivative oT 
h4l, nliole ; and that exampleii of this mutation, en modifica- 
tion of vowc[, are nomcnnis. 

{b). In some casea, i appears insmd <X4^ 

ihe ordinary rule* (or vowel- iiiuuiiOiii do not 

£. tta, A. S. fd, answers to Goth, sawa, sea ; ltM»i};h the 

Goth, ai comm<»i]y appears as A. S. 4. Sicvws (Gram. § 90) 

thinks that tlie mutation here points to the fact that iiawi 

amix, originally, luve belonged to the t'-dcclension. 

' SecKlaK?, KiyniiiloiriKhrBWortwbuch cUt Hcuiuhcn Sprtchc^ 1883. 

' Daa HbO a lur hi/, ■ Vor ptc£j^cd 1 ii dut h> > (MmUtc t tUpjwd la 

before the *. Cf. Dan, hjtm. p. 89, 

* There are raiiout (tomcvrliai troablnome) caiccpUoM. 






% so. Kdsults. Aa the resulit aboiv urive<j ai with rc|;sird 
to llic long vowels in the Tcrutonic languages will oricu be 
fouDd lo be useful, 1 here subjoin 2 tabic exhibiting the 
varioUR foruis of some of the moil tkaraeterislk words. It 
muM not be con.itdered a.s cxhi;i]si:ve, nor as exhibiting all 
the possible varieties ; it merely escmplifies such i-arieties ati 
are imm/ {^mm&a. Special words often present peculiarities 
which retjuirc special ireatmenl. I quote Low-Gcnnan 
forms first, then the iligh-OcnnaD, next, the Scandinavian and 
Gothic, and lastly tlie Teutonic types in capital lelten. 

In ginng these examples, I have rc-airanged the order of 
the vowd-sounds. Hiiherto, I have treated of J, /, f, 6, &.y 
In alphabetical order, adding fn, /o, ii m the end. A more 
KieMific order is obtained by taking Ihem in four groups : 
' I) a (=Teut /), a (=Tcut. O; (>) ' (=T«U[. 0. "* 

= Teut. at, sUcngtliening of 0. <* (inodificalion uf rf = ai); 

3) !»(= TcutiS). /(modification of (f); (4) i;(, 
/9 (= TeuL m), /a (= Teui. au), ^ (modification of 6, /n, 
/a). I use < 10 denote '<]crived from,' and „ to denote 
'mutatioD'; so that < .. denotes 'derived by muiaiion 
froni.' All the vo»-els cited are loitg. 






&c5ih ... 

















Gernaa ... 




DanUi ... 






SwedUi ... 






lodMidie ... 






Goihtc ... 














[Cur. VI. 





English ... 
























Swedish ... 





Icelandic ... 












A— AD. 


Anglo-Saxon ... 







TEirroNlC. ... 










Teutonic .. 







P^ngl ish 
















































Danish ... 












Swedish ... 











Icelandic ... 
























Note.— Il must be remembered Ihat the modem Eoglith (pelliac 
is very variable. Thus Teut. EU is also E. ee in deef, AS. tUaf. Tht 
above table only tells ns what correspoodenccs we thonld. In gcnoml, 


Classcu. Lamcuacbs cognats with Emclish : Gmuii's 

§ 81. Latin forms oomporad with """eMt*! , If aaj 

EagUshman were asked [lie qimtion, whence are llic words 

fakmat, ma/tnta/, nA frakrttal dciivcd, he would probably 

at once rcplf — from Lalin, As a fad, it is more likely thai 

tbcy «-efc dtrired from French, and tlutt the fj>elttng was 

modified (from -ti to -al) to suit the Lalin spelling of the 

originals, viz., paltmnln, ma!<rnaUi, fratrmaUs. Be this as 

^-it may, ibe amwer in jniHidenily correct; for the French 

^■wonb, in their turn, ajc of Latin origin, and the ultimate 

Vicwlt is the same either way. Wc should further be told, 

" Ifaat tliew adjectival formaiions arc due to the Latin aubxian- 

tivet paltr, Ctthcr, maUr, mother, and fraUr, brother. On 

llus retolt, howc%'er, wc may found a new enquiry*, viz. how 

comes il •Aai/alhtr, mother, hrolhtr have so curious a r«- 

lemblance (yet vrith a certain difTcrence) to pattr, mahr, 

fraUr } Arc we to say that falhir is derived from the Lat. 

patfT i Such a belief was no doubt once common ; indeed it 

was only a century ago, in 1783, that Mr. Lemon wrote a 

Dictionsuy to prove that all English is derived from Greek. 

Bdi there is some hope that such a fancy as that of deriving 

faiher from pakr is fast becoming ub.-ioleie. If we compare 

tbc words a little caicfully, wc can hardly help being struck 

wjth something strongly resembling the consonantal slul\iiig 

whidi we observed alxjve in considering the spelling of 

Cermari. In { 63, wc found that the £. > is sometimes 

thified, in German, to /; so that E. sharp is cognate with 


CltI.VM'S LAty. 

[C«i*. Vll. 


G.sckar/i liui here wc haw an 3[>parent slufting from a Latin 
f lo an ¥../. Id § 64, wc find that an E. / may ansv'cr to 
G. b, so that £. hal/ is cognate with G. luilb ; hut, on com- 
paring fraler with K. brothtr, we have an ap|ureiil 
shifting from a Latin y to on E. b. In all three cases, vii. 
iM.paUr, jnaUr,fral(r, as compared with Y.. father, mHktr, 
hrolhtr, (here is (he s^mc apparent sliifiiiig from / to M'. In 
the case of English and Gcnnan, wc found lliat tlie languages 
&re cognate ; arc wc to conclude, as before, thai, in the catc 
of huch words as are not ahtolutety derived from Latin. 
English nnd Latin arc cognaic language^ wiih cenaia 
fundamental dUferences of spelling due to sound-shifting? 
A com|)aiison of a large number of native Eoglisfa wordt 
will) their eormponding T^lin equivalent proves, beyond afl 
doubl, that such a statement of the case is the true one* and 
that Englisli is allied to Latin, as it is to Gennao, in a eistcrtf 
relation. This iirojiosilion only holds, of course, with Xtspe<X 
to the true native part of the language, so that it \i neces- 
sary, in insliiuiing the comparison, to choose such English 
words as arc of proved antiquity, and can be found bi 
Anglo-Saxon forms. 

§ 83. Early borrowings ftom Latin. Wc know, how- 
ever, from history', that the introduction of Christianity into 
England brought with it a knowledge of Latin, so that crtn 
in the earliest historical limes, words began to be h«rraati 
from that language by the English. But pure English words 
frequently haiv equivalents in nearly all the Teutonic Ian* 
guages, and can usually be thus known ; and a comparison 
of such words with their equivalents (if any) in Latin »ooa 

' Canouily, it U only affartni in the <«« of faiktr, tiMhtr {A. 
ftdtr, ni^r), vhcre Ihc ifalfdof U rtatfy to d. The tUril ttae {A. 
Mttr) ii il|;ht enough. 

' Tbcie is. Iiuvrerer, a (ucilAiDniOl dllTerenM b the nalwn oT the 
AUUt;- The O. II. Gcnmn luofttly czUblls Mundt thlftod (rici [.aw 
Geiman ; but llic Low Germui touadx ue ihHIed, doI (ran Latui 
Gfedc, but from the otigliuil Aryan tpcoch. 



sbewa ns, dcaHjr enough, (hat the conaonantal shifting which 
roarja off £nglisti bom^X^LilT lif mtth mart regularly qpi 
/ulIytariitd-Bul tixMi ^ is Iit'lween F.nglisli and German. 
Th«c is roand to be a fairly complete shifting, not only of 
Hthc dental letters, *& before, and (parliaily) of the hlnal 
lellere, hut of tlie guttural lelters as will. Tliis circumstMice 
in iteelf provides ns with 3. paitial ic^t for telling whether 

Ian English word b really of Latin origin or not. Wlicn 
tach is the case, there is no sound -si lifting ; but wli«n the 
words ore only t^nate, «■« can often at once observe it'. 
Ptttrtui is (ultimately) derived from paltr, but fatktr is 
cognate irith tt. Or, to take a few eioinples of words found 
hi Anglo-Saxon, our candle (A. S. eandtl) is from Lat. cattdtla, 
a candle, because a Latin e would be shifted in cognate 
words; our dith (A.S. dist) is from Lat. ditctit, because d 
voald else be vhifled ; and even in other cases, we can often 
icU these borrowed words by the vtry ftose rtsemUattct they 
have lo iheir Latin originals. In practice, there is seldom 
any <tiSiculty in detecting these Iwrrowings at once. 

f 83. Oreek. Sanekrit, and other languages. If we 
next extend liie area of our enquiries oxer a wiiler field, we 
sbsQ And, in liXe manner, that '^-father \% cognate widi Gk. 
nnp, and that the Greek language (as far as it is original) 
is cognate both with English and Latin. The same is truo 

K Sanskrit, in which the vocative case of the word iot/alkcr 
pilar*, the connection of which with Gk. war^fi and 
ttr cannot lie doubted. It is certain that no event has 
gliven such an impelus and such certainty to the study 

■ Km alwijf, bKSBM KTtinl Latin kltcn. nt. I, m, n, r, t, ■>, 

(hiA at all. Aj^ln, a few bonowed wanji, tuch M itmf, were 

I u to eu\y a pcrio>) that they actually rahUjIt wand^hiftlng. 

* The aomlKitiie auc dto|M r. and Icngtiiens Ifao rowel, thiu pra- 

ibdng fiiA, Saiukrii HibtliniiTci arc quoii^!. ic my Dictionary, Id tho 

fcrm* callDl taitt. Thcac baact aic thcoiciloil focmi, on which the 

node of dccleuion depend*. The -but' of/Ai b jHW, o^i /*tt, the 

i letter beinj; ■ racal r. 

H a 





[Cw*. VH. 

of philology 2s the discowry of ibe relation which exisls 
between Sanskrit and such langusigcs as Greek and Latin, 
'ihis discovery is just a centurj' old. See the account of San- 
skrit philology given in Mux Milller's founh tcctoic on the 
Science of Luigunge, where wc find, at p. i Si of the dgfadi 
edition, the sutemcnt that ' ihe history of yrhaU may be 
called European Sanskrit philology dates from the foundx- 
tion of the Asiatic Society at Calcutta, in 1784.' ^^'be^ the 
true relation of Sanskrit to other languages was once under- 
stood, it was not long before it was perceived that the 
number of languages with which it is cognate is considerable. 
It so happens that Sanskrit often exhibits extremely ar- 
chaic forms'; hence the mtsukc was at first m.tde — (and it ■ 
is often made still by those who have not studied the subject ^ 
with stifiicient care)— of supposing that Greek, Latin, and 
other languages are dtrived ffom it ; which would depriw all 
such languages of much of their indindual peculiarities of , 
form and grammar. This is now understood not to be 1 
ease. Sanskrit is at most only an elder Mstcr'unoag 
riner languages; and wc also know that the languages' 
which obviously stand in a sisterly relatioD to it are thoae 
which Iiave been called the Indian, Iranian, Lcuic, SlaTOdc, 
Hellenic, Italic, and Keltic groups, or ' branches,' of lan- 
guages*, none of which exhibit any marked consonantal 
shifting ; but it aUo stands in the same relation to tbc Teu- 
tonic group of languages (spoken of in the last chapter). 
The only difference between tlie Teutonic languages and the 
, reitt is that all of them (except modem German) exhibit kj 


' Sviikiil cihibili on cxtremdT regular ijiCem of (bnnatioa >nd 
iaflectioii, of wbicb otbct krij^iucci (ccm 10 Intc only traca. IIbi Uii* 
i^jclMiiy U (OmcUiast \Um, uil Jue to anaUigic ln1ucnc«. 

* Gr«ck itt\\j tbom an older ri>wcl-iyslem, a fitt whidi b now be- 
OMning l>ttlrr undenlooi]. 

* Morrii, Hist. Outliun of E. Acctdcace, f t>. Sicven olU ihcn th« 
Indian. Innian. Balik, Slavonic, Greek, Albanian (mentloonl by MMib 
nndei Hellenic^, lulle, uu] Celtic |,70d|:* -, *nd aiUs Aracsiaa. 






stufiing of some of Uie original con«on»nU, whilst the modem 
GcTDMUt poTtiaUy exhibits a doul>U or rrptaltd sliifting. We 
tan already seen thai tbc shifting seen in German conjionanis 
u compared with Eiigti^h is no bar lo their being considered 
as 8isl«r languages ; and ju»t in ihc same way, the shifung 
seen in English as compared with Latin, Greek, &■:., is no 
bar to their haring n rimiiiti relation. 

§ 84. Aryan fkmi\y of laDgoiagee. The whole set of 
languages uhkh are 'ifas, -fouinl ip liavc a sisterly relation to 
each other are usually called 'A<>^, -x^r languages of the 
Aiyan family. Another name is indi>-Eur#pean;-Jjccausc 
tbcy contain the most rcmarkahle languag^-oT-^dilia- and 
Europe ; but this is a clumsy name on account of its length ; 
Aryan is much better, because there is do doubt as to ha 
emcadienal meaning, and it w sufficiently brief, k third 
name is Indo-Gcrmanic, btit ihis haji led lu much misunder- 
staiufing:, and indeed inadequately substitutes Germany for 
nearly all Europe. It \» a name wliicti does not miiJcad 
students who clearly understand it, but it feeds the English 
popidar mind with false notions, and is probably in part 
responsble lor the silly notion about the derivation of English 
from Gennan. It originated, of course, in -Germany. If the 
study of comparative philology had been pushed forward in 

igbnd as it )i3K been in Germany, son)c English teacher 
might have spoken of the Inilo-I'iiglisli family of languages. 
Fortunately, no one has ventured on this, and the time for 
coining such a word has passed by; meanwhile, the tem 
Afyttn suffices for all nccdn. Among ihe Aryan languages, 
we may mention some of the best known. 

TIm Indian grou]) contains Sanskrit, now a dead bnguage; 
[modem dialects, sprung from (L'alcctal forms of it, such u 
Hindi, Itetigah, and even much of ihc true Gipsy speech ; and 
Others'. The IranioH group contains modern Per^an (i.e. as 

' Sm MorU'* Aca^lniM fur the fall l!*l ; alio Pvlle'i I'liuici of 
JMoiogjr, diapL lit 



CX/AfM'S /-*»'. 


far as it is original, for n<»ir1}- half the langiaagc i^ borrowed 
from Arabic, which is a Semitic or wu-Aryivt language) ; tbe 
BOHralted Zciid, or l:tnguage of the old Penman sacred writings; 
the language in whicb U>y vtrry ititemting cuncifortn inscrip- 
lions are written ; and others. Of the L*tlt'f or /}<iUk groiq>i 
the inoflt interesdng is the Lithuanian, spoken in parts of 
Eastern Prufsia, and remarkable for exircini.-ly. archaic fomu. 
The Slavonic group contains Russian, Poliah, Bohemian, 
Servian, &c.; the most important^^ohi-a purely philologkat^ 
point of new, .Iwing i\)t Q\A. Bulgarian, or as it i.t sometimei 
ciiilccl, Qt}ircH-^l3\'onic,' being the language 'into which. 
Cyr!lW.:Uid Methodius translated the Bible, in the Enlddle 
: ihcni^th century V Tbe Hdlenie group contains varioM 
forms of Greek. In the Italic group, tbe most Eamom 
language b the widely known Latin, which is not even yet 
extinct it its 6xcd literary form ; but beyond this, it is famous 
u being the main source of the so-called Rtmance lan- 
guages, vii. Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Pro^-enfal, 
the Roumansch of (he canton <irisons in Switzerland, and 
the Wallachian of Walljchia and Moldavia. These Ro- 
mance languages arc, in fact, totally different in character 
from English, in that ihcy ate really derittd languages, bor- 
jrpwing AU, their words from something else, and chiefly, at 
has been said, from Latin. English, on the other hand, with 
all its borrowings ban a native ta^rrew<4 core, and has only 
borrowed words in order to amplify its vocabulary. Next, 
the Ktllic group contains Welsh, Cornish (now extinct), 
Breton, Irish, Gaelic, and Manx ; of these, the mosi im- 
pottanl. philologicalty, is the Old Irish. Lastly, tlie Ttu- 
/cHte group contains English, Dutch. German, ttc, in the 
Wu/erit (Uvision, an<l I>i[ush, Swedish, Icelandic, and Gothic 
in ihc Eoit/rn ; as already explained. 

% 85. Tbe three seta. Inasmuch as the Teutonic lait- 
guages alone exiiibit consonantal shifting, it will tx found. 
■ Mu MliUcT, Lectuict, Sih «L, i. 117. 





extrcm«lx convefiicnt to use some common name for all ihe 
laoguascs of the Aryan &milj' (bat lie outride ihu Teutonic 
group. A very convenient name is 'the classical languages.' 
becaoKC llie lerm classical is naturally afieociaicd by us with 
Greek and Latin, and perhaps I may add with SLinskrit. I 
shall, aceording;ly, lienceTorth use tlie term ' classical ' in this 
tenitc, 10 denote all the Aryan languages except those or the 
Teutonic group. I shall also limpurarity divide all the Aryan 
languages bto ilirec new nets, For tlic sole and special purpose 
of examining the phenomena of consonantal shifting more 
exactly. 1'heee scl3 are : (1) the cbssical languages: (z) the 
Low German, Scandinavian, and Gotliic languages, ol* wliicb 
Ei^Iish may here be taken as the type, both from its in- 
trinsic importance and because it is the one which we most 
mh to discuss ; and (3) the High German language, in a 
dasi by Hitlf, though it has no real claim 10 such a [losition. 
Before proceeding to discuss this shifting, it may be as well 
to point out thtee examples in which the 'cla^ical' languages 
all keep, in reality, to the »itmc un!»liifted sounds. Thus, for 
falhtr we find the Sanskrit ///jr (base f>'lt% Old Persian 
pilar*, Gk, bot^p, Lat. paler, OM Irish alkir, alhatr * ; but the 
K-ord is lost in Russian and Lithuanian. Again, for brother we 
find the Skt. bhriiar', O. Pcrs. irdiar', mod Pcrs. birddar, 

' ' Suuknt Q(it atAj poMEMO * tymbol lor the coDMiiant r, but kIio 
a jialr oi tjialwU f>ir the tlioct and tonj; vocalic r. TbcK >tc denoted 
fa) Btoby'i DictioiiBt7 by |i and [i. In my DJctioDary. I ban deooud 
tbem by t> and t{, pniiiDf ttie r in RoauQ type. But il ii now maat to 
print I (writhout ■) (or tbc ilioil tound, sad 10 pot on icccDt aliove it to 
tcftaeat \hc Iodj; one, 

* Mol. Ten. /iiAi'-, with /wakened to./. Tlilt it a cutof wokenlnt;, 
iMt of ihiflbig in ihe fartimlar itnit lo which 1 cow vri^ to confine ft. 

* TbcOld IrUb dnitpaihc Initial/; the M {~t*)i) b «icty different 
frocs tlie tjij^llili ik, and ii tetlly n ' iltut hru been >fteiw>rdt mplrated, 
•D ibM Ibnc 1> no rent ihiftioc. In liiih cbitnclen, it ii wiliten i» 

■ dotted /; vc mi^l print il aiir, <srt<»r. 

' In ihe*e wuedt the Mpliatnl tk hu been weilicned to 4, or, at Kitn« 
tkiak, «a uri|;bnl b baa been .iiv|ifialo1 *a u to produoe M ; It It not a 

■ diiUig' in the narrow lenic in which 1 un now tuing the word. 

304 Gr.ZATJC's LA IT. [Cuf.TIL 

Lit. cuiirTiu. La;, /'ar. Oid Slavonic brairu'', Rania 
(■-_-.. ', } oi;£i. '•••2:. I'.iid Irish iirdJhi'- iprdijr), Lidmanim 
f,..'.... ;\"n;7,ic:-j^ ini; o-;;;.;. 5:- aisD moiaer coirespoodi 
i. n:: k^j- . Zend ihoij' vmaL. Pers. mddar, viUi / 
\vt Aii-jii; :, ;-^-iii. . .. GL, uir^... Li"., miiir-. Church BUvtBiic 
a _■-■.. KU« J7.i.. Ij-.nuaniai m;/.- iraTek jrMitci. Insh «>■ 
/.'■J.- vL-.Tr iiir .V. 1.- at asp:raLed or daiied .' 1. "Wlulsi m 
ar: dij.-urs:!.; :::-.^; ;;:r^, » .i-ai i: m-_^ be interesnng to 
iu-.v 1:1:. ioTiE; viii^i, i:jri iisumf d u. liit tmoTirinaJ lanirni^ 
v:i:^: V: i-jrn. I..-"S;.iii::i. Tin La'.ir- aDCUsaiivc?'- pa!rm, 
ffi„-.-.r.. -'-.;.■■.■».. r-e.-aiHi res^-jzivek l^ai. jiadrc. main. 
"■_■,. ■... V ,iu- u--:-,: ir. Ji; >er.>; :\- /-io^. ihe word fa 
.-. .-■..- :-:■.:..- :;.■. d;ri;i:5"^Lv; innt -'-.a.U : j-jiac. /o^. 
r,_-^-- — ^... i-„ 1 :i. -,:i; ps:^-! ; ' ~;j- : 1'zit.. pai.»^. 
■-J- .'-..i ;:. 1:1: :-:':;.-i ,i.' •'-.s- T-juli, ;«■-■.. min.frirt. 
. .■-.";■:;>■.. ,'.;.■■ ".„-.- — ^.■-, ,■• "'-.i— , Ini" .: Ivsumansdi 

> ^C. ?V--TrTr"fc Z^tCVr : the ^"T**^" ssnsfi '^e £re DC^ 

:: , : .■.-:;. : . ■ _.:..- _■...;--:..: ,;:r^ r:._: i,- mean: iw die 
;,u"..,';:: f.:i-.r.:-. . >.■'::>. v._:.u, >;..:;.:.; -.- -■■-r n- ;TitT"naTiw 
. ..■■..-.:;;^.:^ v ;...■: ,-.■-! : ■ :: ; t.:z:.. :.' ~iTsnzt.'i Lzw' i 
;;i. ;.;; . >■./.:.-; ;;..,: U;; :."- ■:".'>:'t 1: d~' ^Ufin^aa B 
.: * ,.- 'i -..-T..-^- r.-au ;: : n ,.-„;;. Z\.:.:>i. : i-lSirips. The 
:.;_..?; ■;_,;;■: v.; ;.;. ^ _. . :„ ,^:...:. : ..::.: .:.w ;r Mas 
Z\...'.:.'! l.:-;:::- :'! .: ,:.: >.,.:..; , l—::^-.:-^:. Ssriss TL 
'—■-.. ' - :■-'- : : , ^-......- :-:._-..,-:■,.: 1= sctidT 

d.:. .:. v.-..> _- ...■ ^^ -; ;:; .,:,-■„ sens :£ E. 

.- ■ ..". . r.-- - „. ,:-. li init d>e 

.->-.'. . : r. ■ ~.^;.-,-. Tat W3ri 

_. . _.-_:.-.- ,.- lai'O'iIii. 





Ar)ran languages into three iscts or groups: (■) the 'clas- 
sical' hngua^^, as defined &bovc; (1) the Low German; 
(3) tlie Old High German, being the oldest form of the 
pfcsent Gemun. Next, let us provisionstly caH the £oundx 
denoted by ^ ' in Sanskrit, 6 in Grcclc, and tk in Eng- 
lish by the name of Aspirates ; the sound denoted by tf. 
Soil*; and ibai denoted by /, Hard. Then it is found ttijtl 
wbeie the first group of languages usually has Aspirates, the 
second has a Soft souitd, and the third, a Haid EOimd. This 
&ct is what is called Gnmm's Law, and may be thus ex- 
pressed in a tabular form, 

(1) Cbsncal Languages .... DH 
(x) Lov German (Knglish, &c.) . . . D 
(3) Old High German . . . . T 

This succession, of A^iiraic, Soft, and Hard, may be ex- 
^pressed by the memorial word ASH *. 
^m Further, the same succession of shifted sounds occurs, if, 
B instead of beginning with .\sj>iraies, we begin with a Soft 
' sound ; only we should !>c careful to denote ihc Teutonic 
Aspirate by TH rather than DH '. We then get the suc- 
CcssiOD Soft, HartI, Aspirate, which may !« eKj)ic»8cd by 

' Tkt So, bo* %ik,ot aspiralcil •/, Mtitid which >!»> bclongi to Ihc 
otflJiMl AiysA. ' B7 ui uipimte ii msmt n inomcntjiry coMonutl bU 
loirc«] by a tlt^hl h-wiwiA, not to dUtlact m tu tatk-iiaiut, satt-hiU 
\m»i-litatt\, ftc, tnl o( the Miiia lutuic. Ttino soundi, howevn, aie 
fsaad oolj ta Suukril and Gicek ; in tlie other Um^afia tbcy am 
Kfaemtcil by i!w cocmptmdinjg coaliniMiu fontcinanU— .1, ck (C«r- 
™«»). '*. :./'— Prilc, Primer of Fbllolo^, p. I*j. 

' I pttitr the tetm 'voiced ' at 'Mnant.' The meaning of ' voictd' 
will be explxincd hcroiftcr. Uud watifli arc ' vokdnt.' 

* F^dle, Piiner irfPfallaloEy. Appendix, p. 161. 

* It MiakMa {real dilTcrcnM. If DH iw iiiu«t]t noxplol m repv- 
■BUing tbe Tent, nipiructl denial (onnd, it woald then appear u if the 
T-r-rn^— of lounfl* it D!I, D, T ; D, T, DH ; ut.l T, DH, D 1 or 
laicfly DH, D, T, DH fkiilowing etch other n in * cituuUr urdtr. The 
note comcC wicoewkiii DH, D, T, TH doct tut tving u buk to our 

ig-poml, bat katu, a* h wcic, n gap in the drelc 



gki.vm's law. 


Tbis may be exprc^ed, in a 

(he memorial word SHA. 
tabular form, as follows. 

(i) Classical languages , . - . D 
(a) Low German (English. &c.) . . . T 
(3) Old High German .... TH 

Lasil/, if wc begin with Hard sounds, we get the sacoesskm 
Hard, Aspirate, Sofl, which may be expmsod by the me- 
morial word HAS; or, in a tabular form, as foOovs. 

(i) Classical languages . . . . T 
(a) Low German (English, &c.) . . . TH 
{3) Old High German . . . . D 

The single word ASH will enable os lo remember the 
order of succession, as we can change this into SHA by 
shiAing A to the end, and again change SHA into HAS by 
stiifling S to ihe end of the tatter form. 

Expressed in a angle tabic, the formulse are as ^olIow5^ 

(1) Sanskrit, Ac. . . . DH D T 
(a) English, &c. . . . D T TH 
(3) Old High German . . T TH D 

5 S7. Meoning of tho Symbols DH, D, T, TH. Bdor*' 
we can apply the above law usefully, we must first observe 
thai the letters DH, D, T, TH, are here used as inert symMt, 
which require 10 be interpreted according to ilie peculiaritiei 
of the particular Janguagc which is Mag considered. AD 
Ihe languascs use D and T ; but the sounds and symbols 
answering to DH and TH var>-. For DH, Sanskrit com- 
monly has lii ', Gtcek hsks 6 ; Latin has/* initially, and </ or 
i medially. For /A. Anglo-Saxon scribes use the symbols ^ 
and C indiscriminately ; but it is conranicnl lo restrict the 
Sjinbol }> to tlie wtind of /i in /ki'a, and V to the sound of d 
in /Aiuf. The original Teutonic /i was probably \> only, 

' TluiT is njio > (ia«) Skt. It, which need oot be coopered ia 
prcMOt connection. 


THE SYMBOLS Off, ff, T, TH. 


which IB AiH the only sound used in Iccbodic wheo occumnf; 

, at the beginning of 3 word. In Engltith, ihe original {1 Iia.s 

gi\xn way to (S initiall)' in the case of a few worcis in very 

common ie«, viz. in all words ctj-mologically connected with 

tht (u that, Otis, Ihey, Ihtm, Ihtrt, thtwe, Ihilktr, Ac.) or with 

Iheti (as ihte, thim, thji). In tlie middle of a won), )> has 

been weakened to C between two vowels; compaic brtalh 

with brtalht (M. E. Iftlheti). Smooth is only an apparent 

exception, for the M. £, fomi -aius smoolh-f, which was 


It is also important to observe that the Old High German 

Mmnd of aspirated / was not Ih (or )>), but ts, which was 

denoted by tlie symbol s; the German % is pronounced as 

A still '. Hence we may otherwise express the law as 


DII (Skt Jh, Gk. «, lM./id, <)}. D (Skt., Ut. </, G)c. Vf. 

D{A.SlJ). T(A.S.0- 

T (C- ';. TH [O.H.G. «, C. 1, «>. 

T [SkL. Ut. /, Gk. T). 


T (G, 0. 

A few examples nill he interesting, and are here given; 

' beginning: from DH. 

Initial DH ; Skt. dukitar (put for 'dhughit^ry, daushler ; 

bGk. Atotqp: £. dttughltr; G. Tackier. Skt. dhd, to put. 

'place, Gk. W-*»-P« (for •«-*?-?«), I put; E. do; O.H.G. 
iUBH, M. H. G. Aw, mod. G. Ihun (niih Ih sounded as /), or 
tun (in reformed spelling). Skt. dih (put for * dhigh) to 
Bioear, Gk. Otyyiyti^, to touch, handle, \.M.fingirt, lo mould; 
Goth, drtgan, lo mould, knead, whence i/i<^') dough, £. 
AwjCA : G. Tag, dough. 

■ So alio in O. Ftcnch, the word otvi wu ante |>onoiinoed aveti, 
which U once cxplab* it» iIccItiiIi'D from the Lit. iatefii, b^ loo of 4 
•ltd i. Tbt O.f.Jb, too, ia atnr yiiltra /It!, lo prractvc lliD old tound; 
mhI ai//t i*. is Engtub, aattt. 
> ' Wbea U) utcruk it frr/Lctd to iity woid, it neani that iti form i* 



GUntM'S tAW. 


[Cur. VTt 


Hedial DH ; Skt. ruJh'ra, blood, Gk. ifivtpis, red, Lai. 
niitr (= * nuiAer), Irish ruatUi ; E. r/i/, Du. rem/, I>an. and 
SwwI. rtirf, Goth. rdwA ; O. H. G. r(l, mod. G. roth (wiOi ^ 
sounded 3S /), or ro/ (in refurmed »|iclliiig). ^M 

Initial T ; Skt. tt>am (iliou), Gk. ru {.\itic <rw), I.JU. Af," 
Irish lu, Welsh //; A.S. W, E. Mfflu, l«l-M Goih. ria; 
G. lAt. SkL i!ri, three, Gk. tptlt, Lai. /r^i, Russian tri, 
0. Irish /ri'; A. S. /i-«fe, E. «i-«, lotl, />rir, Goih. y-irtji; 
G. dro. 

Kodial T ; Ski. aniara, other ; Lithuanian antrat. LbI.* 
oiler (for * a«frr) ; Goth. anikar, A.S. «tr (for '<ni3tr = 
" an^cr, l>y loss of n), E. o/iw ; G. andtr. 

D. Skt i/dfuw (ten), answers lo Gk. W«i. La(. dtttmi* 
E. /«, GoUi. /ail^Kw; G. schn. Ski. </m (ivfo), Gk. Siu, LaL 
aW, Riiss. dim, Irish */« ; E. two, \. S. ftwf, Ic«l. tiftir, Goih. 
Auu ; G. twii. Skt. t/uff/a, Gk. ace. A-tovT-a, Lai. ace. dtnS-<m, 
Welsh ^«/; E. /on/-*, A.S. /^ Dan. land; G. wAa (for 
*sand). As an cxam|ik of medial B, we may lake 
Skt. ad, \a cil, Gk. tt-*t», LoL «^-<-«; A.S. ^/wwr. E. m/, 
Do. //-«», led. f/-a, Goih. il-an', O., mod. 
G. /ff<w (used for tts-m, hy assimilation of It into llie caiier 
sound of »). 

j 88. Sxceptions to Orimm'a Law. Ifwocxamiac 
llie F. noids broth<r,/alhtr, mother, and compare ihem wilb 
the abo^-c law, we obtain some startling remlu. In tlte 
(dace, the forms of trolher are fairly regular, vijt. 
hkrdlar, iM-fmltr, A. S. ir63or, G. Brudir. Simnarly 1 
the I..11. paStr, maltr, we should cx[>ect lo find A. S. '/aSte^ 
m63or, and G. 'Fader, ' Mudtr; but, as a fact, we find A.i 
/Ifrf^r, «(SAr (with rf), and G. Valtr (for ' Fa!er). Afitt 
(with /). Wc may be sure lliat tjicre muKl be some raium 
for iliis apparent anomaty; and it was from this convic- 
tion that Vcmer discos'cred what is now knowni as Vaner'a 
Law, which explains the apjuarent anomalies tn ibe operatic 
of Grimm's Law ; and actually cxtcn<ls it. Tins impona 







natter is treated of below, in a separate chapter; 
Chapicr IX. 

{ se. Oritnm'8 Law; labial nod guttural series. 
have purposely confined the examples of Grimm's Law to 
ihe dental scries of letters, DH. D, T, TH. Rank and 
Grimm made the Law more gcticral hy trying to include the 
labial »cric* of ktlers Bli, B, P. PH, and the guttural series 
GH, G. K, KU. Bui the law is imperfectly carried out in 
these cases, as u-ill best appear from a consideration of a few 
of ll>e tLiuaJ examples which arc a<ldiiccd [o illustrate it. I 
purposely keep tome of tlic more difficult points in the 

BH (Ok. *, Lat./). Gk. ^t^^, iM./ag-ut, beech-tree ; 
E. 6f/ti, allied to A. S. iic, a bccch-trce, a iooi ; Swcd. dot. 
Da. 6tui, beech. The O. H. G. is pttocid, also iuw/id. mod O. 
Bueht. Here the change from Gk. B?I * to Low C!errnan 
B is regular; and so is Ihe ch.ingc, from Low German B 
to Geiman P in 0. H.G./wcfM. But we cannot ignore the 
Gut that fttoehd i.s only an occasional form, which modem 
literary German does not recognise; and the same is true 
in other cases. Hence there is, practically, no regular tttond 
tkifting from Low G. b lo High G. p. 

P. Skt. pad, foot ; Gk. miic (gen. nvS-^i). Lat pti {gen. 
pt^t) ; E. foot, Goth, fetus, Swed./o/; O. H. G. f6a, fuea, 
mod. G. Fuss {with « for a). Here there is a shifting from 
P to Low G. PH {=f) ; iiut thtre is w se«md shifting from 
Low Gennan PH to High German B. 

B. Gk. larra^ti, Lat. (onnaiis, hemp ; A. S. hatup, htmp, 
:£. htmp; O. H. G. hanaf, hentf, G. Ilanf. Here we have a 
shifting from b\op, and again from p lof the aspirated funii 
ot p. Bat the example is somewhat unjt.tti.'<fitctory, bcc.-tusc 
tbc Teutonic forms arc merely horrawtd from Latin, which 
■gain is borroK'ed from Greek. The chief point here gained 
18 the observation that the law of sound-shifting may c?en 
' Th* Gk. ^ aaiwen to Sk. hh in gcnenU. 






Apply to the case of a iorrotped word, but only if thai word 
was borrowed at an extremely early period. Such cases tre 
very rare. The reason for cboosiiig ihis «x;implc is thai 
there does not appear to lie any olfur satisfactory instance in 
which a ' clasocal' B is shifted to a Low German P. 

GH'. Gk. x^v, a goose; Lat aruer (the initial gtuninl 
being wholly lost); E. goose, \.?,.g6t (for 'gou), T>u. gwu, 
Icclgds (for 'gans); O.H.G. gum, oocAsiomUy eam; G., 
Cans. Here the shifting from GH to Low German C 
regular ; bin the 0. H. G. rans is an. occasional form, 
/iert It no regular stftmd skifling to German K. Tlie E.^ 
in fact, also a CcrmaD g ; cf. E. go, good, goat, with G. gtktm, 
gul, Gtiss. 

K. Gk. mpS/a, heart; Lai. <ev (stem rori/r'), O. Irish cridt; 
E. heart, A.S. htortr; O.H.G. htrsS, G. fferu. Here the 
shifting from K to KH (weakened to h) is regular; but Hurt 
mver was at any lime a sKOnJ shi/lmg to a German O. 

G. Gk. ytvot, race, Lat. gtn-ut ; E. kin, A. S. <jvi», laoe, 
tribe, Icel. fyn, Golh. him; O. H. G. tfiunni, tiunni, hami, 
race. Here the shifting from G Co Low German K is regular ; 
but the apparent shifting lo O. II. German KH {ti, cjS) it 
delusive. This, again, is a mere occasional form ; and, as a 
fact, litre it in general no seeond shifting. The E. .( is aba 
a German ^ ; cf. £. kii^, hist, tow, with G. K^mg, Kittt, 

% 80. Needless complication of Qrimm'a Ia' 
The net result is, therefore, that tlic sttonj shilling 
down, for practical purposes, even in the specially selected 
instances, and in two cases (^e under P and K abore) there 
is absc^utcly no trace of ii. If to tlicsc two cases we add 
those in whidi xcational O. High German forms have to be 
selected (see under BH, GH, G) in order to make the hw 
operate, we may say that it practically breaks <k>wn, as far as 
High German is concerned, iafive cases out of mnt. If to 
■ Cli. X'^sw'nKiSlcL^lbrthepitaeDtpnrpote. 




ifaia we again add ihc case (noticed under B above) of which 
ihere U bui one good example, iheac ^vt cases are increased 
to tix. In oUicr words, Grimm's Uw is orAy useful, as far 
as the High German is concerned, in ihe case of the denta] 
»eries of letters DH, D, T, anti TH. Ii was quite a mistake 
to force it bcj-ond its true value, merely in order to dra^ in 
the Old High German forms. Such an attempt greatly 

itts llie choice of cxani)>Ic«, wliicli have to l>c selected with 
« sftciat t'ifw to the Old High German, niihout any real 
gWD <■ It IB not only simpler, but what is of more conse- 
quence, much more accurate, to leave the High German 
forms oat of s^ht, and to conline our attention to the other 
Teutonic fonm. This would enable tlu: Law to \>c Stated 
Duch more simply, for wc have already seen that the 
sbiftings from the ' classical * forms to Low-German are 
carried out witli suQicicnt regularity. Even the catc noticed 
above, under B, only breaks down for mere iifi of examples ; 
there ts nothing to contradict it. There is no example, for 
istancc, of a word containing a Latin or Greek i in 
«tiidi the corresponding letter of the cognate native English 

$ 91. Simplor form of Qrimm's Jtaw. It would seem 
lo follow that, if «e omil the Higii-ticrnian forms, wc may 
state Grinun'K Law by dimply imying that in the series DH, 
D, T, TH, a classical T>I 1 corresponds to a Low German D, 
a classkaJ D to a Low German T, and lastly a classical T to 
a Low German TH. This wc can easily remember by 
writing down the ^mbols DH, D, T, TH, in succession, 
and saying that the sound denoted by each 'datsical' 
symbol (wheilier DH, D, or T) is ski/kd, in ' Low German.' 
to tht t^ind d<H6tti hy tht lymbot which uexl /ollvwi it. 



■ 'Tbu tbe O, II.G. ihiftlng U hiitorical and itccntwai, it is tnie, 
•dndttcd bjr Grinuii, but lie Uked to Iok sisht o{ tlie fuel viKOci'ct he 
wasded to nujiiiify iLe t«w. Hu riamcwutk li mach too big for die 
fad*.*— M. C C. Bnadt, In Amci. Jonroal of Philology, i. 153. 


exnats law. 


bdt vfaCB 

todK Untaod goQsnl 
ia (he ktier aat. 

Trt o^ II^DDIBBfi^L ADD 


riauB's I^^V 
^Mn GcnBtD.1 

of OtiauB 's 

» dKOU High Gcnan,' 

toofc [Jaoc,as Eir ask 

as tlie fnnnfT ahUtiag, 

obnotolf « nmdi isler 

«Auner thej naf haiic 

bcok Tbe oU tbeocy. t^ ifae Hspafea Oid ui^ Gcnnu 

■■DBg tOOK pMCC flSMhWM!^ vilh BG IBOn COfliplCtC 

il^JRiiij ^■^M (B Low Genua, is no loBget tJtMMy_ uA il ii 
BM 07 to aec bo* it vow^ f n.T|il from m cxaggenka 
idea of die nine of tbe Old K|^ Gonaa Ibnns. IiMoot 
ooIt tBcxpBc^de, bm can be fqiroved. Yet twa in iti oU 
and imperfaa facn, the Biiefat kDcnm as Ctuam's Law 
is oT (be Id^Kat valae, and bas been ifae real basis ofil 
bter inaprtweinetits and d bcawii e s . We most renicaiber 
tbai tbe great objea of m il f iiig k is to coablc us 10 dcuct 
the cognatioo or wauAj rehiJOBA^ of wtKtb. We see, Ibr 
emnple, that tbe l^i./ratrr can vaj veD be tbe same mnl 
a* tbe £. irp&rr, because, aldiough it Vxks ddQw it at Snt 
■i^u, it naSij corresponds to it, letter for letter, aO the vaj 
throng TbeLAt./an»cntoibe^mbotBH,«faicliciiab 
regnlarljr into £. 6. Tbe LaL « is long, a ns werii ^ to Ten- 
tonic kKig a, Goth, long «, l.e.tbeA.S.^ia irt»er. Tbe 
■jrmbol T (LaL /) diifts rcgolariy to A. S. |>, aAenraid* 
weakened to C, K M. Lasil}-, ibe siiffix •itr is found fat a 
tarying forro 'lor at a very early period ; and the coramoii 
Aiyao Baffin -txr becomes -ftr in Latin, and -9fr, -ttr, 
in A. S. Tbeic is not out)' an enonnous gain in delectiiig 
these real equalities whidi are concealed nndcr vpfnvU di^ 




rerencct, bat wc abo get rid of ibe absurdity of daismg native 
■:ngliab irords from Laiin or Greek, and wc at once put 
rthcm on their true level as being equally from the same 
ohimate Aryan type. 

{ 88. The Aryaa typo : simplor form of Qrimm's 
Jjaw, ze-otated. We mu^t pause for a moment, to con- 
sider what ihb Arj-an type was like. In trying to gain an 
idea of the Aipin type or original form of each word, wc 
Deed not consideT the Old Higii German, which may well 
be, and In ha was, a mere development from an archaic 
Teutonic type whicii exhibited only Low German charac- 
ICfiilics. We then have to consider whether the ' classical ' 
or the Low German consonants approach more nearly to 
those of the |xirent speech. For it is obviou-t that a 
vord like hr«ifur may have originated in two ways ; either 
the ori^nal type was Teutonic, viz. bkSthek, and the 
closncal type biikatck was developed from it ; or the case 
was rei'crsed. In the former case, the Aryan type resembled 
brXtkee; in the latter case, it resembled iihkatsr. Tiie 
latter theory is the one universally adopted '. Perhaps the 
decision in this dircctioo was at first due to an irmatc respect 
for such languages as Greek and Latin, an<l. in particular, to 
the notion that Sanskrit is the language which approaches 
most nearly to the Aryan type, though this positiott may be 
more fairly claimed, in many respects, for Greek. But 
the <)ecvion really rests upon other grounds, vix. that the 
'dassical' langu^iges are far more numerous and more 
<U«-ergent tlian the Teutonic languages; ami it is far 
^^eUKr to mppOKc that the shifting took place with respect 
H^ a snglc group which was spread over a small area, 
^Hthan with respect to all the other groups of tlie whole 
HbmUy. It is from such considerations thai we may more 
a&Iy accept the guidance of the ' classical ' than of the 

■ There U yet ■ third Theory, which may tie the inie one. vii. thai the 
oldot fonn wai liKATKt ; but I tluti not hrtc iIikbm tu 


csrAm's LAW. 

[ClULF. ?I1. 

Low German \.y^z& in GStimattog the fDrnis of the original 
Aryan parent »peedi. It niaf iticTcfore Iw soTcly oMwaed 
that the ' classical ' type is also tlic Aiyan type, or oones 
most near it, and that ihc Low German or TeulonM: * lypct 
arc foimcd, by a tolcnbly regular shifting, not really froa 
the ' classical ' type, but from the original Aryan wbldi the 
latter exactly, or nearly, reprcscnis. All that in now necikd, 
ix to rend ' Aryan ' in place of ' Classical laitgtugcs ' Ib § 86 ; 
snd we may also, ifwc please, substitute 'Teutonic* Tor 'Low 
German' without any fear of enor, merely remembering 
that (he Migh German rormx can be obtained from the 
general Teutonic forms whenever they sre wanted We an 
then Hate the Law thus, nearly ah in $ 91, with respect to 
the denta3 letters, and it nill he slicwn bcrcnilcr 10 be 
equally true (with necessary modificatioDs) for the labial 
and guttural aeries.. 

Write down the symbols DH^ D, T, TH in ano* 
oesaion. It is found that the^'A^ao^oand coit«- 
Bponding to eaoh of these symbols (except the laat), 
is shifted, in cognate Teittonic wordfl, to the aoiuid 
oorrosponding to the symbol which next succeeds it. 
This is the law of consonantal shifliiig, as regards the letters 
in the dental series. 

The extension of llie Law to the labial aivd guttural series 
of consonants wilt be considered in the next Chapter. 

' Hmcclortli, I aMuino the Ixiw Gcnuan type to be Idoutcal wtlli tbc 
TcDlonic -. aad regud the 0. 11. Gcnmn u « dcrelopRieat from iL 


SiHPLiriBD Form op Gxiuu's Law. 

{ 94. In order to treat the Tacts coirectlj^, it will be ncccs- 
sarjr to consider tbe dtnlai, ibc labial, and the guitural sels 
of letters Kcparatelj'; and to take itiein, for the present, in 
this order. At the end of the hst Chapter we obtained ihc 
folk>«ins stateroeni, wiiich may convcnienily be here repeated. 
Writ© down the nymbolii DH,D,T,TH, in succession. 
It i» found that the Aryan sound oorrespouding to 
eaoh of theae symbols (except tbe last), is shifted, in 
cognato Teutonic words, to the sound coireBponding 
to the symbol which next succeeds it. Teutonic ix 
hcie used in ihc sense of original rtuionic, to the exclusion 
if High Gemun forniK*. I now projioKe to look at this law 
B little more closely, eiplaining the varying values (if any) 
of tbe symbols, giving numerous exsmiilea, and noting ex- 

{ OS. Arian: Dentals. The Arj-ui Deotal Sowds are 
DH, D, T. It is here moBt convenient to consider them In 
the order D, T, DH ; and I shall accordingly do so. 

D. The SkL <^ is a stable xoun<l ; w also is the Gk. S. 

In Latin, d is common, but occasionally D appears as /. 

Thus laerima, a tear, was once iacrista, according to Fcstus, 

od is cognate with Gk. Sdcpu, E. tiar; Utigva, z tongue, was 

At to tbe ^rlcinal chanctn of the Old Ilish Cemui set«Hd 
nul tliUtlne, Me Cluster IX. f iij. 
t 3 




1. UL 

OS Ibe 
' occ»- 

ODce dii^tta, Aod !x cognate villi E. tatgtu ; A/-<yy, to sncll, 
is aDicd u> #/^r, sioeD '. 

T. Tbe SkL / h sometiincs aspirated aAer i, and ■ppcvi 
u /4, as in </Aj^. lo cover. Gk. trrry-nr ; tM, to stand, tat. 

The Gk. r is HaUe ; so is LaL / (iwuDr). 

DU. Tbe Skt. baa </<f. If a verial nxx begins witb 
aod ends with anoifaec aspirated letter, i^lA of tbcsc 
appear in tbe simple, not in tbe aspirated form. Thos Ibe 
Skt A^ to siDear, stands for *dhigh. We Snd otbcr occa- 
sional insiuioes In which SkL 4k appears as o^ as in 
a doOT, put for *Jhvdra; cf. Gk. Ufa. 

Tbe Gk. dh is 6. But Gk. allows of only eru aspirale? 
a BTihble ; bencc we F<nd rpix^ for 'tfiixit. 

The t^in dh appears mUiaJly ts/, but mtdiaUy as ^ or J. 
TImb Gk. tfvpB, a door, is allied to Lat pLy^-er, floors, dn 
cognsic £. word being door. Gk. i-pv^-vU, £. rtd, b In ru&r (for 'rudktr\ Gk. aM^, E. iw/dtr, is in LaL b^ 
(iiu' *WAr»'); vbilst E. w»/<7U>, L. wAm, answers to 

Tbe Ac}-an DH regularly appears at if in Slavonic, Lithil> 
anian, and O. Irish, as Id Russ. dtwe, 0. Irish darta, a door, 
Litb. ditryt, pL doors*; cf. Gk. Aljm. 

§96. Tn,TOKtc: Dentals. T(Arj-anD); Gothic /(regn- 
lart}-) : and so in A. S., Icel., Swed., Dutch ; but in Daoidb 
it is weakened (whco final) to d^ as \a/«d, fooL 

TH (Aryan T) appears as fk in Coiliic*; written/ or ?ln 

> I do not (iic Itil the nloet of Ihoe Atjui ^nlbali, but onl; ihcte 
occcsufr'^ the pnaeal iiurpow; (hut a 4 cuy appeac In l.aiin ur, 
Ihu not in woiil* tot/^att wliti Ei^lih. Fw felkr partkaUn, mc I<na 
Hmier, Hudbiich d<t KludKbcn Altatnu-WuKntchift, Quid U; 
NlSnlUBKCB, iSBs, 

' Thii cbaogc U piactioally a dilftlQ{>, and pvo the tase nmll. 
Bu it diffcn in llilt ictpoct, ib. iku the Slsvunic (aiul Mhct) raoei 
were content to iimfiuE A^in DH wiib Ai^an D. The Tculcalc nea 
wtrc n«t costrnieil lo do >». bM dBda^ubkn] the ical U fiom T, 

' Gcnnan odllon oflen vrrlu ^ for GiHh. /A, 



• 9«-I 



f A.S. Tite Icel initial / iit sounded a& Ih ui Ihin, but the 
tnedial (fas Ih in MtW. In Dnnixh aixl Sncctish Ibc initi-il /A 
(/) is sounded as /. and the mcdiitl th (^) aa </, owing to 
a difficuhy in pronouncing /A at all ; for a simile reason, 
Dutch invuixbly subMiluiM ■/; cf. K. /Ar<-i^ with Dan. and 
Swcd. tft, Du. drit ; and E. brolhtr with Iccl. WiSir, Swed. 
and Dan. hredtr, Du, brotdtr. Wlien the Aryan T appears 
(conirarj- to the role) as Goth, rf, tliis phenomenon can be 
accounted for by Vemcr's Law ; sec Cliap, IX. For ex- 
ample, \A)i./raUr=.QoCa. brotkar, E, brother, regularly; but 
on the oil>cr hand, Lat. paUr^QaCa-fyvl\r (nol */atk^). A- S. 
fadtr (i>ot *fec$rr), M. E. /&t£r/-. the ioim/aihfr being modem. 

H An Aryan ST remains il in TcuioqIc ; urIcsn ihc s is lost, 

" when Ibc T may shift to Ih. 

»D (Arj-an DH) aptieais as Gothic, Ac, d, regularly. 
} 67. Numerous exam|ile4 of Engli.-'b words which are 
cognate with words in other Aryan languages arc given 
further oiu In giving these it is convenient to rntrte the order 
above, Le. to give the English words be/ort the others; so 
that instead of saying ihat the Arj-an D becomes a Teutonic 
T. we say tliat the Tcut. T answi-rs to an Aryan D, which 
is of course the same thing. It is only a question of con- 
venience. Similarly Tcui. TH aRswcts to Aryan T, and 
Tetn. D to Ar}-aD DH. Taking > as the symbol for 
'befomes* or 'passes into,' and < as the syml>ol for ' results 
from," we sec that Uic series DH>D>T>TH is the same 
afiD<DH; T<D; TH<T. And again, these three 00m- 
pariKins may \k taken in the order T<D; TH<T; 

»D < DH ; without at all altering the Law. 
$ 8S. The Labial Seiioa, If Giiinm's Law be equally 
tnte for tiic labuO scri<.-s, il will t--ik« the following form. 
"Write down the serioa of symbolH BH, B, P, FH (F). 
ThflQ the Aryan ftoond corresponding to eaoh of those 
symbols (except the last), is shifted, in cognnte Ten- 
tonio wordA, to the soiwd correBponding to the symbol 

11^ C2SXJ^S LAW. ^Ouf.Tin. 

Tbich cgxT sccceedi ic. l^is i: crot. v:di s ceitan 
reas-Iaicc ^-Iz. ii; :zie^ b co ^ey dear f»an;pli- of die 
x.'.-.r/ :t* ±e ±rw .--:;— r-s vj. cf Arru B aBswcriug to 
Tec P. T^A CTdparlicii rf E. isw? wii Gk. BDiwht 
•a Ecc Thclj i; ±< ;ii=:i ai ±ie £- »::r-i i$ on!j a Tsy 
ear^r ii:rT'.t£'di''E:ri: :u::±«r ia "^G^tandUi an original 
Greek i:;ri. 'n*--^ 'zstS bcrrr^eil fxKS the East. TTie 
jraa: i^;^;:?'. 3^cj:ri:r^>. is to ksc* wti vhac wi m 
W ccctia.-^ i« Ti=:. P. i -rziuiEa of which I kzow no 
ij-if;- — ■: 5.:lT:ic=. I: is cemia tba: a gm^ aumbcr of 
wcris be-jir:±:r ■^ti P ia th; Tccocic hngnages in 
merelj b<:r7:T^i i-:=i r.i-i or Gresi : iha* £./!>; M.E. 
/«/, .\. S. /;.' ■■.:- ■;»"'- is nicrelj bcrtowed coa tbe Ltt. 
piititu ; sci —i Li^f ; Eu='r<r of words ai mouem EngJah 
y*^'r.-T-r m-.±. -iL> '.-i-ti if in a ^m measuc doe to the 
YcTj free use c:"th= Lj.l z's±i^ f<rr; '•ri:-,/rt-. freter-,fin-, 
aitd the Greet f r££xes,;-':-./j/-j-./ir:-,/tfJ>-./rM-, Sane 
have ever, detie-i iit there _"rj any Teut. words beginning 
wi± ^ : but a list cf .tver ico words has been gh-en of 
words b-izirjiins wii /, which cacnot be pnwed to be 
Qon-Teutcnic ^. Eefidei. it is cerAic iha: final / is a snffi- 
cient'.y comotoa letter in Teutonic, as in £. iap, k'f', itf, 
h'jp, and Jie IceL h-:;p. chance, whence cur k^p. One vie* 
that might be held concerning the final Tcut. p is that, in 
£Oine Gaj<;:, it remained unsh/ud; thus Cuitius compares £. 
ItaP, Goib. hlaufjn, w-lth Gk. tpatc-ris. swift ; E. lip, lap, with 
Gk. X«7-ni>, to lap : E. sh^fi wiLh Gk. ouis'-nv, to dig ; and 
it is txtreoiely diEcuit to see how E. up can be entirely 
severed frcin E. atir, Skt. ufari. A: this is a difficult poin^ 
I leave the supposed shifting of Aryan B to Tcut. P wiiboiit 
further discussion, and pass on the shiftings that still remain, 
viz. of Atj-an P to Teut. PH (Fj; and of Aijan BH to 
Tout. B. These are real and regular, as will appear. 

' I hare lost the icieRace to thii utfclc 

I 101.] 



H $ 99. AkVAN : lAbiala. 

H B (mcDttoncd above) is the Skt. b, Gk. |8, LaL f. 

B P is the Ski. /, Ck. «, LaL, 5hv., and Liihiun. p ■. The 
Slu. ^ may become /A sflcr i, and even in Gk. ow ma/ be- 
come »^ 

BII is the Sk(. M, Gk. ^. The Skt M maj- become i, 
when Another aspirate rollous, an in &nbaU (for 'hhandh^ 

>E. ^tW. In Latin it ocours as f initially, as in /tr-rt, 
Gk. ^ft^u-f^'iJCiAar. K> bear, E. i<ar; an^ as 7 nicdiairy, as 
^Inom-^, 1>c>Qi=Gk.^-<fiv. Tt i.i woiili adding that the Latin 
tniiial / soroeiimes appears a« ^, so that the Old Lat. /or- 
dmm, barley, is usually kerdtum, or cwn ordeum, ibc A being 

■ { 100. TiVTOKic : Labials. 
The Teat. B b alv-ap (• in Gothic; but appears as (final) 
/in A.S. See below, j izz. 

The Teut. P is always fi in Gothic, Ac An Aryan SP 
rcmaioa a» tp.ibefi being unshiftcd ; unless t is lost, wbco 
the P may becocoey! 

The Tctii. PH is regularly rcpre»enie<l by/ in the Teu- 
tonic languages. But there are cases in which the /may 
■ pass into i ; these exceptions can be explained by Vcnier's 
Law, for wbkfa »ce Chaptrr IX. Numerous examples are 
given fortbcr on, where, for con\'cnicnce, I take ihc £. forms 
fiisL The scrie* BH >B>P>PH(=F) U the same as 
B<BH: P<iJ; F<P; or, in anolhtr order, as P<B; 

PF<P: B<BH. 
{ 101. The Guttural Seriea. If Grimm*s Law be 
equally true for this series al»<\ it will take the following 
Bform. Vrite down the sorios of srmbolA OH, O, S, 

' l*tiii lui two rcRuukabk exotplions. in whluh / hu been liimed 
ioM/ui V"> nr.{#^Ha-(, tucAolE, pDt fbr*/^<*''V(er<Slct./MrA, looook), 
■ml ftanytu. fue, jmV for 'finpu (d. Skt. fattJkan, Arc). Here the 
lodlUI Ictccn have betn ■OMcd by Um following fir. The O. Iiioh 
litlttol / iltuppcan : •> ID O. trith en, a pig. I^b fvrcm ; O. Iil^ 
MM, ■ 6th, Uu. fvtii. 


GUlMJlfS lAtV. 


B:H(H). Then the Aryan sound oorroep<mdlng to 
each of these BymboU (except the last), is shilted, 
in cognate Teatonic words, to the sound cor- 
responding to the sTinbol wbioh next followB it. 
I'hcrc arc, unduubtrdly, mui/ cft^x in vUkh this Idw 
holds; bul, unroitunatcly, there is an initial difficulty in,| 
dclcrniiiilng ilie Aryan values of GH, G, and K, vbicb 
greatly inierfcrcs with the simplicily of it. An Engllsli k or 
haid e ought 10 answer to Aryan G, as it clearly does wbcnJ 
we compare E, km with Gk. yir-ot; by the same rale, wc 
might expect that the Gk. for emu is yo£>, but the actual 
word found is jSoCr. This suggests that tlicrc is some initial 
difference between the values of the Arj'an G (=Gk. y) and 
G {=Gk. ff). There arc also reasons for suppoeJng that 
the Aryan K and Gli had each tiro rallies; and these facts 
arc now generally admitted. As Mr, Wharton remaiks, at 
p. ix of I»i« Etyma Graeca, 'Ujc Urtprache [parent or Aryan 
speech j distinguished iv',gv,gho (lilhuanian k,g,g, Skt. il 
or (h, g oTj, gh) from *, g. gh (Lithuanian ss, t, i, Slavonic 
J, s, t, Zend. {-, >, £, Skt. f, j. A); Greek properly represents 
the former by w, ft ^, but sometimea instead by «, y, x, which 
in other cases stand for original! This important 
distinction deser\-es to be conaidcred somewhat more (uUjr. 

f 102. Palatal and Volar Bounds. Il appears thai 
ihcrc were two varieties of the Aryan G, called the 'pabtal' 
aod ' \"ciar * respectively. The former may be conndcred as , 
resembling the English^, mth a leaJatry to become palatal; 
the latter is a labialiied^. 'The vocal organs may lie shiAcd 
to form a vowel,' says Mr. Saycc ', ' while they arc still in 
the act of forming the oonsonanl. Hence arise nemWioA 
labialized letter*. If ilie front part of the toi^;ue be raised 
and the lips opened while a consonant is being ancred, ai 

' ^ kv, gv, gim Mt* vtaait ira, gw, ghw. The freqaoit neof olor 
w b Aaie to Gcrmaii wMleit, uid U oMhiftt la* than a ihmmcc 
* Introdoclion lo th* StdcDce of Languf^ L 197. 



palaOliud or momlU^Vja is the result, of whicli the llalian 
gl aiMl gn, the Spanish it and A, or the Portuguese th and 

lA are esamplet ' . Certain consonants arc incapable of 

being wwuiiU; gutturals, for inskuicc, in wIiock rormation 
the back pan of the tongue plays so prominent a part, can 
on!; be ao by becoming palataln. LabJAliiied sounds arc 
those in which the lips arc rounded while tlie pronunciaiioa 
of a consonant b in process. Labials and gutturals shew 
tbe same fondness for this labialization, or "rounding," that 
the palatals and dentals do for mouillation ; and a com* 
parison of the denved languages prove* that the primitive 
Aryan speech must hat-e possessed a row of kbiultud or 
^■* veltr " gutturals — Xw, gw, ghto—cS which tbc Latin pt and 
Ottr own tw, fu [and wi] are descendants. There is nothing 
(o show that ilicse %'elar gutturals were ever developed out of 
ibc simple gutturals ; so far back as we can go in tlie history 
of Indo-European speech the two classes of gutturals exist 
side by side, and tlie group.t of words containing them 
remain unallied and unmixed.' 1 sh all denote the Aryan 
palatal K by K, and the velar K by Q ; where Q denotes 
a ^t-SDond ibM is prepared to Kceive a following u. Similarly 
T ^aP dgqff teJAe palatal G by G, and the velar G by Gw, 
lbewJs_ai(ldcd-iiL smaUer type to shew that Uic G is 
Jo_be_ followed by iL We sliall now sec bow 
icmarluibly these souniLs are di:«iingui«hcd in seme of the 
deriv^ bnguagus, including Sanskrit and Lithuanian, and 
occasionally, but no< always, Greek. 

{ 103. Aryan G (palatal). Tliis corre^toads to Skt J, 
Lithoanian i, SUvonic a ; in Gk. it always retnaios y, and in 
Latin f. It slufts to Tcut. K, in accordance with Grimm's 
Law. Thus Skt.ydirir, Gk. lirv, Lai. genu, is llic Goih. iniii, 
E. iwt. The Ski. Jnd, to know, Gk, yi-fia-oiutr, LaL 
ijg'^uere, Lithuan. im»lt, Kuss. tua-U. is E. JhiMO. 

Tbmi toonil* mcmUc tbc E- //>' to milUtm anil mi In atMtm. 



[Ciw. virT 




Arjran Ow (velar). This is more diOicull, as it cxbibiiw 
two varieties, which inaj- lie maLrket! u (a) and {b). In the 
fini, the Gk. 7 lemains unchanged ; in tbc second, it appcare 

ifi) This corresponds to SkL^ or g, liihuanuin g, Gk. y, 
LaL g. It shifts to TeuL. K, as berorc. Thus SkL janat, 
Lilh. gamut, Gk. ycWf. Lat. gana, is E. *n». Skt-^ft^dar, Gk. 
£^r, Litli.ynK^iif, Lat. iugum, is V-^yott. We tnajr notice 
that it is chiefly difitingmshcd from the palatal G b)r tbc 
Olhuaniao me or^ instead of i. 

{i) Tliis corresponds to Ski./ or ^, Litli.^, Gk. 3, Ial 
^, V. It sliifls to Teut. K, followed byu or w; we ofien find 
fu in English. Thus Ski. go, Gk. ff<nit, La. 6&t, Lctlisb 
giai/is, Ls ilie A. S. c^, £. cceu The Skt./fr, to live, is allied 
to Gk. iKet, life, and to Lat. um-ut {='giiiu-iti\ living, 
Uibuan. gjtctu. Old Sbvonic titS (Russ. jivot), living; 
also to Goth. hoi-US {='kwrw'us\ stem kitivo, living, and 
lo A. S. ewi-e, E. gui-ti, living. The A. S. etoie also look 
the (later) form ate (witli u for wi); hence tbe prov. E. 
tmeh-grass, otherwise called ^uikh-grais, guiek-gratt, i.e. 
live grass, a term applied to a weed {Tritieum r^tnt) which 
it is very dilficult lo eradicate. 

§ 104. Aryan E (palatal). This remains as k in Greek, 
atul f (sounded as k) in Latin : but in Ski. il usually appears 
as f (i.e. a sound Uiai has been chmigcd from it to f ), and in 
Lithuanian as /s. In Teutonic it shifts to GH, represented 
in Gothic. &c., by a slrorgly aspirated h, except in cases 
where tlie h is changed to f ia consequence of Verncr's 
Law; for which sec Chap. IX. Thus E. himd-rtd, A.S. 
htmd, tJt Aryan kexto ', Skt. ^aia, Gk. S-tarJn, Lilh. nimJat, 
Old Slav. f*/o (Russ. xfo), O. Irish t/l (Irish etad). Welsh 

Aryan Q (velar) had, from the beginning, a tendency to 

> Moce aiicllf kuto, Wbric ihe M i* tdckI ; tbc weait fati^ «* the 
latter qrlUUe- 








a pansitic 10 following it. There are two cases : (a) wliere 

ih« (eiuknc}- ii lost in some of ihe languages, so that the 

remains as 4 in Skt. and Lithuanian ; and [t) where SkL 

has eh, Lat. has qa, and Gk. either retains *, or has r (before 

*) or T (before 1, «). With the latter case wc may rank ih« 

examples in which Skt. alone has tA, but all the other 

languages have i. The Ar)-a» Q shifts icj^larly to Tcut. 

KHw, i. e. kw, E. wh or h (or even /). F.xnmptcs of (o) 

are: Aryan QO or Qi, who; Skt. ias, Lith. kas, Gk. rit, Lai. 

fM('(ror *piM'),qms; Goth, tiusu, A.S. hw4, E-wAo. Also 

Ar)'an vERQoei a ivolf, Skt. mint, Gk. Xwot (for fXinn), Lat. 

btf*ts{lox *wlupmt),lAih.witkas, Rusa. t>oik'; in this case the \^' 

Goth, hw is replaced by_^, corresponding hy Grimm's Law to 

ihc Lat./, thus giving Goih. tvul/t and £. wolf. Examples 

of (^ are : Aryan qetwar, four ; SkL ehalsur, Gk. ritraiHt, 

tltf«opit, LaL piaiuor, O. Irisii aJit'r, Lith. Muri, Russ. rjf</- 

wffl, Welsh /rAnrr; Goth. /iftvor, A.S.ySuwir, ^L four. 

The SkL has &e root riahi to shine, corres]>onding to Aryan 

RCVQ • ; but Olhcr languages keep ihc k, as in Gk. Xtvidi, while, 

L»t. Itu-v*, to shine; this k becomes Goth- h regularly; 

hence GotbMi*-*-//, A. S. Ueh-l, E. /<irA-/ (where -/ is suffi-tcd). 

In thit case Ihc Skt. alone has preecr%vd a trace of q; in all 

the uhcr languages it is k. 

{ lOS. Aryui GH (palsUl). Tliis is represented in Skt. 

•yA,ui Gk. by xi in Latin it is A oryimiially, and A (which 
^oAen drops out) medially, or g (aficr a conKODant). The 
iih. is ). By re^lar shifting, it liecomes G in Teutonic, 
mplcs: Gk. x"!^", winter, answers to Lat. hitiHs; Skt. ^ 
Annua, swan, ans-wers to Gk. xh", goose, Lat. aiuer (for 
'kamtr), Lith. HUit, Russ. gus\ A.S. git, E. goose. Gk. 
X^h, Rall> >B iM-ftl. E. gaU. Skt. agiut, sin, is allied to 

rk. 'x*^! angui&h, Lat. aiig-er; and to Goth. agU, fear. 

■ Sec Rma No. ^1 in lid ef Aijui Roots, in my Etym. IMct. 




1«1. agi, whence the mot!. K. awt, i word of ScandinivUii 

Aryan QHw (velar). This is represented b}- Sfcc gi 
or A, Gk. X (occasionally 6, ^), and Litli. g. Laiiii b irenr 
variable, shewing g, A,/ initially, and §"< " medially. Thw 
Lat gralut is i^d to Gk. x^W. I rejoice; Lat. knlii.x 
ttran;;er, enemy, is allied (o A. S. gaif, sUanger, E. gtiuL 
Lat. formut, wann, to Skt. gharma, warmth. I.iU. aitgtat, 
a snake, is allied lo Lithuan. angit, Ck. ««if, Skt. ahi, ■ 
snake. Lat. leu-is, light, is for 'Uhuis, Gk. /-Xoxvt; and 
irfu-ii, Khori, for 'brtiu-is, Gk. dpax-it. The Teutonic 
shifts, regularly, to G. 

§ 106. Qrimm'a Law ; Outtural Sories. It follom 
from ihc aboTC explanation that the guttural scries G, K, GH, 
really splits into a doubU set, viz. O, K, GH (palatal), and 
Gw, Q, GHw (velar). Hence llie Law in { loi above, wbidi 
is true if G, K, GH arc palatal, requires lo be Kupplemented 
by the following. 

Write down the following series of velar letters, 
via. GHw, Gw, Q, KHw(=Hw); then the Aryu 
sound corresponding to each of these symbols (except 
tho lost) ia ahifted, in cognate Teutonic worda, to tbe 
sound oorrespondiug to tho symbol whiob twzt 
succeeds it. Nnmcrous examples are given below, where 
ibe E. forms come first. These arc given by the double 
set of formulae K<G; H<K; G<GH; and Q<Gw; 
Hw<Q; Gw<GHv,-. 

5 107. In the above statements, only ibc thi*/ pecu- 
liarities of particular languages have been noticed; the 
various consonants are often atfected by their peculiar posi- 
lion in the word or by ihc neighbouring vowels; fer 
Euch variations, books on classical plulology must be con- 
sulted. I believe, however, that I liave said enough to 
enable me to giw a ubie of ' Regular Substitution of 
Sounds,* similar to that which Cunius gives in bis Greek 





Eqmology, Ir. by Wiikins and Eogland, i. 158; see also 
Rhj^ L«ctum on Welsli Philo!(^y, md ed., p. 14. Now 
that vc have gone through the whole scries, we need no 
longer consider the dental series first, but can take Utcm 
in the niual philological order, viz. (1) guitunils, (a) dentals, 
(3) labiab. 

Tablb ot Rboular Sdbstitutiok of Cowsonakts. 

In the follouing table, ihc Aryan symbols are on the 
up, and ihc Teutonic on the cxticmc right. By comparing 
tbeae, the shifUng or the consonantal sound is at once per- 
cdved. Only the tuuat corrcttpoiiding values of the coD- 
sonanls arc given ; il is impossible to inchidc ever}- case. 








0. liUh. 































































In thl* isbie, th« LAltn wuntU witbin a paicnlhetli only occur medUllf. 
IB Golh. ind KS. *oua<l* wilUa mvtn biaclutt «to Tadstiou dne lo 
Vaaet't L«w. 




It reinaliu to gtx-e examples of Um above-named corre- 
spondences of consonantal soumls. These I shall take tn 
the order of the tabtc, but bediming vith English, i.c. with 
ihe right-hand column. 

5 108. Tbvt. K (Goth, k, A.S. hawJ t)<K%\A« G (£ 
J, Gk. y, Ul. g. Lith. S. O. Slav. s. O. Ir. i). Sec J loj. 

The symbol k ia not much used in A. S., u-hkh conunoaTi' 
uses ( ; nevertheless, it ap|iear3 occasionally even in USS. 
vriLien before the Conquest. In the latter part of the A.S. 
Chronicle it appears [rcqucDtly. and from about 1150 to the 
present day is used before t and /, because e might ocber- 
wise be suppo^rd to have the sound of s; also before «■ 
where it is new silent, though originally sounded. Ttwi 
order of words follows that in Kick's Wonerbucb, iiL 38. | 

IstTiALLT. E. kin, A. S. eynn, Gotb. kuni (stem kun-fof, 
Teut. K«s-vo', a tribe (formed by 'gradation' from the Tew., 
root KtN); cf. Lat. gen-hit, in-gtn-ium (whence E. jpnuti;] 
iagmieitt), Lat. gft-us, race, Gk. tir-ot, Skt. jan, to b^ci, , 
generate. Root oeh. to beget. 

E. kii^, A. S. e}-n-ing, lit. belonging to the kio, or one 
of (royal) race ; a dcrivali*-e of h'n (above) 

E. eon, now a present tense, but redly an old past tense 
of A. S. fuitnan, to know ; from the Aryan root gkn, to know, 
which is U-iually altered 10 cmd, as in Gk. y"»-»h Skt. Jlld^^^ 
to know ; sec account of £. iww below. ^| 

E. kai, to know, formerly ' to make to know,' causal de< 
riv.ttive of fiui. 

E, knew, A. S. auhvan, Russ. tira-ft, to know, LaL na^tm. 
old form gH»-ietrt. Gk. yi-r/rii-imtv, Skt. JM, to know ; 
Arj'an root oko, from an older cex (cf. £. tan). 

> The Golh./ U KWwM U E. y. 

* Tent, tyiwi^ printcit in aip«l«li, uc all lkt»rrtk»t, tiBl ue laefa] 
diewtng the riflit fbmi. So*in>iheAi7WiitTiies.a]Mpit9itillnciplUl^ 
are llkewritc Ihronllol. Thejr are |>lv<ii In FIck'i WoKcrbaeh ; Inil tlw 
*i>c*luRi. u Iher* givtn, ti«ed* i«rotni, and 1 do not kaow ihu I baic 
•Imfs tt( it itfifat. 



» 109-1 



^p E. t«mi, A. S. tanii, a hwthcd instrument ; allied to Ski. 

JanMa, tMtfa, ^w, Gk, yoji^i^. Jaw, yfp^, a peg. 
^_ E. and A. S. «rjt ; Ruts. scrM-^, corn; Lat. ^jn-ura. 
^P E. ermt. A, S. <-r(M, Welsh garan. Ok. Y«>av-e», a crane, 
^ Lithuan. garn-jfs^, a stork, g^rwe, a crane, LaL ^r*-/ ; named 
^^ from the cf)f. Cf. Gk. jijii-wic, to cry out. And sec below. 
H E. frew, A. S. crfyo-an, lo crow as a cock. Cf. hiX-grta 
^ (above). 

E. cafW, A. S. etor/-an ; Gk. ypJi^tr, to scrsilch, write. 

PK. ^/(/. adj., A. S. ftald, Goth. >tajVf, allied to coot, A. S. 
^; LaL^Ai//-uf, cold, ^c/-», frost. 

»E. Imati/, A.S. aud-ttn, G. Aati-fn.'Rvst. gnt/-aU,gne-i/t',Uy 
prcm, squeeic. 
R iwj^, A. S. wi}''; from tJie verb to nip (for in^ "). to 
pinch, bjic (hence, cut), Du. kmjp-fn, \o pinch; Litbuaii. 
v^'f'-f>\ to l^tc (as a goose), to pinch, u a crabj also 
^B Lithuan. gnj^h-ii, to nip. 

B £. knot. A.S. ^(^Z/a: Swed. tuui (whcnoe tiie Run. 
fouj^r, a whip, written htcul in E., was bonowcd); Lat. 

»n5d-ut {for 'gawha, like noieert for gitcsctrt). 
R. tnet, A. S. cnfffto, Goth. it«r«( ; ^ rt«w, Gk. yA*, Skt. 
/il)ur, knee. 
E c/MTf, to split, A, S, fUef-an, G. kUtb-m. Teut. base 
KLPB (Kluge) ; Gk. yXi^-Hc, to hollow out, engrave, Lat. 
glah-trt^ to peel. 
^ § 109. As the Scandinavian hngungres are closely allied 
^Bu> Engjisb, we naturally find that words of Scandinavian 
or^iu can be classed witli English as regards their initial 
letters. Thus E. <att, IccL and Swcd. AmZ-a, Dan. ktii-t, 
orig. to throw np into a heap (cf. E. tost up a mound), from 
Icei. ^, a pile, heap, is allied to XjA. gtr-a-t, to carry, bring, 

' I toppoM that g app«aR irutei4 of E in IJlhiMniin ticcinw Ibe 
word ii imiutiiv. Imiutive wordi iM^oently ibcv cicrptionat Toniia. 

' 'AU br ai calal, the lang (jramyria day, Had in (har pastur cjrt 
sad taxyf vitvf! (iltj). C. DousLAXi Piol. \Q di Uc. of Viigll. 


whence Lat. ag-ger, a mound, a heap brongfat tocdn 
Gir-trt = * gtt-tre, as shewn by the pt L. ftf-n; i^ 

% 110. K > OH. Examples in which tibe A.S. ( 
(before ? or t) becomes E. ch. 

E. f Aad, a. S. c/mh-oR, G. kaa-en ; Russ, jay-ait, 0. Sbt 
liv-aii, to chew, 

E. cA(», A. S. «'», Icel. *i««, G. Kitm ; Lat. ge»-a, daA 
Ok. y/i"iit, chin, jaw. 
y E. f^o0ff, A. S. c/os-an, Goth, h'us-ati ; Gk. fn-'ip'i ' 
ta,stc ; Lat. gus-tus, taste ; Skt, /wA (for 'jta), to o^i 

§ 111. Final E. In all the above examples the TA' 
K occurs at the b^inning of the words. It will be ni(Ad K 
add examples in n-hich it occurs at, or near, the etui of wa(& 
As before, 1 give only aUcltd examples, and I find wjtii 
compelled to give them as briefly as possible. FnBs 
particulars can frequently be obtained by looking out ds 
words in my Etymological Dictionary; on which acconid,k 
is not necessary to give all the cognate words, nor fill 
details. The order of the examples is the same as that ■ 
Pick's WGricrtAich. 

KlEDiALLV AND FINALLY. E. tki, lo augment, A. S. ia e m , 
Goth, auk-an; Uihuan. aug-ti, to grow; Lat. atig-trt, to 

The mod. E. / is A. S. ic, Gcah. iJ ; Lat. ^-o, GL it*, 
r/-itr ; but the Ski. is aiam (as if for * agham), 

E. rook (bird), A. S. hr6e, i. e. ' croaker ' ; Goth. Armifn, 
to crow as a cock ; Gk. tpavyij, a screaming*, cf. SkL knf, 
to cr^- out. 

E. Ikalch, s, A. S./fl-f ; Lat teg-tr/, to cover, Gk- y w ' y w; 
Skt. sthag. The Arjan roots teg and steg, to cotct, ue 
merely variant forms. 

> Here sound-^iliing occnis tviut, botli ax. the tt^mtdug and Ibe «■/ 
of the woid ; lo also in tlUUtk, tkint, &c. 




£. think, A. S. Ptnt-mt^ froin Aitc> * thought ; O. Lit. 

4rt, to ihinl:. 
E. thith; 0. Irish flif-<, Irish f^A-r, thickness, fatness. 
E. tait, A. S. iae-an, pn. Wf ; cf. Gk. i^wy^ir, to roasl. 
E, ieeei, derived from A. S, He, beech ; Lai. /Sg-os, Gk. 

E. Mviif , A. S. 6ra-an, pt. t. friw ; Lai. /ra[n)g-tre, pt. i, 

E. ^/<j<A, A. S. iCw, orig. btiickcned by 6rc ; iM.ficg-rirt, 
I bum ; Gk. ^Aiyttv, to scorch. 

£. Umi, pale, A.S. £i^, from 6iic-an, to shine; proh. 
lied lo Gk. ^<V»o-; cf. Lilh. d/l^-fii, to shine. 
E. tntifA. M.E muc/u, allied to M.K. muchtl, miefui, A.S. 
tiW/; Gk. f>f)MK, great, ;Hy-iiX-7, fern., great. 
E. mWt, s., G- melk-en, to milk, v. ; O. Irish tntlg, milk ; 
Gk. a'-fK'Xy-«i», LaL mu/ff-frf, to milk. 

E. rrirA, A.S. rti--<, powerful ; Lai. r^-ere, to rule; SkL 
rdj-A, a king. Wc use rayA In E Here also belongs B. 
rigkl, A. S. rikt (for * rut) ; cf. Lat. «*■-/!« (for ' rrg-tut). 

E. uioXv, A. S. tpofan ; Lat. tttg-trty to arouse ; k'^i/, 
E tpr'ffi^, a shell-fish. wttKh, a crank ; Lilhuan. wing-t, a 
|i bend. 

^H E aw^ A. S. uvorr, s. J Gk. tfff-t^ (for * fipyav) '. 
^F E wrtak, A. S. wrec-an, orig. to drive, urge, impel ; Lat. 
^n^g^ft ( = * utrg-rrt, to urge, Gk. ti^iy-^ui, Ionic tpf-up 
^^K (f4'r-"*)< to impel; Ski. tT/{^ * tvi^*). to exclude, orig. 
^to bend ; Ar>'an wEito. Cf. E. urgt, ftoia the Latin. 

E. rlici, to pierce ; O. Fries, tleia, to pierce ; cf. O. Sax. 
tiaJt, pt. I. he pierced; G. titefftn, to pierce, stab; 
iit-iU'g-art, to prick forward, Gk. ^rif"* (= * o^rr-y"'), to 
|tfick, irrif-tta, a mark made by pricking, E stigma, 

Tfai> !• oo* of die D am ttO M intUncn in which Eng;11tb thrawf Uj^t 
!ck. Enf. (/iW preKms tlie initui w, ohidi Ornk Tout it 
iMetuamJ j«us «(o. The lynibol f ;di-gUDina) nieua w, 

VOL. I. K 





E. sfrih. The A. S. strie-an is sometimes used \a jtut 
same ecnsc as Lnt. f//'i^M)g-<«, to pass liglitly orcr tlw n 
face ; cf. Lat. sirig-iiis, a scraper for the skin. 

E. speak, for * ifireak, A. S. sfirec-ait (later ^^tfr-m) ; led. 
sprak-a, to crackle; Lithuan. sprag-Uti, to crackle, raltle; 
Gk. ff^ujwy-ot, a crackling. 

£. j/<ifi, hx ; cf. Skt. stj, to let flow, let loose. 

{ 113. I have $ivcn ratlier a full list of the charges 
Ar>-an a to Tcut. k in order \a shew the principle deaxif. 
The following lisu are less exhaustive. 

TtUT. KH (Golh. h,g)<hxxfx K (Skt. f, Gk. «. Lat^, 
Uth.n). See { 104. 

Tkitiallv. £. healh ■ ; Lat. (J«)-r//-«M, a pasture ibr 
caitle, Vi . cced { = ' coef), a. wood. 

E. h^i (sing-cr); cf. A.S, Aari'tt, a cock ; Lat ean-tre, to 

[E. haJ, A. S. h/af-od is often compared wttlt Lat e^^ 
but ihc Goth, form is hau&ilh, .-likI the G. b Haupt, irfaddi 
would rc<juirc (says Kluge) a LaL ' cattput, Fick is wioag 
in supposing chat the A.S. /a was short, and mistakes the 
Icel. form, which was originally haufiid.\ 

E. htave J LaL cap-^rt, to hold. (Sec Kluge, s. v, h^tn^ 

E. horn ; \a\.. torn-u, Irish r^rn, horn. From the Sltne 
ultimaic root is E. kar-t, allied to Lat. ttr-muy a hart. 

E. hard: Gk. «por-u(, sUong. 

E. hartHsl, A. S. hitrf-tst ; Lat. tarp-trt, to plack, Gk. 
A, fruil. 

E. ^ur/m, ^d/in, stalk ; LaL cttlm-m, Gk. icaXiipi>f^ 

E. ^dsr/, A. S. hattl ; Lat. turul-tu (for ' ^mjhAim), \Vi 

£.^om/,A.S. hAm; Lithuan. ktm'at,% vShge, and perbapa 
Ck. KUfiii; sec Kluge, s.t. Heim. 

E. A;* (skin), A.S. /jV; LaL ««/-;>, Gk. weCr-^r. 

> See Etym. DicL for TuEIcr puticului, both M regitda thb Mid ) 
oCbct wordi. 






^P £. hititd-rtdt A. S. htmd; Lat. tnH-un, W. nm/; Gk. f-mr- 

' 4r, Skt. and Zend fah. Litli. aimlas, Kuss. fi!», P«rs. m/ 
^_ E. htari,A.S. hforlt; LaL cor (xtecn tordi-); Gk. Mf)i)-in, 
^■Kuxs. ttrditf, 0- Ir. rrtj/c. 

^ E. r/i^, A. S. firtag] Lai. eircut, Gk. tpix-oi, xipK-ot. 
^^ E. /«»», V. (for •j4Ami»), A. S. hliman; Lat etiuart, Gk. 

E. /Mft/ (for *hUiti\, A.S. 4/Atf; Lat. mnlut-at, famous, 
Gk. lAwr-Jf, famous. 
■ FwAtxv OK Mesiallv. E. f^M A. S. t<A-ta, Goth. «^ 
^■/ii» ; Lai. (K-to, Gk. ^«-rw. 
H £. /cR, Golh. laik-un ; Lat. dtc-tta, Gk. S/c-o, Skt dofon, 

E. iMjr, to grow, Goth. ttmJit-Jan ; Skt. rd^jA (for • tiw^j), 

»tO grow, Gk. a^-oHU', to increaje. (Here Gk. f =Skt. is= 
! 113. TiuT. G (Goih. j?)<ARyAS GH l^Skt. *S, Gk. x^ 
Lat. A,/ or, after a coiiaonant, ^). See § 105. 
Initially. E. g^ose, A.S.gis. G. Gatu; Lat. uw-rt- (for 
• Aaiu-er}, Gk. jir, Lith. Jfi?rt>, iaAtis ; Ski. ^crmj-a, a swan. 
E. f fl// ; Lal./W, Gk. x<>>--v, gaU. 
H E. ffuttf, Goth, f jj/-! ; Lat. Anj/-w, stranger, guwt, enemy. 
" Sng. y. Tlic initial E. g also appears as j/ (for A. S. g 
when (bllowetl by e). 

K-ytorn, A. S. gym-an, v., from ^wrut, adj. detirous ; G. 
ie^thr-a, to long for; Gk. x"?-^ joyi Skt. Aur^, to de- 

E- yard, A. S. grard, a court ; Lai, hort'Ut, Gk. niprttt ; 
O. Irish jtr/, a garden. 

E. ytlhna, A. S. j-^^Ar (ace. gtohoe) ; Lat. hdu-is, light 
ycUow ; Gk. i;Xi-i(, young verdure of tree* ; cf. Russ. ulamii. 

jmwH, A. S. gdn-ioB, aftem'ards weakened to M.E. 
1, as if for A, S. 'gnfn-ian; Gk. xo^—**, K> S*t>C- Cf. 
, }ii-«t, yauning gulf. E. daos ; Lat. ii-arf, to gape. 



C/f/AfM'S LAW. 

[Ciut. Vin. ' 

E. yfiler-^ay, A. S. gtoslra (ycfflcr-) ; Lat. httitr-tmt, be- 
longinf; 10 yesterday ; cf. Sku hyai, yesictday. 

FiNALtr AKi> Medially : losi in Mod. E, or rcprcscntctl bjnr. 

E. dicv, a word of Scand. origin, Ic«L ag-i, fear ; 
JT^-ot, paiD, anxiety ; Skt. agh-a, saa. 

E, moM, gtrength, A. S. mceg'tn ; Gk. pv^'Ot^, means ; 
mah (for " wa^^), to honour (magnify). 

v.. lie, A.R. lug-on, pt. L lag; Gk. X<x-«(> a bed; 
l^U, O. Slav, /rf-j//. 10 lie. 

K. wain, A.S. wag'tn ; cf. I^t. n/Air^.Skt. tviA, to cwtyT 

f 114. Teut. Q (Goth, km, k; A- S. ew, c)<Artak Gw 
(Ski. g, J, Gk. y. A Lat. g, v, 5, Lith. g, SJav. ^, a, O. Ir. *^ 
See $ 103, 

IitmALLT. E. c^f , A.S, cti {for *mm 1) ; O. Irish M I^ 
Jt«, Gk. i9oC», Skt. ^0 ; Pen. gdtv, bullock. Hence Tat. 
t^lgdiv, Ul blue cow, wtilten oylgAaii in English, and tued u 
tbc name of a kinil of antelope. 

E. tofi-Je, v., allied lo ^tiact ; cf. Lilfa. g/g-^e, a cuckoo 
(dimln. rorm); Rusa. gog-etaU, to cackle. An iinttative wenl, 
and snch imitaiivc words oAcn remain unaltered. Cf. VSi. 
caehiimut. laughter, whence E. MiAi'mMtrm, The E, gaggU 
i» a mere variation. Very similar h F. (a//U, and even iaiilL 
AU result fiom such repetitions as iit, ka,ga,ga, la, ta. i*, 
fa, ^ua, qua. Cf. hat hat to express laughter. 

E. (al/, A.S. eeal/, Goih. .fo/i-o; Gk. Sp/^ot, emt 
youn^, SkL gariha, embr^'O. 

E. <oal, A. S. (n/, G, Koklt, Tcol, base solo (=xwAUtl 
Cf, SkL Jvai-a, llamtng, jv£l-a, flame, _;tw/, to blate, jxttr, 

E. rttmA A. .S. fwm-iTM, Goth ihcvM-on, Lat tien-ire, 
fftur^ir (for 'jSnvt}''!*). to go ; Skt. gam, to go. 

£. fuoM, qtitan, A. S. cw/h^, Icct /ki^ a woman ; Gk. Tv*-q, 

* Id thit case, the /in A. S, <-m^ b m inntated fain tft i - TrsL 
l«nc <i : Seirm. O. E. Gtmia. { 68. IIcbw ^tut» unm* lo a TniU 
type Kw^i (Flek, ilf. 39), 

« "Si 



woman, wife ; Skt. /an-i, a wife ; Pen. xan, si woman ; O. 
Irish ien, Gaelic ietm. From Per*, san comes the Hindustani 
zandna, wocncn's aputmcntti, imporied into English as 
tanana. or (less correctly) senana. From Gael, ieantiiti, lit. 
fairy woman, we have £. baiuhet or henthu. 

V~ fufnt, a huicl-mill, for grinding com, A. S. cwecm, IceL 
Jtvem, Goth, bvaim-us; Lith. gtrn-a, the miU>stone in a 
qoero, ^i>n-iu, pU a }ian<J-mill; Sitt. /dr-aya, to grind, front 
^jW, to grow old, to be digested. 

^B £. ^// is a causal form, from A. S. avel-an (jil t. ewal), 
Vto die, whence also ihc !ib. fua/~m, A. S. evxalm, a pestilence, 
Vftod ibc A.S. muAif, destruction. Cf. G, Qru/, lorment; 
Litfauan.^-d, lonncnL 

K. fB'Vi, living, A.S, tv/ie, loeU koil-r; a, shorter form 
flDpcars in Goth, hviu-t, quick, living (stem iwiui-a), answer- 

Pl to LaL utu-M (for 'guiu-us), Liihuau. gjrw-at, Russ^ 
.«; ali\«. Ct Gk. Biot, life, Skt./ii-, to live. 
Memillt. £. naitd, A.S. nac-od, Gotb. ruiw-a/ii, a 
past participial form. Allied to Kuss. nh^-f/, Ski. tmg-ia, 
naked, O. Irish nocA-t, naked. 

f..jvtt, A.S.gtoc; \M.Jug-um, Gk. (vyi*; Skt.'y'lff-"- 
i us. Teot. Hw (Colli, ^hf, A, A. S. Aw, A, E. wh, h) 
»< Artjlx Q (Skt. i, th. Git. *, IT, r, Lai. yw, f, v, Liili. and 
lav. 4). Sec £ 104. E. hew; Ijlb. iou>-a, hitllc. *d«-A', to fight, 
'^^joss. kao-alt. to hammer; cf. Lat. cu-d-trt, to beaL 
H E. Ara/> A. S. jt/tfA heap, crowd ; Ruks. itt/-a, heap, 
^crowd ; Lith. h^-a, heap, crowd ; Lith. tauf^-as, heap. 
£. toAo, A. S. kttfd', Lai. ?»j, Lith. and Skt. ta-s, who. 
E. vehtttf, A.S. hw/t-an; Lat. ^<T-t' (pp. quts-lui), to 
compbin ; Skt, fp«, to breathe hard. 

E. jcMe, A.S. AtKf/; allied to Lai. gta^t, rest; cf. Gk. 
ut-fu), I lie still. Skt (i, 10 lie still. 

MioiALLV. E. light, %., A. S. /ri>-*/,Golh. /i«A-<j/A,brighlncs«; 
Lal im-trt, to ihine, Gk. XtiHcif*, white : Skt. riuh, to sliinc. 


CK Of it's LAW. 


tou». Tin. 

§ U6. Teit. Gw, G (Golh. g) < Aryan GHw {Skt. gJi, i, 
Gk. X, 0, e, Lau f , A./(f K, ;7), Liili. and Slav. g). Sec § 105. 

Mediallt. E. Kaf/, A. S. nag-d; Rihs. nog-ott, Liik 
nag-as ; Ski. iiiTi^->i (for * ff<^A->i}. 

E. xV/Vi-, A, S. iltg-il, from ttSg-an, 10 climb ; cf. 
PT>ijp4ir, to go, Skt. J/fjfA, lo osccikJ. 

S U7. Teut. T (/)< AsYAx D (Skt. rf, Gk. «, Lai. 4/. 

iKlTiALLr. E. foetk, A. S. /i5^ (for • tcn3), Gotli. /tmllmi- 
Lat, ace. dml-rm. 

£. /iinif ; Lai. dom-arty Gk. 9afi-$i>, Skt. (£inr, to tame. 

E. limber, Gotli. Hm-r-Jan, to build ; cf. G)c. 8^-<v, 10 

E. /Mr, s., Goth. /<^r; LaL lacrima, O. Lat dacrm^ 
Gk. Sfwpv. 

E. /ftjr, v., Goth. ga-lair'OM ; Ruii& rfir^ a rent ; Lilhi 
flSrir-//, Gk. a«p-*ii., lo fiay ; Pens, dar-ldin, 10 tear. 

E, Irtt, Golh. Mk; Gk. V^. 0- lfis>l» <*»""» Welsh 
oak ; Russ. drev-o, tree. 

£. /«(»j, A. S. /ifju, an cnclowre; O. Iridi d!fo, a w: 
town, Welsh rfw (whence dm-at, a (own). 

E. /;>, loiD, v., /(^ ; cf. Lat. dut-en, to draw. 

E. longue ; Lai. ling-ua, O. Lat. diag-ua. 

E. Jlrti, Goth. tert«« ; Lat. Acww, Gk. «•'«, Skt. t/ofim. 

E. A>, pr«p.; Rubs, d^, O. Irish do, to. 

E. frta-d, tra-mp ; cf. Gk. BpS-i™, Ski. dr/l, lo run. 

E./nM, A.S. twd; Lat. </«!>, Gk. iuo, Russ. and Skt. dva, 
Irish da. 

FiSALLr KXB Mit»iAi.tY. K oi, Goth. «/; Lat. arf. 

E. oui, A.S. (i/; Skt. ud, up, out. 

E. A?/, Goth, it-an ; Lat. ^-vt-f, Gk. ti-ta, Sku o^, to 

E. whaJ; Lti. fwnoT, ^utd; Skt. iflif, what. 

E,yW; Lat. ace. /crf-rm, Gk. ace. «iJ-«, SkL/a<fc 

'E.JUtl.Jfoat; Lilhuan. //tt^-tm, I fioat. 

E. ^AfT, Goth. &t/-j, good; Skt Mad-ra, esccUcnt 



S i'«.] 




I E.**; Lat/(ji)rf'-«r^,toc1caTC,pl.l./«/-(;Skl.A*/rf,locl«ave. 

E. Kai-*r ; Russ. kW-o, Gk. vJ-«p, Skt. ud-an, water. 

E. Mht; Ross, vuid-ra, Ltlliuan. «rf-ra, otter; Gk. uJ-^, 
waler-snake, whence K. hydra. 

E. tr£^, uhY/, to know; Rnss. vid-itlt, to see, I.nt. tad-tre, 
Gk. t*-<u» (for •fi*-*!*), to see; Skt, ni/, to know, otig. 
to aee. £. nvi/E=Gk. nfil-a. 

E ti7; Ross. tid-itU, LaL std-ert, Skt. m^, to sit; Gk. 
*£o;mu {sn'aii-re-iiat), I (it. 

E. ««*«■/, dark, black, Goth, swari-s ; allied to Lat, twd-es 
|(br 'ttPttrd-es), dirt, whcnc* serd-id-as^ diny; nrd-ta, dim- 

ilonnd. Cf. E. sordid, surd. 

E. mm-/; I^t. tua-uis (=* suad-uis), pleasam; Gk. ^S-w 
s='ff^o8-vt), sweet ; Skt. tvdd-u, sweet, Cf. E. Mofc. 

E. n«fa/; Lat. rff^-or (="rtt'(y-ttr), Gk. 13-pit (='afia- 
f>A«), Bweat ; Skt. svtd, to sweat, svtd-a, sweat. 

I U8. Teut, TH (Goth. Ih, rf)= Arta-v T {Skt. /, Gk. r, 

,t /V See ( 96. 

Imtiau K. tiial; Lai. (»V>-JW, Skt. /it</. 

E. tkaJeA, A.S. Juw, s.; Lat. itg-fTt, to cowr ; Gk. r/y-or, 
■, crrj'-tii', to cowr. Cf. E. Ugument, 

E. think', cf. O. Lat. long-ire, to think. 

E. /A/it ;, ien-m's, Rum. Aw^jV, Skt /m-ir, tbin. 

E. titisfder ; Lat /M-are, to thunder. 

E. /Aam ; Rusk. /?/->», blaek-thora ; Polish /am, tliom, 

E./A«>//; Irish iart, fikl. tarsAa, thirst; Gk. ripa-otat, I 
am drr- 

E. /&i/<r, V. to en<liue (slill in use provincially) ; Lat. /et- 
trarf, Gk. rX^-™*. Cf- E- lelrralt. 

E. Mw< : O. Irish tig-e, thickness, ting, thick. 

E. Ihw, Rtm, /w; Irish tu, Lat. iSx; Pcrs, t&. 

Z. /Aw/; Ijthu.111. trob-a, a dwelling; O. Irish /rrf, a 
seitlemeDt, tribe ; G. Dor/. 

E. Ikrtal-tn \ Lat. trud-tre, to push, urge ; Russ. trud-iU, to 
urge to work, vex. 

136 Gx/J/Ji's ijitr. [GuF.nn. 

T-Artt; Irish, Rnsa, SkL, ^'; Lu. Avf , (%. tpm. 

Fecal aso Medlu. £. htoA ; LaL 6tfUt-mm, caw-pUtoK. 

E. loolA ; haL ace. dait-^m, Welsh dan/. 

Z./talA-er; Gt nr-cpa>, I fly, SkL /aZ-ra, feather; lat 
ptn-na (for 'pti-na), a. leaihcr, whence E. pen. 

E. KvrilA-^ (Miv-iiT-), A. S. wiorS-^, Goth. lUKnEil-r; IjL 
MX. morl-tm, death. Cf. E. mortal. 

£. tealAt; cf. SkL kihai-a, voimded. 

{ 119. Telt. D (<0<Aktax DH (Skt. dk, 4t,G\.t,hA. 
imV/, meA rf, 3, Liih., Slav., Irish rf). 

bd-rui- £. dart, Goth, obrj, I dare ; GL Bapa^lr, to be 
bold, Russ. da-z-ali, Skt. i^XtM, 10 dare. 

E dimg/i, Goth, dtg-cn, to knead ; Lat. fing-tr*, to nmild; 
Skt. ^i'A (for * <3Ui^<i), to smear. Cf. E /e^, from Ik 

E. daughter ; Gk. Svymip ; Skt diAilar (for * dKi(f Auiitr). 

E. iftwr; Gk. dup-o, Skt.A'ifi'-a {for 'dhtdr-a), Russ.A(nr; 
O. Irish dor-US ; LaLjbr-ej, pl^ doots. 

E (/o; Gk. n-A)-/ii, I set, put, place; SkL dAJ, to poL 
Hence E. doo-m, Gk. 6i-iut. 

E. (//-tfOf, to hum ; Gk. 6^r-^>t, a dirge ; SkL diran, to 

Fkal A^'D Medial. £. udd-er; LaL wj-«r (for 'vdl-cr), 
Gk. oSS-ap, SkL adh-an, Hdh-ar. 

£. Aon/; Gk. icpar-is, strong ; Ionic rdpr-ot, strength. 

E. hide, A. S. hjd; Lat. c&l-it, Gk. irmr-«e. 

E. JiW; Skt. batidh (for 'bhandh), to bind; Pen. taxdam, 
to bind ; Aryan bhkxdh. 

E. «</; Gk. i-fni6-p6t, LaL n*J-«- (for *rut&-er); ^L 
rudh-ira, blood ; O. Irish nini/, red. 

£. wid-ow ; Lat. uid-ua, Skt. vidk-avS. 

E, iwrrf; Lat. turb-um (for *iurdh-um), Cf. Eng. iwrddl 

E. i/iifr, A. S. slid-atty to slide, slid-or, shppcty ; Lith. rilrf- 
«r, slidd-us, shining, slipper}-. 

ButE.f/irai/hasi/forM; d.Goih.slatk-t. It is allied to laL 







slat-io, a sution; Skt sihil-i {Ua *sfi/-i), nn abode; { ii8. 
For ainikr example*, scc$$ 119. 130. 

iiaO. Tevt. P (^)<AiiVAN B (Skt. i, Gk-ft LaL*)'. 
See H »8, 100. 

Imtiai^ There ii no example in which this change occim 

FiMaL and IkTsDiAL. K. app-h, A. S. afp-d; O. Intli 
ai-ali, ut-all, Liihuan. o^fys, Riis*. iab-loh. 

E. (■//>, A. S. ffyff-OH, to embrace; LixhiLxn. ai-g/ei-/i\Ui 

E. iAorp ; Lilli. /rtii-a, a dvixlling, O. Irislt /rti, a scitlc- 
mcDt, tribe. 

E. df^, Goth, diu/it ; Lith. ^ti-ut, hollow, deep. 

There seem, howc«r, 10 be some clear cases in which 
the Aryan P hu practically remained unKhiftcd in English. 
This fact has been denied : but I ihink it should be ad- 
mitted, though there may be some special cause, sucli as 
accent, to account for such exoepttons to the general rule. 
J subjoin examples*. 

ItirnAL- K. faJi, A. S. fitrif, paS; Lai. pons, ace. poHl-€m, 
m bridge, orig. a path, vray ; Gk. irSr^t, a trodden way, path ; 
S3lX.paih-a (for *fiai-a), a path. (Sec howcirer Klugc, s. v. P/aif) 

FucAL AKD Mkoial. E. yp, Goth, nifi; SkL tt/Hi, near, 
under, up^ri, over*. It can hardly be denied that the 
Skt. t^W, ovier, is allied to 1^ ttpprr; and it is equally 
certain that Skt. upari cotrcsponds 10 Goih. u/ar, E, evir. 
In fact, "Hir an<l over are mere variants, and an vpper-<oal 

an ovtr-<MU, Id the former case, the Arj-an r remains 

' Tticreiocsi to be mlso lomc cue* In wUchTcoLP^AtTMi P; Me 

■ Some luYr «Tca aneited tiut >□ iullial / is imponiUe En tjigllih, 
ami thu evtrj E. wold h^ginniiig; irith f musi be borrowed ! Yet none 
irlll deny Uitt / occun linally In naljvc wordi, M e. g. tn Kf, li^rf, 
warp, i^ft i isd if (inilly, wh]' not inili»11 v 7 

' The idcM of 'mia' aoA 'met* are mixed; cf. L^Uraf, imdtr, 
mp-tr, am. Uetlon liom ittuMk U an mpwarJ motian. 



LCiiM. rui 



unUiificd ; in the laticr case, it is shifted regularly. Tbt 
only reason for assuming Uiitt the Arjan p musl Ix; daSuA 
lies in the notion that all the nine Aryan sounds — s, 
CH, D, T, TH, B, p, BH — mtist nlwofs be shirted in Teuuflic 
I look on ihe occasional aiiiiarenC unxhifling of I- U a ftct, 
which hx& only been denied lest Grimm's Law sliould sccia 
imperfect. Yet we have already seen how vcrj- imperfectlj 
the sKond shifting, from Low to High German, vrm curKd 
o«t. Sec the examples below. 

E. heap, A. S. h/ap (G. Hctuf-t) ; Lilhuan. k<ntp-aj, Rosa 
kup-a, a heap. (Kluge admits this TcJaiionKhip, but notes 
the irregularity.) 

E. sharp; allied to Lai. stalp^e, to cut, Gk. oaefm-iat, % 
Slinging insect, scor|)lon. (In this case the sbiTling U pre- 
ivntcd liy the preceding r or /). See Fick, i. 8ii. 

E. step; Russ. stop-Ot a Toot-step. (Here Klugc assmiia 
dotible TonnB for the root, viz. stab and stap.) 

I beliew that further instances might be given. I inippow, 
for example, ihnt our word to shaf'e comes, wii/Krui shi(tio|, 
from an Aryan root skat, to cut ; and that our word shavt i> 
merely the same word in a thi/ted form. But here again, 
double root-forms, skab and skap, are aligned. 

§ lai. Tkct. PH {Goth. / i) < Aryak P (Su. p. Gk. r. 
LaL fi). Examples arc numerous. 

Initial. V../athtr ; Lai. paler, Gk. imr^p, Skt. pilar. Pets, 

V../00I; Lai.acc.^</>(7R,Gk.acc.n^B-a,SkL/ii/,/«ii/, Pen. 


E. feather ; Gk. impir (for * ir*r^piff), wing, Skt. pafrj, 
wing, feaiher. 

TL./ath-pm ; of. Lat pcl-*re, to spread, open ; Gk. ■Btr-Anttpt, 

IL. fare: Gk, vuf-aio^ai, I travel, irrfiJ-w, a way; LaL 
ex-per-ior, I pass through, wlience E. experienet. 

E./w,prep.;,Ck.ji(iS; Skt. /ra, before, away. 

"^./arrow, from kS./earh, a pig ; pcrc-ui (E. pwA), 



Y~ftill; Rasf, /vl-aui. Skt.p£r-ua, (aO. Cf. Gk. mK-it, 

^ E./^//, s., skin; LaX.peft'it.CV.irDA-tt. 

H 'E./mJ, \S./<fla ; iM.puJl-us, young of an animal, Gk. 

" E, '/M, as in fwo-fold ; cf. Gk. Ji-n-Xdtriot (ftjr ' fti-wXtir-ym), 
<Iout)te, I wo -fold. 

E.y&//: cf. Lat./j//-/ (for •s/aJI-t), lo err; Gk. c^X-w, 
lo cau&« to fall, Skt j;^a/ (for * ifial), v> tremble. (Iniml s 

'E.fivi; tax. pau-tus, Uv.pau-lus, lilUc, 

I'E.fisA; iM-fiisfit. O. Iri&h fax (for * piase). 
"E-fou-l; I^at ;«ff/(i/-«j, litinking ; Skt./^, lo Stink. 
JL^rt ; Gk. "p. 
E.yf*, Colli. /aiAw, cattle; Lat./fi-w, Skt./*if«i cattle, 
'E./nmd, Goili. fri-j<miU, lit. ' loviijg ; ' Ski. /rt, lo love. 
K. frttu, Goth, frius-an ; Ski. prush, plmh, lo burn. Cf. 
Lat. pni-ina, hoar.frost, pru-na, a burning coal. 

^E./Iw; alli«tl lo Lat, pluu-ia, rain, Ruiis. />/u-ry<r, to sail, 
at; Gk. v>J-*a, Skt. //b. to swim. Cf. V..plwrr. 
FwAL AM) Medial, Note thai, in mod. K, the A.S. / 
miHilly apjiearit as v. £\-en ofh pronounced <m. 
t E. 9^ o^, A.S. $r, Goih. a/; Lai. ai (for ' ap), Gk. u«r-J, 
^fekt. ap-a. ftooL 

H E. •»»■, A,S. o/er, Goili. ((/^r ; Ski. upari, abow. 
^^ E. riact, he-r4avt, A.S. ria/-ian,lQ strip, plunder; allied to 
I^t. rkiat)p-*re, pi. t. rij^i', (o break ; Skt. tup (for • rufi), to 
break, upoil. Our E, lool. plunder, i» a Hindi word of Ski. 
I origin, from Skt. /o/ra, hpira, plunder, a derivative oijup, to 
Hbrcak, also to »ix»l. 

" E. sftait, A.S. iif{i/-<in,Go\.\\. sia^an; Lttb. stap^li'.lo 
shave, cut ; Gk. atm-mv, to cut a ircndi, dig. See remarks 
21 the end of $ no. 

§ 122. TiuT. B it) < Aryan BI! (SkL M, Gk. <., Ut./ 
jk, 3 ; Pers., Slav., Iriih b). 




Ikittal. E. iant, A.S. 6<m-a, a murderer; cf. Gk. ^w>-i«, 
d<:ath, murder; O. Irish &fTt-aim, I strike. 

E. ietcA, beok, A.S. ioc, bcedi ; lM../ag-tis, Gk. <t>'rr^- 

E. btlt-tr (comparative); Goih. bal-t, good ; Skt. Mad^n, 

£. biniJ; Skt. Joai/A (for •Ikaa^). tO biod, Perv. AtMi/4«. 
to bind. 

E. iwr, v.; \j), Gk. ^(>-«<i', Ski. Ww, lo botr; 
Pcrs. bur-ion, to carry ; O. Disli ber-im, I bear. 

E. irolher ; \j.\\./rater, Gk. ^fiiinip, Skt. bkr4lJar, RusS. im^, 
O. Irish brithir, Pcis. hirAdar. 

E. iiw^, v.; LaLytrv!/-*, to bore, Pcrs, hur-idan, lo cuL 

E. irfc; Lat./(«)</-(-/-f, pt. I. /</./', Skt. WfV/, to deave. 

E. beaver; Lithuan. bebrus, Russ. bebr', Lai. ^ier. 

E. bireA (tree), Mercian ii>«, A.S. ieere; Russ. 
Ski. bh&TJa, a kind of birch-tree. 

£. ^, A.S. bio-n; Rues. JW//, to be, hti-^u, I shaj] bt; 
lat.y&-r*, to be,/«./, I was; Gk. ^vmw, Pert ^if-dbn, Sb. 
bh&, to be. 

E. ^r<-a,t, Goth. brik-an\ \.7X. frt^'^-trt, pL I, /rtgn; 
to break. Cf. lu./ragmmt, from the Rime root. 

'E.brew; Russ. ^rutv, Gk. o-^^iut; Pers. tf-^tf. Ski, 

E. irosit, v., A. S. brdir-iin, 10 enjoy; LM./rur, [<p./metMt, 
{= */rug-Ats), lo viiioy, /rug-/t, Tniil, Skt. bAuf (='Matp, 
for *bArug), to enjoy. Cf. %./rml, from the French. 

E. i/oH', (as wind) ; Lat. fia-rt. 

"E^iltuk, A.S. blue, ortg. sense 'burnt' or 'scorched \if^ 
fire ■ ; Lai. fias-rare, lo bum ; Gk, ^X/j-^w, to bom ; Sb. 
Mwjf-AT, light, brightness. Cf. E. fitigraiU, 

£. Utm (as a Bower) ; Lat. fio-s, a flower, fio-T'trt, 
Sourish ; O. Irish bld-lki, bloom, bldlh, a flower. 

EixAi. AND Mkdiai.. Tlie Tcui. final b, {deserved in 
Gothic, is wc^cncd to v (written y) in Anglo-Saxon. In 
a few words, such as tur/, the v is strcngtheocd \o/by't 
position. This A.%./ unially becomes rt in modem Engl 






E. tarvtf K.%. ctfrf-aa, G. hri-m ; Gk. ypai^-iuf, to scra(cb, 
grave, inscribe, wriic ', Ct O. Irish etrl-aim, 1 cut. 

£. latf; Gk. Opi^-m (for *y/>i^-ot), fceius, foal, whelp, cut>, 
calf: 5i.t. garM^a, fxtas, 

E, flfoTf, 10 split, A. S. (Uof-aHy led. h^f-a \ Gk. yXi^ta, 
10 hollow out, engrave, Lai. ghth-ere (for *gbi6htrt), to ped. 
(We tpealk of etttKogt «ith fclation to splitting in layers, 
like peel.) 

£. and A. S. htrf; prob. related to Ski. dar&k-a, a ktn<l of 
n)2tlcd grass. 

£. itau (of a wheel), A. S. m>f-a, naf-u ; Ski. n&hh-i^ navel, 
nax'C of a wheel. 

Y..hiav4r,K.%,biftr\ %^%t. lobr' ,\a\.. fihtr \ ^K.bahhru, 
a large IcIiDeunion. 

E. luf, dear, A. S. ife/i Golh. tiub-t ; Rusa. Aiji-o/, agreeable, 
Uoh^ it pleases; Lot. /w^/, il pleases; Skt. /wJ4, to coveli 

E. lonnv, A. S. wef-an; Gk. u^-n (for 'ffi^-?), a web; 
Skt vWt-it, a weaver, in the comp. urm-v&bhis,i. spider, lit 
' wool-wcaver,' cited by Curiius. 

y.. ik«v*, A. S. teof-iart, weak verb, allied to ic^f-an, 
to shove, suong verb ; Ski. kshtbk-a (for * tkobha), agiuiion, 
ktAuM (= *shtM), to become agitated. 

' Crtme and I'amr Men to be nriiDtt from the ume root, vii. Aiyin 
■XARAII : Mm kccpi th« X (S being loci) ; wbiUl A. S. praf-an uid 
Ck. -ffi^-ta tlww .t wnkenlnj; from c to y. 


CoNSONAKTAL Shdtino : Verxer's Law. 

§ 123. In Chapicr VII 1 have siwn Grimm's Law in (he 
usuitl fomi. Tho ortgiaal uotion, as suried by Rask and 
Grimm, Kcoinx lo lia\-c been thai, at some extremely earif 
period, (he r.ircm (or Aryan) Speech split up into three 
systems, well diMinguished by three diflerent liabits of iwng 
the chief consonants. And, in some mysterious way, Uas 
liappencd, perhaps, contemporaneously. It is obvious thai 
nulhing of the kind could ever buve taken place. AU ex- 
perience shews that sound-changcK take place but slowly, atiil 
new habits take long to form. Indeed, the assmnption thai 
the three systems took tbeir rise contemporaneously is as 
needless as it is unlikely. Further, it is not a gDO<l plan to 
talk about ihc shifting of Sanskrit forms into Teutonic; for 
it is quite certain that (he Sanskrit forms are often tliemsch-cs 
of a degmded ty[>e. The shifting took place, not from San- 
skrit or Greek, nor even from the ' classical' languages con- 
sidered collectively, but from the Aryan or Parent Speech. 
At what lime ihc Low German languages aliifled the Aryan 
sounds, wc cannot say ; but we at least know that it moa 
have been in a very early prehistoric period, since the GoUnc 
of the fourtii century shews the shifting almost wholly cairied 
out. It is perfectly safe lo say that it took place soon after 
the Christian era at the latest. On (he other hand, the 
diifiing from the Low German sounds to the High German 
oncs,was not only much later, but can be historically traced. 
Many of the oldest High German poems abound with Low 
German forms. The celebrated *Stnisburgh Oaib/ dated 





841, has iag (not fag) for 'day'; g^€t (not goibi) as ihe 
genitive of 'god,' ihoagti the nominative i» got; thing (not 
ttt'ttg) for 'thing.' OtfHd's metrical vcTsion of t!i<: Gonix:! 
MMoiy bas dohfa; daughter, du&n, to do, lAanien, to thank, 
Ikursl, thirst, tec; jret Olfrid was only bom a few ycara 
before A.i>. 800. As an exact date is [uirdl)' poHible, it is 
enough to tay that this shining, begun about a.o. 600, was 
Still going OQ in the ninth ccncurj. I cannot do better than 
quote the words of Strong and Meyer, in their History of the- 
Gcnnan Language, i88ti, p. 70. 

The High German language, thotigli belonging to the West 
Teutonic group, is yet divided from the other mcmbcts of this 
group, as well as from those of the East Teutonic, by a process 
of consonanta] sound- ihifttiii; which in many rctpccts bears 
great similarity la that which separates all the Teutonic lan- 
guages from the other )ndu-Kucopc^n languages. It is there- 
fore someiiines called the second sound- shifting process. This 
pTOceis set in about 600 a.D,, originating in the mountains of 
South Germany, and began thcnoe to spread southwards imd 
nonhwards, aiSccting the lunguagea of tlie Langoboids, Alemuns, 
Swabians, Bavari^ins, and Franks, until it gradually came to 
a •Uodsdll in the regions of the lower Rhine. Taking these 
seoad •changes as a test, we cjli all Teutonic languages and 
diftlects thai n-crc affected by them High German, and ail those 
left uaaJSccted by them we oUl Low Germain, 

'Thb whole sound- shifting process was, liuu-ever, nowhere 
consistently carried out. While the dentals arc consiitcnily 
shifted on the entire High German territory, excepting alone in 
the Mtddlc-Franconisn dialect, the shifting of gutturnls in an- 
tamt and In anslanl X\js. initially and finally] after consonants 
is confiDcd to tlie so-cnIlcd Upper German dialects, and that 
of initial lal»als ceases to operate in the Klieno-Ftanconian 

It foUoA'S that High German was originally, as regards t}ie 
DSC of its consonants, tit complete accordance with Low 
Gcnnan ', so that its later characteristics arc, comparatiTcly, 

■ ' The dulectal Kpsratioo between South and North Gcrmna . . . 
matt have brgvo aboBI the year 600 .. . Dutch, English. Duiiih, 


vera;er's law. 


}^ • 

of no parlinihr impotlancc to the siudcot of c.trif Kngiii^ 
It was natural thai Onmrn should include it in his scheme.^ 
but it would have been better to treat it &eparnie)7'i becauaefl 
the facts liaJ to be forced to try to make liic scheme look 
complete. It is not only more convenient, but absoluiclf 
more scientific, to leave it out of consideration in taking a 
survey of ilie consonantal syNiem of t3ie Aryan languages. 
We then have only to deal with ow fact, rix, that the Lot 
German languages, or (lo spcalc wjlb pcrfea exactness) ifce 
Teutonic languages generally, shifted tlie Aryan (not mcrelr 
the 'classical') sounds according to a formulit wbid) maj 
roughly be denoted by the rollowing symbols, vis. GHi'> 
Gw>Q>KH\v{Hw); GH >G>K>KH(H); DH >D> 
T>TH; and BH >B>P>PH(F). Im it be itoled thai 
the symbol > means 'older than' or 'passes into,' in acconj- 
ancc with its algebraical value of ' greater than.' 

$ 124. The real discovery made by Rask and Grimm was, 
briefly, this. They practically ssid — ^"It is not enough to ob- 
serve that the Latin fret corresponds to E. /Arte, or the Latin 
/!h to the English /Aou; these ar« only special imiances of 
a greitt genera] law, that a Latin initial /corresponds to an 
English initial fi, whatever the word may be; and, similariy. 
for other letters.' This grand generalisation was an cnomou 
advance, because it sowed the notion that languages have 
laws, and that there is regular correspondence between such 
of ihem as are related. Possilily they may have regarded 
taiher ihc letters or symbols than the sounds for which ihey 
stood ; and, in fact, this is the easiest way of beginning, and 
the only way thai can be perfectly explained to /Jk eye. At 
the same time, the true philologist mu»t really deal wiA iht 
tounds Ihfmstivtt, and it only is by a rccognitioin of dna aO- 
imponant truth that most modern adranocs in [be science of 

Snediah, uid Karwc^fUn . . . have really Iccpt lo Ibe otl^ilnal toim of 
G<niianlc >p«cch, whlltl Hi|;b Gctnuii hu icpaiMcid lt*df from tbii 
ooniinoii ftnuulMion.'— Scherer, Hift. Gem. lit, i. 35. 

CX/AfA/'S lAfV. 





languages have been made. The symbol is a tnere make- 
thUt; llie sound Li sabjeci 10 r»l phvNiological hws nliidi 
are of primaijr iinpoTUiKC, and Trcqucnily, or as some would 
say, dnnriaily, act uitb surprising rc){Ularity '. Tbe best plan 
is to r^;ard Uie fonnulK of »ound>iLifliiig, in { 107, as Cur- 
nishlng a cons«nieni empirical rulci which should, in every 
case of word-comparison, tie caiefully considered. Tlie facts 
theroseb«5 are nearly tvro ihouund years old, and Griinin's 

w only ibrmulfttcs them conveniently. 1 have already 
.obscnTd ihit ' the popular notions about Grimm's Law axe 
extremely vofpK. Manjr imagine that Grimm maJt die law 
not many years ago, since which time Latin and Anglo-Saxon 
have been bouQd to obey it. But the word lau> is then 
atrangely mlsappreheiulcd ; it is 'only a law in tbe sense of 

o&tervfJ/atl. Latin and Anglo-Saxon were thus differen- 
tiated in limes preceding the earliest record of tbe latter, and 
ihc (liffcrcTKC might h.ivc been observed in the eighth century' 
iTany one had tod the wia to observe it. When the difler- 
enoe has been once peroei\'ed, and all oilier \. S. and Latin 
eqaivalem words ate seen to follow it, we cannot consent to 
Mablish an exception to the rule in order lo compare a 
BiDgk (supposed) pair of words [such as £. tart, A. S. Koru. 
and Lat. rBra, 0. Latin taira] which did not agree in the 
vowel-sound, and did not originally mean the same thing'.' 

f ISfi. It is extremely important to observe here that, after 
all, 9e>'eral of the above su[)[iOHed .thirtiiigs are not really 
confined to tlic Teutonic branch of languages. Take, for 
example, the wotd treiJifr, Ski. bhrdlar. Here the Ar^'aii 
BU b only kept in tbe Ski. bkriiar, Gk. ^paxi)^, and ihc Lat. 

Exoepliaiu >re rtsardtd u due to tbe cxicnial iitiluaice of form* 
I teem to be in the tune cfttegery. Thus A. S. viSn Itnoir twrt, 
' wc alrt«4y b*d ^'tt ifiolt, ftll- 
Some at tbe KpelUoes tii JflfteA'i ttaniUtlon of Oratlm are not 
rematkAtlc. Ha wnin GaSti for L«l. G<citt, .t/rObi I<>i AttJta, 
I lor Alltt i /^igarat nn- ' Bulgniuii," Cnvw mo ' iirtekt," 4c. 
* PteC. to Etjm. Did, p. xd\. 


/rata- ; Si U B that »|>pcar* iii Russ. irat (i|»«ll hralru in itw 
Old Church-Slavonic), O. Irish brdthair, Liih. hrolii. Pen, 
hirddar (Zend and O. Pcrs. ird/ar) as well as id tbe Gothic 
hrcl/tar. In this rexpcct the tabl« (^ven in } toy is vtrj sig- 
nilicanl ; and, in Tact, the weakening of M lo 3 occtirs a 
Sanskrit itscIF, as in liandh, for MaiuiA, to bind. Laiin o6ca 
has d for Aryan DH, and g for GH ; and, in the xatne nj, 
the E. door goes with Russ. dvere, and O. Imh dsvtu, as di*- 
linct from ihc Gk, Sup-a ; whilst the A. S. nag-t!, a nail, gOM 
with Russ. nog-ole, Lillman. nag-as, a nail, as distioct Irtm 
Skt. nakh-a, ilscif a variant for 'nagh-a. Certainly, the thn« 
shifiings expressed by Gn>G, D1I>D, axid ItH>Bare 
natural simplificaiiODs which can surprise iKibody. For 
whatever sounds were <I(nioted by GH, DH, BH, it is fair to 
suppose that llicy were more diHicuh of utterance than lie 
Eounds denoted by G, D, and li only. Further, the Teuiooit 
symbol KH merely meant h, so that the formula K>KH 
really represents a clianj^ from k to h, and of thcte t*o 
sounds k requires the greater effort. There is, no doubt, 
some difliculty about such changes as G>K, D>T'; bd 
ihcy were probably due to a striving after distinctnesa, is 
order to separate the original G and D from the (Icgntdnl 
instances of GH and DH. They are not more woo- 
derful tlian the Highlander's pronunciation of very goeJ at 

/fry tool. Without pursuing this subject further, I w3 
merely observe that, in Anglo-Saxon, ihc Greeks are called 
Cr/eat quite as often as they are called Gr/<at. 
Goiliie bishop Wulfila called them Kritot. 

5 126. Vernor's Z>aw. Noiniihstanding all exceptii 
some of which arc real and some apparent, (he Teu: 
Kmnd-shiftings exhibit, upon the whole, a surjmsing rcj 
larily; and every anomaly deserves careful conside 
because we may possibly Icam from it some useful k: 

' 1 do not here include the chac£t denoted by B > P, wbich t 

■07 caM, vct7 rMC^ 




It was just bjr uking this scicntilic view that the remarkable 
»w called ' Vcincf's Law ' was discovered, which I now pro- 
'ceed lo ex|>lain and illuMnte. The particulnr anomaly 
wlitch it ciplnins is well exemplified by comparing the Xax. 
pattr. maler./rater. Ski. palar, mdlar, ihritar, with their Teu- 
tonic e<)iiivaleiits. In modcni English we havey!iM/r, mathtr, 
hrolhtr, becauKC comttuii :t$soci.-ilioii ha» given the words ihc 
same ending -Mir, but this i^ not the case in Anglo-Saxon, 
nor even in Middle EngiiBh'. The Chaucer MSS. have 
/adtr, noitr, hro&tr, in agreement with A. S, /adtr, taSdor, 
br63sr, O- Fricsic yirder, modtr, brothr, O. Saxon fadar, 
^jw^db", brUhtcr. Gothic /adar, brothar (the Gothic word for 
^V mother ' being ailkei). I may add, on the authority of Dr. 
^^^eile, vl)otc aK^islancc in <lc3cril>ing Venier's I^w I ihank- 
V fully acknonlcdgc, that the dialect of S.W. Cumberland siill 
employs die iKotA&/ader, muddtr. brothtfy in accordance with 
Anglo-Saxon. It \% quite certain that the true Teutonic types 
or these three wotdii nre fader, »ui>kk, UKdriiiK, whikl the 
Iruc Aryan types are pater. mater. bhrAtbr. The last of these 
shews the EhiftiiigT>TM, whilst the two former (hew T>D. 
Here b lotnething worth investigation. There should be 
tooe reaion for this ; and the problem i.t, [» discover it. 

§ 127. Various answers might be miggcsted, but the true 
reason was given by Karl Vemer, of Copenhagen, in July, 
1875, and was published in Kuhn's Zcilschrift, vol. xxiii. 
p. 97 (1877). Perhaps the first thought that might occur to 
any one who takes up the problem would be this, vis. that 
the Lai. fJiUr SiScn frnm /rater in having a short vowel in 
the former syllabk, whilst the a m/raltr is long. Unluckily, 
this breaks dovm at once, because Uie a in moltr is long; 
which links it with ihe wrong wnrd. Vcmer jthews tliai no 
I oune which commonly operates in language is capable of 
cauAtng these variations except one— and that is accent. It 


II to DtA otiy (ofiiiil euinplet of /itJktr, mttitrbttott ijoo. 
rtader try. 

L a 




[Oa*. (Z. 

we lum to Gk., n^c find the words to be m?Tqp, pvhp. fip^ 
(with Ioiir; a), whidi still linlu piTnif) witli ^fNtrw*, not «ilk 
ifonj|» ; but ilie Tact iit, that tht' Greek docs not in iliis instancr 
represent the original Aiycin accent, though it is often a good 
guide. Satiskrii, on the contrary, gi^vs the facts righilf, and 
Hob'e^ the difficulty. In Sanslcrit, the true oM nominat! 
wcr« pila-r, mdia-r, bhrd'tar (fir*t a long), irhcrc the dot 
a vowel denotes thai it u-as accented. That is to say, 
And m&iar were accented on the taJUr syllaUe, but Mnilar 
upon the former. Hence we deduce thbi tentative or [nw 
visional ru!<' : — 

If the Airan K, T, or P immediately foUom Uw 
poaition of the accent, it shifts regularly to the 1*0* 
Oerman h, th, or f ; but if it preoedea the pceitimi cf 
the accent, It becomes (as it were by a double ahifl- 
ing) g, d, or b. 

To this it must be added, by way of necessar}' cxplanatioii, 
that tlie Aryan and Sanskrit (and indeed the Greek) aooeitt 
was at first, at least predominantly, an accent of pUeh, lad 
concerned the tone of the voice, ha^'ing notliing to do with ihf 
la^th or ' quantity ' of a syllable, nor yet wiili tlrat, as 
modem English. Veruer thinks that the Teutonic acecnl 
one of ttresti also, not of pitch only; so that the stress fi 
upon the vowel of an accented syllable presen-ed the 
sonant which followed it from further change beyond tia 
sliifting. Otherwise, tlie coruonani following an unaccented 
syllable suficrcd fiinhcr change. Thus the Teutonic Kft*' 
THEN, accented on the/Sm^r syllable, kept its th unchangetl; 
but the Teutonic rATHK's, accented (in tlic earliest period) 
on tlie laitci sjllable, suifercd a fiirtber clainge of th to d^ 
thus becoming rADXi. 

$ 128. Veraer's Irfiw (in the original German). 1 
ought to say that I have only statc<l Vcmcr's, as gii-cn 
above, in a popular way. His own words shall i»w be given. 
' Indogenn. k, I. p, gingen erst (tiKraU in h, th,f Uber ; die so 



enstondenen fhcalivK Dcbst (l«r vom IndogcnnanischeD 
■ereitxcn tonloKO firicatiw i wurdcn weiler inlautend bel 
lOnendcn Dachbarschaft ic\h%\ lOncrul, cihi<;lten .tkti abcr als 
[onlose im ludilauie betonter Silbeii.' I.e. 'The Ar}-ai^it, /. 
p, fint of all shifted into h, th, and /; the fricatives thus 
produced (together with the voiceless fricative / when in- 
herited from the .^rjran) afteiwartls became, when medial and 
ia x'oioed company, tbcmscU'cs voiced [i. c. changed to g, d, 
'b,z\\ bm remained unchanged witen following an accented 
syllable.' It may be added tltat the s. tliux produced from 
s. lunlier changed into r in Anglo-Saxon. It is also worth 
obscn-ing in this place, that it is precisely because Vcrner'a 
Law explains the cliange of f to t as well as the change of 
k, I, axApxag, d, and b, that liis explanation bas been ac> 
oepted without qimtion, 

% 120. BxftmplM. The uae of the Law consists in Its 
wide application, and the proof of il tic« in the fact ttiat it 
explains a large niunbcr of anomalies that luid frequently 
been noticed, and had never before received any saiiBractory 
explanation. It hat already twen shewn to explain llie differ- 
ence in form beiwecn the A. S. briSoTy brother, and the A.S. 
fader, midur, in which ilie 9 lias been funfacr weakened to 
rf, owing to the faa thai the original Teutonic accent fell 
upon the lat//r syllable of those words, wlieteAS in the case of 
M99r, it fell upon tlic former s>'llablc. Bui it explains a 
great (k-Al more ilian this. For exomjile, tlie Ski. a-afara, 
other, Vis accented on the ^r// syllable; hence the Teutonic 
form was AiTKeso, with the same accent, whence A, S. iJS-/-', 
£. «M«r, nitb /i for I, and no furilier cliange. On tlie other 
band, the Ski. anla-r, wiihin, was accented on tlie tai/er 
syDabk; bcDce the Tcut. fonn was first AvriarR and 

■ Tbe A.S. TotiD w>t, originally, '.lulkfr; but, u A.S. changri an 
larfOMi, ll becune *«n/itr: kdiI iigun. becaoM A. S. <ln>{i* n bc&vcM, 
il btcuae iOtr, iIm vowel liclng Icn^mcd to compcnule lor the Iom 

Ot M. a. M, tooth, fot 'timt, IM, lltBl-fH. 


sccoiull}' AKOK'K, whence the^.E.Mut'r, with iriig 
change of sense. (The G, tmttr is siill often used 
like ihe Lat. inltr.) GrliniD's Law w'Oul<I Inve nude ibe 
TcuL fonn antiirk. Once mate, ihe Skt. fnita- (Gk. ■Xvm), 
heard, from fru. lo hear, wiw accented on ibc latttr syllable: 
ihc corresponding Teut. form was Ersi hlvtha*. and sccondif 
HLtiDA', whence A. S. filHd, E. loud. Grimm's Law wouU 
hnt-c made it hulfi. Vet a^in ; llie Skt. tfiidit- (=jt/lAdA', for 
* sfnUi), signifying ' increase,' \ras accented on ibe fattr 
syllabic ; the concsponding Teutonic word was first srdnir, 
and secondly sedav, which (by .t rule of t-owel-chungc to b« 
expl.'uncd hereafter) became the A. K. i//</, E. t^rd, Gricnin'i 
Law would hav-c made it jpre/i. On the oiher Itand, tbe Stt 
^rya, venerable, honourable, gives a sb. dryar-td, bonounUe- 
nets, ncceiucd on the lecanJ sylhihle, i. c. the accent juet pre- 
cedes the suflix -/a. tlcnce the cormponding suffix in 
Teutonic was -tha, which usually suffered no funlier clni^ 
This is the ^tillix io common in F.ngiiiili, on in wiai-tk, 
ktal-th, strength, &c. To lake another instance, we auy 
eneniplify the curious change o( t lo s and r, as to whidi 
Grimm's Law says notlung; in fact, it only ocean wfaete t 
has been voiced to i in consequence of a foIlcMRDg acceoL 

Sanskrit causal verbs arc formed by adding the suflix -aya, 
as in bhar-aya, to cause to bear, from &ht, to bear. I'his 
suffix ix an aecenltJ one, having an accent on the former a. 
The corresponding suffix in Teutonic is ^AH" or-jim, «likh 
also originally look the accent, so that causal verbs in Teu- 
tonic were at first accented on the »ulSx, not on die root. 
Hence, from the verb n'st, A. S. rft-an ', was formed a causil 
verb 'rdt'iau, in which, by Vcmer's Law, the t became fini 
s and afterwards r; in £ict, we meet with it only in the con- 
tracted form rttr-ait, mod. E. rtar. Here Vcmcr'a Law >l 

' The nikik ovtr the i <ltniilc« Itngti onijr. tl hn nothin); lo ilo 
with Ihe pccBlUr 1«utoniG accent b«re diKVucd. So bIw in the i 
of rii-ian, &C., the nurk itill denotes vovel-tenstk o*I]r. 





once explains bow ibe £. verb 10 rtar is the correct causal 
form of the verb to rise; i.e. ihc original sense of riar was 
siinply ' lo make to riac,' and ihc fonn is quite correct. Bui 
here b a still more striking fact yet to oomc. This is, thai 
the Icelandic often pieitccves s tinchargeil, and (Ioc4 not 
alwajv shift it to r'. Hence, the Icelandic causal verb of 
rit-«, lo rise, bapipens to be rttt-a *, a form which has actually 
been borrowed by English, and is still in conunon use as 
raist ([ironounoed ran). In other words, Vcmer's Law oot 
only accounlM fiw the i-ariatioo in form between rtar and 
raitt, but enables as 10 trace lliem to the same Teutonic 
form KAJSjAM ; in fact, it tcIU uis all wc want to know. 
Instances might be multiplied almost indciinitcty ; it is siif- 
ficient to say that Vcmer'a Law is most admirable and 
KLtis&cIory, because it fully explain.'. .10 many casus in which 
Grimm's Law seems to fail. 

§ 130. Points in A.S. Otammor. There arc some 
points in A. S. grammar nhich Vcmer'g Law explains, uid 
wbkb arc 100 important 10 be passed over. Thus, among 
the verbs of the '^rtW -conju^tton' (see Sweet's A. S. 
Grammar) is the verb sHlS-an, to cut (G. tchntidtti). The post 
tense singular Is tV snd3, 1 cut. but the past tense plural is 
mf mil-OH, we cut, and the ['p. is im'd-en; where stiid-on, 
snid-m, shew a weakening of 9 to if. The explanation is the 
tame as before, ^'il!. that the original accent fell on vYit/ormfr 
syHabtc ot tntS-an aii<l on the only remaining syllable o( titdi, 
bat on the iJitrr syllable of sniWon and sniden. Turning to 
Sanskrit, this is at once verilicd. The Skt. ihiJ, to break or 
cleaw, lua the pL t. ii-iJk-J-a with accent on ilic root ; whilst 
the ilrst person flnrat of the same tense is bi-bkid'intar. witli 
the accent on the tatl syllabic. The pp. is bhin-na-, also 
accented on tlic final vowel. Precisely in the same way. the 


BS Ictl. ijSta, to choese, hu both honnn aail kjerimt in lli« pp- 
The IttL (, bcKh in rlia uid rtisa, is proaovsced wn, not i i k> 

lltat it <OBld DOI piui iMo r* 


yEKlfF.R'S 14 W, 


verb t/otan. to choose, lias for the firsi perjon singular of ihe 
past tense the fonn Uas ; but the plural suScrcd change, first 
into *euzon, aiid secondly into curon, "which is lli« onif fora 
found. We con now easily foretell that iIk- [>]>. was not e«wt, 
but (ortn, as was in fact the case ; the modern ¥.. has rtmnS 
the J (by * form-assocaaiion' with the inlinitive ch<Mu\ so llui 
we now linvr chosen. Tliis temarkable r is still preserved in 
the viord Jer/om, which has been isolated from the %'erbli) 
which it belongs. It was once a pp., «n!>weriog to A. S./er- 
lorrn, pp. o^ /or-l/aian, where ,^w- is an tiilcn.tive ptefix, and 
l/osan is clowly connected with (but not quite the Kunc won) 
as) ouf \'erb h iose. Hcnce_/«'-/<w« meant, oti^nally, uiteily 
lost, left quite destitute. Some oilier facts wliich Vcrncr'B Law 
txplmns, may be also mentioned here. The Gothic infiiuthc 
')iit p*-*,*^, of the verb "to slay' is tlaAaM, contracted in A. S. to */ri6i; 
'i tf ! -r the A. S. pt. t. ( i p. *.) is tiSi (with A '), but the plural is 
sUgon, and the pp. s/ngm (with g). E. tlaat. Lastly, die 
Greek accents mltice to help u-t to die form of tlie A. S. com- 
pamlivc. Gk. has l/liit. sv.-eet, but in the comparative the 
accent is thrown back (where it can be) upon d»e root, u 
seen in the neuter qSmv (cf. tlie superlative f9i<rrt>(); and, i 
corresponilcnce with this, we find tlie Gothic comporatl' 
from the base o.\t- (good) is not bai-rsa (with i), but Ba-t-a 
(with !). Consequently, the A. S. turns the Teutonic suffix 
-izo into -ira, -era, -ra, as in iri-ra, E. Mt-tr ; and generalhr, 
all our mod. E. compaialii^cs end in -tr, whilst the superlatives 
end in -est, because the i is protected from dunge by die 
following /. Cf. Goth, tal-ul-s, best, Gk. fB-iffT-or, sweetest. 
i 131. Vedic Acoentuatioa. It e a singular result of 
Vcrncr's Law, that a knowledge of the A. S. coRJugatiooal 
forma wilt sometime)! enatile us to gitv a good guess as to the 
accentuation of a^kric word in the Rig-Vedal T.^ oi 
try on example. Wc finc^ in A.S., Uut the \<crb tO-an, to 

' Mi*p«inled ^Jg in the Grunaaar fai Svect't A. S. Rc±iSa ; bui the 
Gkwury to the uune irlvn nrcr«nct* \a rUK -'• 

,(*•.•- - 




travel, nukes llie put unse /d?, {il. lid-<m, pp. //i/-m ; and m 
funlicT Snd that the pas! tense or the subjunciivo mood tskeo 
ibc form lid-e, pi. lid-on. \Vc should therefore t-xjicci that. 
in ibe conesponding Sanskrit tenses, the accent fnlb on the 
(u8ix rather than on the rool-sylhiilc; accordingly, we^nd 

»lh8t, in the first person plural of ihc second preterite, die 
accent lalls on die last syllable, i& hi HbhiJimr, we clove 
(5 '30); and in ihr perfect potential tense, the accent falls 
upon the sufiix -j/dm, as in bibhidydm, pf. potent, of hhid, CO 

{ 132. 0«n«ral Bomlta. The fotlou-ing are the general 

1, results given by \''erner, with reference to the above Law, 

HTIm)' merely state it in a different form. 

1^ I. Even after the occuirencc of the first consonantal 

shifting, the TcutODK languages preserved the original Aryan 


3. But in these languugcs, accent was no longer a mere 
pitch or lone of the voice, but actual Etrcss, perhaps accom* 
panied by pitch. 

3, Wiencver k, I, p appear in Teutonic sometimes as h, 
Ih.f, and eomelitnes Aig, d. b, such ^-ariation is due to the 
old Ai^an accentuation. 

4. WTjencvicr r appears in Teutonic sometimes as s and 
GonKtinws as x (or r), such variation is due to the same 

We thus see that Venter's Law goes (ardicr than Grimm's, 
«Dd explains cases in which the Utter seems to fail We 
tnay also notice that Sanskrit ptesenes the original Aryan 
acoentoatton, wliich Greek frequently fails to do. Il is also 
notewonhy that Gothic has frequently UvdUd, or rendered 
onifbin, its shifted forms, being in this resiKct a. less (aidiful 
representative of the original Teutonic than cither An^o- 
Saxon Of Icelandic. 

% las. XzampleB. A few examples are added, by way of 





Gutturala. Wc finci g for * in the A. S. pL I. pL fXlfp-«i. 
from lUaH (Goth. slaA-an), to slay ; whilst the pi. L sing, is 
j/M, regiilaily. So also in the ]it. u pl./^'^-aa of fiax'<in 
(Goth. Ihtvah-aii), lo wash ; whilst the pt. t. King, is ^wik 
(Matt, xxvii. »4), So, loo, in ibc pp^ of these vcrta, we 
siag-4n, ^mxtg-tn, nol *s!aA-tn, '^rnkth-tn, 

DeatAls. Examples of d for tM (» arc owre ni 
and imponint- Thus, the Ski. utiya. third, is accented on 
ihe second, not the first syllable ; hence the Goth, form b 
not ^PriPjo, but Pridja, with which cf. A. S. /nridd'a, M. E. 
Ihrid, mod. E. lAird. This change does not apply to the 
other ordinal nmnbeis on account of tlicir peculiar fonns ; 
thuKwe find A., fihhySixl-a.svah.titdly/t-a, cfcycnih, 
twtl/t-a, twelfth, all with voiceless / on account of the pre- 
ceding voiceless/* or s. Such pionnnciaiions M01 xaA n.xt 
may still be henid in provincial English. SeVftilA, tighlk, 
ninSk, arc in A. S. sec/opa, tahio^a, nigt^pa, where the original 
accent just prtte4e<3 the / ; whilst fourth, A. S. /Arpa, was 
conformed to ihe analogy of the prevalent form in -/«. 

The d for ih in hard is explained b)- the accent of the Ck, 
tpar-vt. E. -hood, common as a suffix, b the A.S. hdd^ 
Goih. haid'Ut, cognate with Skt. ktlw, ' a dtstinguislking 
mark,' with the accent on the h. E. and A. S. uitdtr, Goth. 
tmdar, is cognate whh Sict. attlarr, vrithin ; whilst £. otkei, Goih. 
anJhar, on the contrary, is cognate with Skt. a'nlara, other, 
with the accent on the first syllable. The Skt pp. suffix -Jta 
was accented, and for the same reason E. past participial fovm* 
end in d, not Ih; examples are E- hu-d, A. S. hM-d, cognate 
with Gk. (Xu-rtff, renowned, Skt. fru-/a; heard ; E. e/-d, A.S. 
etil-d, cognate with Lat. al-tiu, pp. of til-rre, to nourish; E. 
dea-d, A.S. J/ad, Goth. dau-ZA-i, whilst the allied sb. u 
dea-lk, A.S. dfa-3. Goth, daulh-ut ; E, nak-td, K-&. inc-ed, 
Goth, nakw-aihs ; and generally, the E. pp. eods in -rf Of -td, 
whilst tlie Goth. pp. invariably ends In 'th't. So, too. in the 
case of causal verbs, the primitive accent on the causal sufiix 



I < J3-] 



(A.S. -Mil, ID contracted Tonn -ait) Itads na lo expect d in 
place or /^. Hence we have E. Uad^ vb., A. S, /<iry-<u) (="/*/- 
ittii), caiual of Iff-an, lo leave! ; K. (fn<y, A. S. taid-an, Goth. 
sanJ-jan, a causal verb allied to Golli. sinih-s, a journey. 
Note also the A. S. pi. s. cwap. quoth, pi. cu'dd-m; and the 
A, S, pp. loJ-m, E, sodJ-tn, from the infin. shS-an, E. j«//*. 

lAbialt. A good example occurs in £. leven, of which 
the Goth, form is sibun, nol *ii/un; cognate with Vcdic Ski. 
saptati, Gk. twri. It is remarkable, however, that the Teat. 
h alvk-ays appears 3a/ in A. S. at the end of a j^yllable (where 

»i[ «-ax nai sounded 3,^/, but ax v). See \ m. 
Tbo l9tter r for a. K. iart. A. S. ^nr-d (for *Azs-d), O. 
ffat-4; cognate with Ski. (a(-a- (for faxir-), a bare. E. Aw, 
A. S. /^, together with tlic causal verb litr-aa, to leadi. 
shew r tor j; cf. the Goth. Iais-Jan, lo teach, connected ■} I*- ' ' 
with the pt. E. lait, I have learnt, of which the inlin. 'ih-aa 
docs not appear. So also in the case of all comparatives of 
adjectives, already mentioned; as in K Ixtl-^r, A..S. bil-ra, 
cognate widi Goth, ial-isn, better. The A. S. pp. cwoi, 
chosen, from t/ot-^n, to choose, \» mentioned above ; as also 
the old pp. for-iom. Another interesting cx.implc occurs in 
ihe A. S. pp./rflTCM, for which mod. E. lias substituted yrM«(, 
as being more easily associated with tlie 'm^.frent. But 
country people still cooijil^n of ' lieingy/vrn,* and we have 
ilie authority of Milton for the form frorti which is merely 
frsttn with the loss of final N. 


' The parchiDg air 

Bums firvrt, and cold performs ih' effect of fire.' 

Par. Lost, ii. $94-5. 



$ 13^ One of the most impoitani matlers in 
is the consideration of the relationship of some of ibc older 
vowel-sounds, wliich are to a certain extent connectnl bjr 
what is known as ' gradauon,' or in German, ablaut. Suck 
a connection is especially noticeable in the caw: of the strpng 
verbs, wliidi form the put i£nse and patl participle by meoM 
of such gradation or vowel-change. Thus the past icitse of 
drink is drank, and the past participle is drta^sm ; we haw 
here an alteration from i to a, an<I again to h. It Is ob- 
riously highly important that we should investigate to what 
extent such alterations arc regular, and are capable of bcinj 
tabulated. It may t>e noted, by tlie way, ibat similar aheta* 
lions in the vowcI-Kounds arc found in other Aryan languages, 
and arc not confined to Teutonic only. Thus, in Greek, we 
Gnd that the verb XifW-di-, to leave, makes the perfect tense 
Ai'-Xoiir-a, and the second aorist l^ai-ta \ that is, there Is ■ 
gradation from n to oi, and again to <■ Neither is tfais 
gradation confined to the verb; it aj>])ears alw> in various 
derivatives; thus wc have the sb. Xri^t (=*Xnv-n()i ■ 
leaving; the adj. Xour-dt, remuning; and namerous com- 
pounds beginning with Aino-, as in Am-ypd/i^Mror, wMttillg 
a letter, whence E. lipogram. In Latin wc \a,yc /id-^t 
{s^yiid-fre), to trust; in connection with which are the adj. 
/id-m, trusty, the ab. fUl'ts, faiib, and the sb. fotd-ta 
{ = 'fMd-ut\9. compact, treaty. These shew a gradation 


from / (rt) to « (w). and again to I. These are merely (p»'en 
as foithcr illustrations; in the present cluplcr I shall only 
discuss nidation u it nlTects the Teutonic languages, 
especially Angilo-Saxon and Gothic. 

{ 136- Iktodem English is but au unsafe guide to gradation. 
A considerable number of ihc slrongr verbs, which were once 
peifeciiy regular, may now fitly be named ' irregular,' al- 
though tbat naroe is chiefly used to conceal the ignorance of 
giaminarians who are unable to understand Ihc laws of 
gradatioo. These ' irrcgulariiics ' have mostly been intto- 
dttced by confusing the form of Ihc past (taniciple wiili that 
of the put tense, and to mnking one form ilo duty for both. 
To tOBJtc the confusion worse, tw find instances in which 
tbc form of the past tense has been altered to agree with 
tint of the post particijile, beside* tlie inittanccK in which 
the process has been reversed; and a third set of inslancex 
in «bicb a verb has been auociaied u-iiti another which 
(ffiginally belonged to a <lifTerciil conjugation, or with an 
allied weak verb, or has been altered from a stnsng verb to a 
weak one. Thus the verb lo bear has the pt. i. bart, and ttic 
ppi. iffm, hnu. But the pt. I. iare is obsolc.tccm, and is 
oomiEonly replaced by iore, in which the o is borrowed from 
the pp. The A. S. j/nnd-nn, to stand, had the pi. u sUJ, and 
tbc pp. s/amitn ; but the form slaniien has disappeared, and 
the pt t. il6od is also used in the pp. Such a form as 
Mpeitn shews great confusion ; the A. S. verb was tpra-an, 
pt I. tfriTc, pp. sfirtcm, which should have gi>-en in modern 
English, with the loss of r, an infin. sftak, wiih the pt. i. 
r/tiir, and a pp. 'jpeitn; but it was naturally associated with 
ibc verb to trtiii, of which tlie true pt t was brake, and the 
pph broitti. 'I'he result was the use of ipok<n, as associated 
with iroten ; moreover, the past tenses tpaJte and brate have 
become aidiaic, and are usually supplanted by tfioJU and 
Srv^; where the e of iroie is i>orrowed from Uie tnu form 
of its pp. ; but that of tp^e from z/a/tf form. The verb A> 




AM made tbe pt. t. hdJ, and the pp. held-^n, but the tatln 
has be«n supplanlcd by ihe pt. L ' He was htU down ' is, 
historinll}', a Kliamefully incorrect form ; but U U now con* 
sidercd goocl grammar, and v.-c must not now ny snyiUng 
else'. Again, the old strong inlraniitm verb i# vmAe nude 
the pt. I. uiokt, so that it was correct to sty / woke ; but 
it was confused with the derived wcalt Iranzitivi verb A» mub, 
so that wc may now hear ' I Kokc him up ' instead of ' I 
wakid him up,' which was the original phrase. Conversely, 
wc find ' I waktd' used Intransitively. Many vcr1», snch as 
ert<p, Wifp, sImP, which were once strong, ate now wcak- 
Theie is even one remarkable instance in which a weak wrt 
has iKcome strong, viz. the verb h tvtar, pt t. uwe, p{i. 
worn ; simply l>y ajitiocialion willi 6ear, &ore, torn. The M. E. 
wtffn. to wear, is invariably uxak, vritli a pt. L varrtdt or 
wtred, and a pp. wntd. 

' Of fustian he vi>trtd a gipoun.' 

CHAUCBR, Prolog, to C. T.y 75- 

{ 136. It follows from ibts that the modern English 
verbs cannot be properly understood without comparing 
them with the Middle English and A. S, forms; and it is 
absolutely nccessaiy to the understanding of gradation that 
wc shou!<l further consult the Gothic and otlier Teutonic 
forms, as well as the Anglo-Saxon. I'hc Middle English 
and A. S. forms will be found in Morris, (lisL Outlines of 
£. Gramm., pji. 385-307, an<l need not be further discussed 
here. Our present object is to discowr the original Teu- 
tonic x-owel- gradation, and for iliis purpose we must compare 
with one another the oldest known forms of the vertM is 
the various Teutonic languages. 'I'he result it that wc can 
dearly disiingnisli srvtn forms of conjugation ; and, as the 
&dtT of tliem is indilTercnt, I shall here keep to that which I 

■ tttid occon in oni Siblei m a pp. only Ibriee (lY xuii. 9, Sel._ 
Sons til. ;, Rom. til 6) ; but k«UitH oocnn clem tine*. 

( 1370 






have already- given in the Introduction to Morris's Specimcni 
of Engloli Tioai 1150 to 1300, p. Ixvii (and cd.). The 
seven conjusMJons aic exemplified in modem English bjr 
die verbs yi»//, tkahi, biar, givt, drink, drive, and choose i 
which may be remembered by aid of the following doggerel 
coajtlet — 

' If e'er thoa fail, the shakt with patience *aw ; 
Civ€ \ *cldom driiU; ; drive slowly ; choose with care.' 

The investigation of the n)odes of conjugation of these sewn 
veH» wiU now occupy our attention. 

} 137. Rodaplicatiog Verba: thaVorb 'to f^.' Verbs 
of the '/all' conjugation differ from all the reat in tlieir 
mode of conjugation. They <lo not really exhibit gradation 
at all, but the past tense vas originally formed by rtduplita- 
fion, and the x-owel of the pp. was never altered. We still 
have the \i^.fall-m (TOta/all, ilirvj'it from Haw, grown from 
grow, knnn from Aeui, and the obsolescent ho!d-n* from 
held. The •HQ^d/atl can be traced back to an Aryan root 
SPAI., as utezi in the Skt. sphal (for * tpal), to tremble; Gk. 
ir^£iX-it» (for 'mritXA-top), to trip Up, causc to fall ; whence, 
by loss of initial 1, we have the Lat. /all-cre, to deceive, 
oHg- to trip up, and the E. /all. Both English and I^lin 
words begin with the *ame letter / because of the lost s of 
the root; the Lai./i/Zfri- (for 'yi/Ar/) being due 10 a change 
of ;r^ to $^ (as in Gk. w to «^) ; whilst / is tlie regular 
Teutonic substitution for ksynnp by Grimm's Law. Now the 
'Lai./all.^rt makes the pi. i./t/tll-i by reduplication ; and, 
in precisely the same way, the Gothic verb hald-an, to hold, 
makes the pi. L b tlie form kai-halJ^\ i.e. the initial letter 
of tlie verb is repealed, followed by ihc diphthong ai. So 
aJsowe haw GoWi. /allli-an, to fold, pi. K. /ai/allh ; hait-an, 
to caD, pL L hai'hail', laik'on, to skip, pt. L lai-laik. In a 

' Tlic Colli. jU^OT. to Tail, Uos aot bAppen to oouir; if it did, lu 
pod leaie wosld btfti.faii. 




fisv cases, ihe Gothic exhibits a vowel-cbange from t 
a» vdl iu reduplication, as in Ul-an, u> let, pt. L An'-Zn/ ; 
rtd-an. to provide for, pt. t. rai-rM. ARgio-Saxoo exhibits 
but very few examples of reduplicatioo ; the principal beins 
hthi, Goth, hai-kail, pt. t. of h^-an, to call ; rtord, Goth. 
rfi'folli, pi. t. otrtid-an, lo adWac; IfoU, Goth. Jai-laii, pt. L 
of ^-HM, lo skip; and the diaSgured forms /rw/, Goth. /iri-M. 
pt. L of Idl-an, to let ; and on-Hrtord. pt. t. of on-4rdd-^», lo 
dread. More commontf, the contraction leads to a com- 
picic confusion of the reduplicating with the radical syDahlc. 
and the product retains a long vowel or dlphtbong, which b 
most commonly /o ; thus, corrcspontting to the Gotli. Im- 
halii, we haw A. S. h/nlit, whence E. htld. Similarly, cone- 
HIMsnding to tbc theoretical Gotb. */ai-/all, we bavc A. S./A11. 
E. /til. For further particulars, see S»ewr», O. E. Cnm. * 
i 395. Ac. 

§ las. It is found that tbc A. 5. Btrong vertn baveyMr 
printipai sttmi, to which all Other forms may be referred'. ^^ 

These are: ^^ 

(i) "Cait prtstnt-sltm, lo which belong all the forms of tbc 
pre-teni tense. [It agrees with (bat of ihc iNnNtrrrB mood^ 
which I giv-c instead, as it makes no dilfecencc for our pur- 

(a) the first prtttril-stem, 10 whish belong only the ist 
and 3id persons of ihc singular of the preterit indicative. 
[The 1ST i-ws, stHO. op the pact tescsk is the form which I 
here select.] 

(3) the ttnnd frtltril-Uem, comprising the aiid person 
indicative and the pi. indicative of the same tense, and ihe 
whole preterit optative ot subjunctive. [I here select the 
IST PEBS. 7u OF THE PAST TENSE Oft the feprcseniaiivc form.] 

(4) tkt itim^f Iht past l^rtiiif^k. 

In tbc verb /all these four stems arc, in ll)eir A. S. 

• I wjiy ihU uoonnt from SIciwn, O. E. Gf. I 379. 




as follows : tDfln. feall-an (O. Mercian /<tll-an) ; tst pt. 8. 
ffeU; 1st [It, ]>I. ^«tf -on ; \\^. /talt-at. It will be observed 
Uiat tbc first and foortli of these stems Arc identical, tl* we 
nested the suffices ; and that the same is inie of the second 
and third. The mode of formaiion of ilietic stems needs no 
funhcr explanation in this cose. Full lists of the Principal 
Stems (or Pans) of tbc strong ^-erbs will be found fiirther oo 

(S 153): p-'*:- 

§ 139. The following are the principal mod. E. verbs 
fwbicb once belonged to the /a/Z-conjugation ; together with 
weak verbs derived from obsolete strong verbs of that 

Here belong : («) verbs 6tiU BUong, as bthold, fall, hang 
F (intransitive), h^ii, Itl; beat; blow (ax wind), blow (as a 
•6ower), crew', greui, knptv, tkraw. {b) go. pp. gcw, the old 
pL L being lost ; (e) verbs now w-eak (though Anvi, mffwa and 

Pttnm a]>]>eu as past participles) : dread, feld, utll, wtWJ; walk ; 
ttap, iUip, JOtep \ ftoa), glau; low [as a cow), mow, rmo, som ', 
lAaw, hew, tw>tf, vihittt : (i/) weak verba formed from old 
Ktrong vertM : Mrxu/. dyt, read, iheJ, iwttp, spaa. Fxplanation 
of the anomalies found in modern English must be sought 
eUewhere ; thus ilie i-erb to hang now myites the pt. L hung, 
instead of M. E- htng. The forms mew, lew (for mewed, 
tewed) arc still in use in the East Anglian dialect, and 
protnbly In other forms of [irovincial spcecli. Finally, 

ktbcyir//<onjug^ion does not at all help us in the mailer 
kS vowel-gradation, but is described here for the sake of 
{ 110. The verb ' to sbaka.' Ttie tecoitd, or shakt' 
conjugation, is ihe limplesi of all. T'hcre are but two fonns 
of the stem, as the )>p. resembles the infinitive mood (as in 
ibc case abo^'c), whilst the vowel of the jiast teiiie remains 
unchanged throughout. Tlie vok-cI of the lint stem is «. 

■ Tbc pp. (TMnfn ocom In G. tloagbs, tr. oT Viti^l, piul. to Buuk 



[Cut. X 

vlukt that or the second is 6. This S is merely du« to the 
lengthening of a ; cf. E. midor with Lai. maitr. la GotMc, 
the vowel is the same. Hence the *tem-vowcl» are : a, 4, A 
a ; and such verbs arc still someliracs foimd in mod. E., wiih 
00 (=S) in the pt t^ and keeping; the vowel of ibe {nfioitiTC 
in the ]ipL Sucli a verb is ihakt, pt. t. /Aomt, pp. j4af«; 
A. S. seof-art, later utar-an. pi. I. seie. pp. KOi-tn. 

$ 111. KxRoiples in modem En);lish Include : (a) vab> 
still strong — draw,fortak«, ikaht, slay, tvxar; (fl verbs wjlii 
strong past tenses or past parlictplcB— //ojh^, tt>ait, mutt 
(jil. t. fiaoj, wokf, ctt'ckt), gravt, lade, shaft, shavt, vuA, 
K'nx (pp. gravtn. laden, shaptn. shaeen, wathen, uuxm)i 
(<■) verbs now wholly weak — aeke, hakl, fare, flay, gium. 
heave, laugh, stathe, Uep, V!aJe (and frequenlly e^apt, that, 
tooth, wax); also take, a word of Scand. origin, btu coo- 
rormcd to the conjugaiioa of shaJu, and tbcrerore wboltjr 

j 142. Ttic next three conjugations ore cstrcmetf aKkCi 

and may have been formed by differentiation fixnn a comnoa 

tir|>e. In Gothic iliey usually exhibit, rcspeciivel) , the siee*- 

vowels i", a, i, u, or else /, a, e, i, or thirdly i, a, m,M; 

corresponding to primitive I'cutonic t(i), a, i, ti{tt\ ta 

else i-(t)t a, i, e{i), or thirdly e[i), a, a, o(ir) '. Th« gcncrd 

idea of these changes ta not diiBctilt to perceive ; thcf 

start from a tiiein cotituining e or i, wliidi i.s modified or 

' graded ' in the second stem to a, and in the founh to » or « ; 

unless, as in the second formula, the fourth vowel retunu 

to that of the first stem. The fonn of the ihiid uen 

is of comparatively small imiwrinnce; in the third fonni^ 

it resembles the fourth stem, whilst in the first and second «v 

Me an evident attempt to lengthen the vowel (a) of ibc 

^gular number. Omitting the third stem, we 6nd the 

order to U- 1 (0< •>. « («)■ which may be usefully compaitil 

' 'I1ie roKcU lietwMD jtuciitbcfes ate (IcmiuiTc; le. 't(t)' it u 
be itail n ' r, oi Koiicliinei i.' 

« Mf] 



I founl 

will) i]i« gradation obscn'cti in Eomc Greek verba. Thus 
the Gk. rpr^tus to nourish, has the jnd itoriM 7-»pa^o», 
and the perfect ri-rpit^a. Even in Latin wc lind Ug-ert, to 
cover, with a derivative /<y-a, a garmmt ; prteari, to pray, 
whence proe-us, a vfoocr ; sffu-i. \o follow, whence tec-ius, 
a eompanioD. Thus the conjugalional scheme is endeiitly 
(banded upon tlie gradation of E to A, and nulnequcntl)' 
to O. We can now examine these conjugations more in 

I } 143. The Torb ' to bflar.' The Gothic stems exliibit 
i{iu'),a,?,k{ati); the A. S. Mcms exhibit «(/), a,ii{di, o{ii), 
conespoiufing to Teutonic b, a, ft (—a), q. The Teut. e is 
vtdtoraiij wealiencd to t' in Gothic, except when tlie vowel is 
followed by r, i. or Mv, when it become* (short) ai. In the 
Iburth stent, tl»e Tent, o is w in Gothic, except under the 
circiunstances, when it becomes (.ihort) au. These 
changes arc due to the effect upon the vowel of 3 succeeding 
r or A, Examples are : Goth, brii-an, 10 break ; pt. t. 
irak, pL iret-um, \>p. trtti-aiu : and Goih. batr-aa, to bear 
(with ai for t before r, as explained above); pi. t. bar, pi. 
ttr-am, pp. daur-aiu. An(;lo-Sax(>n jirescrvut the ( and 0, 
except when a nasal sonnd follows, when they become' 
f' and u respectively. Examples arc : brr-<in, 10 bear, pL t. 
ittr, pL b<ir-<m, jip. bor-en ; and atm-an, to take, pL, i. hum, 
pi ntfrn-m, pp. ftum-tn. 

} 144. Examples in modern English include (a) itar, 
iriak, tkear, thai, kar ; (^ guaU, which b now weak ; and 
(r) t<mt, the form of which is disguised, ihe Goth, being 
kmim-an, pt. t. kwaaiy pi. kwtn-tm, pp. kwum-ans. Cudou^y 
enough, all these verb* (except quait) are still strong, and 
tJiey have even added one to their number in the verb vstar, 
which was orisinally weak. See above, § 135; p. 158. 

% 146. Tho TOrb ' to giro.' Tlii.s differs from the fore- 
going verb to btar only in its fourth stem, in which there » 
a TClum to the original vowel of the first stem. This is 

» 3 


VO}i'£l^CllADA TtO.V. 


observable In the mod. E, givt, pL t. gave, pp. given. Two 
examples may be given from Gothic, vii. gii-ait, to give, pt t. 
ga/, pi. gd-um, pp. gi&-<tfis; and laHiw-att, to sec, pL t 
/d^^, ]>1. sthw-um, pp. saiAw-ant. Anglo-Saxon comnwnlj 
prcscrveg ihc c in ihc first aem, the chief exceptions being 
when it takes a weakened form or is conmcted. The verb 
to gite is reallj no excrpiion ; for, though the infinitive a 
often quoted tsgi/-an, a belter form iigie/an. where tlie < ij 
radical, and the i \% a parasitic letter ini>cite<l after the/, 
as when people call a gardtn a gt'-arden. 

§ 146. Examples in modem 1-lngUsli include : (a) verbs «iB 
strong, as ea/, forgit, get, give, tie, see, sit, sf^aJt, slielt, trtti, 
uieavr : {6) ^-crbs now weak, m/rtt, kntai, mtie, weigh, wrrai; 
(c) the verb gmlh. of which only the pt. L rcOMins ; and W/, 
originally to pray, which ha<i entirely superseded the oM verb 
signifying ' command,' which pro])cr1y belonged to tbe timt»- 
conjugation. The pt. I. ««w also belongs here. 

§147. The verb 'to drink.' The Gothic stem-vowclt are 
r (tfO> ■*' " (""'<■ " ("*■)■ wiih perfect regularity; the a/andoa 
being Bubsiiimcd, m explained in § 143, only when the stem- 
vowel is followed by r, h, or lat>. Examples are : Jr^ggk-ea, 
to drink (with ggl: pronounced an tigt\ pt. t. draggi. pi. 
drvggk-um, pp. druggk-am; hairg-an, to keep, pt. l barg, 
pi. baurg'toK, pp. iaurg-aitt. 

The A. S. stem-vowels are e («, 1), a (m, a), u, o (m). Here 
(he eo and ra occur only when the stem-vowel 'a followed by 
r, /. or A ; and «■ only occurs in /nrgn, b<trst,paTtt, stragi, 
and hragii, pt, I, of/rign-em, beril-on, i>trt(-an, ttrtgd-<m, and 
hrtgd'on. Kicaroples are : bertt^it, to burst, pL t. barti, pL 
bunt-en, pp. hrsl-en ; eeor/^an, to carve, pt. L eear/, pi. (vrf-vm. 
pp. eorf-en ; drin<-an, to drink, pt. t. dratA, pi. dntnc-m, pp. 
drtoK-en. Of these, the verb Ai </rriU b the moit charOiC- 
tcristic, because the verbs which resemble it are most bo- 
^erous, and arc best represented in modem English. Tbe 
peculiarity of such verbs b lite use of 1' for c hi the (iiKt : 




which is due to the fact that ihc stcm-TOwcl is im-ariably fol- 
lowed hy two consonants, wu of which is the nasal m ot n 
(OT ibe m or n is doubled in the A.S. form). It may be 
added that, in all the verbs of this conjagation, the stcm- 
vowel b succeeded (in A. S.) by fwc consonants, ont of which 
is either m, », /, r, g, or A, i. e. cither a liquid or a gultunil 

$ 14B. Examples in modem English include : (<t) swe//, the 
only partially ttrong verb which retains tlie vowel f, though 
the pp. Jti.v/itn is giving way to fwtiUd; ifi) a large number of 
Slrong wrbs containing m, ^is. bfgin, run (Lowl. Se. rin). spin, 
win ; tinJ, find, grind, wind; cling, ring, sing, sling, spring, 
ttit^, aving, tvrii^; drink, shrink, sink, slink, slink; also 
figkl, swim: [e) the following weak verbs, some of which 
have otwolescent strong past participles, vix. braid, hum. 
hirsi, earvt (pp. tanm), tlimS (occasional pt. t elomi), dt/ve, 
h*lp (pp^ kolptn). mtU (pp. molltn), mourn, ifistm, starvr, 
thrash, Jilt, yield. The verb worth, as in ' wo worth the 
dayl' belongs here. The verb to eringt seemn to be a 
secondary- form from A. S. eringan. Qutneh is a secondary 
form from A. S. (wim-<m, to become extinguished. Other 
secondary ibrros are bsdgt, drtneh, slinl, stunt, swallow, throng, 

{149. The verb 'to driTd.' We now come to a new 
gradation ; n-betc the Goih. lias the stem-vowels a, at, i {at), 
i (ai) ; and the A. S. has the invariable Kct /. d, i. i. The 
Gothic sobstitutioR of ai for i is merely due lo the presence 
of r. A, or hw, immediately succeeding the siem-vowel. The 
Goth, ti is merely the way of denoting the long i if). The 

* It U VOTIh vhl1« lo iidd here that wc Ami a Tkriulon of vowtU 
in rtdnflitaied wonb, u tlioy >ro calUil ; mob m tkii-ckal, diltf' 
dnllx, JiHg-4tn£ Jai *Jing-dattf), crmlle-ctanlllt, p'l-fal, &c. In 
(IWI17 or thcx the rool-TOwel U ■>, woiccoed to 1' Id the fomicr vj\- 
lable. Il ta a mmlnSltM copy of the priodfilc of cradatiun, whI of 




A. S, A answers lo a Teutonic ai. Hence the comaun 
Teutonic form appears equally from dther set, and is to be 
written /, ai, i, t. We thus team (hat there are two gradations 
of (. It can cilhcr be strengthened (o (u', or weakened to > 
(short). This corresponds to the gradation observed in the 
Gk. XiiifMv, pt. L X4-X«iira, snd aor. 7-Aw«*-; And in tJte 
fid-fft. to trosl, with its (IcrivAtivcs _/5wf-(« (=^/M/-w). i 
compact, and /Ib^i, faith. Gothic examples are: ^Irmf-isi, 
to drive, pL I. dra^, pL drib-um, pp. drib-am; ga-Uih-ttM, 
to point out. pt I. ga-laih, pi. ga-iaik-um. pp. ga-taih-aat. Id 
A. S. wc have drif-an, to drive ; pt. t. driif, pL drtf-om, pp. 

§ 160. Examples in rood. E. include : (j) verbs stili strong 
or partially strong, as ahidti arist. bide, hUt^ tltirM (to adliere). 
drive, ride, rise, shine, shrive, stide, smile, stride, strike, writhe, 
write; to which add rise, thrht, of Scand. origin, and 
strive, originally a weak verb ; {b) weak ^'Crbs, as gli^e. gript, 
reap, sigh, slit, sfieiv, twit. Though we find cAtdlr in Geo. 
xxxk 36, the A. S. eid-an, to (hide, is a weak verb, pi. t. riddt. 
The frcqiicnt occurrence of long t in the inJiniiivc will be 

§ 161. The verb ' to obooae.' This also introduces a new 
gradation. Gothic has tlte stem-vowels iu, au, u {mi), u {tm) ; 
where the subslitulion of au for u b merely due to the effect 
of the sicm-vowd being followed by r, h, or hw. A. S. has 
the Ktem-vowels A (tf), /a, u, o. The A. S. (^, /a, invartably 
represent the Goth. i», au respectively ; and both sets of 
stem-vowcis answer to an origina! Teutonic set expressed by 
at, au, M, Si. We hence learn iliat the TeiU. stein-vowd or 
can be strengthened, on the one hand, to an, and weakened, 
on the other, to v. This closely rcscmblcB the Greek 
gradation ru, ov, v, as seen in Aib^tfuu, I shall go, pei£ 
ilX^Xavtfa, and aor. ^vBor. Examples in Gothic are : hiut-an, 
lo choose, pt. t. haul, pi. ^m-wm. pp. hui-ans ; ttuh-ast, to pull. 
pt L tauh, p). tauh-um, pp. tauk-aiu. In An^lo-Saxon : e/at-am. 

I the J 





10 choose, pi. L t/ai, jd. eur-on (for *aa-on\ pp. tw-m (for 
*i-M-ffl), as siiewn in § 130 ; also Ji^-div, to Imw. pt i. ^oA, 
pL htig-cH, pp. j(i^m. 

$ 192. Examples in mod. E. iocludc : (a) ««rbs which stilt 
shew tuong forms, as choose, flanv (to split), ^)-./''i^'v, KtJie, 
shfot J (b) x'crbs now weak, as brew, ebtui, crttp, fiet, lie {to 
tell lies), r**i, rue (oil with orig. fy in the first stem) ; And 
Aw, *r*rf. «y<wrf, thfft>t. ttttk. sup (wiih if io the first siem) ; to 
whicb we maj' add htrtmi, dr.i, drip,Jtoat, lock, lose, slip, smoke, 
tag, as being tecondar}' forms immediately derived from strong 
fornis. The A. S. b&d-ait, to offer, command, is represented, a» 
to its meaning, hj mod. £. biii; but tlie mode or conjugating 
this mod. £. verb lias been borron-cd from dmt really belong- 
ing 10 the old verb bid, 10 beg, pray, which Iwlongs to the 
^'tv-cODJugalion ; s«; § 146. 

5 IM. I now giw the four stems of the seven conjugaiions 
in vaiiotis Teutonic languages, a« ihey alTord mucli help in 
comparing the vonvls of one language with those of smother. 
The four stems exhibit rcspecuvely, the infiniiiiy ; the pasi 
tense, ■ person singular ; llie past tense, 1 person plural, and 
ibc past pttrlidple, as already said. 

I. PA IX -conjugation. 










Godile' ... 






/tail- an 




Enclbh ... 










Gcniuu ... 









SwtdU ... 





Dsnnh ... 





' Colblc Iiat ool the verb ' to fait ' ; t subMihile for 1( A»At-tui, la hold. 
' wUcb txUui|[i Io tbii canJDcilicn. 




k ^^H^B^ 


^^H 168 VQWBL'GRADATtON. TCi^^l 

», SHAKE- oonjiigslion. 






















Eneliah ... 





Ihilcli' ... 





German' ... 





Icelandic ... 





Swedish ■ ... 






Danish ■ ... 






3. BEAR-conjogalioii. ■ 











Gothic' ... 










English ... 


tiirt, tert 




Dutch* ... 






flcTmaii* ... 






Icclarirlic ... 





SwcdUh ... 












4. GIVE-majiiKation. 



I^t ting. 


Pott fart. 















EnKll»h ... 

















German . . . 
IcelaniliG ... 









Swediih ... 




' In Golluc, Dutch. German. Swcdiih. and Daniih, 1 el** far-cm, t( 


^^^H Cnvtl, ioittad of ' iiliakf,' whicli U not uwd. 

^^^^H * la OoQiii:. Ihe illphiboni^ ai, ait rc|ilx«c Ihe vowvit i, n, wWn r 

^^^^P followi ; Kc p. i6j. In Dnich and OmDni 1 j^tq Ibt roll ttaM. 

^^^^K ' In thr A,gt-af,gi-J/«n,ibtgitttgtn tt iab>Utuii«a fat 

^^^^H f ; th« voweLi att rnilly /, a, •/. ^1 

5. OKlNK-canjoKiliun. 



Pmt lims- 

















teUih ... 










Gcnuui ... 





lodtnilic .,. 





Swtdlih ... 











6. DKJVK'Coiijugatian. 


ril4l liag. 

Fait flur. 



Data- AH 




Cockic ... 










tm^ab ... 










Gcnun ... 



iMlandic ... 





Swcdkh ... 










3. CHOOSE -ewijngatlon. 


Pan ling. 

Fatt flur. 

Fan fart. 






Godiie ... 










EiiKllih ... 










Ocnnui ... 





Icelasdk ... 



Sw«dUfa< ... 





UuUi' ... 





* la Swtifiik aa& Duibli I tntatilate 

ij'ud'O, fyif-i, to titd, olTti : 


ro wfi.i^GifADA no ft. 


§ 1S4. We can licnce compile a tabic which will g^v« an 
approximaic value of the vovcl-tounds in the diETerem 
languages. It is not alcogciher correct, because some of 
the modern bnguages have altered the old values of thr 
sounds. Thus ilic mod. G. pp. gt-lritb-en, diiven, has heeii 
substituted for ge-trib-en, so that the original Geniuu) sound 
really anawerin); to our shon ■ was also short i'. Soci 
substitutions muM lie allowed for. 

CoMPAKATivz Tabi.k or Vo«rKi.-sot)xia, as drducbo 
Stkoxs Verbal Stems. 

[Tlic Items >c1rclcd *.iv: fatl (Mtm l\ jA«b(i^ Mir(j>,xlK(>] 
forTeut. A; **«*/ (JJ.fotTeiiL loogO; *M/-(j),focTeiit.ft i Uir^ii 
givt (i). driiii [I), for E; tear (4), Jrml (4), Tor O : Jriv* (l, *. 4! 
Ibi long 1, Al, and 1 i rAiw/(l, >, 3, 4), fe* KU, AU, lad U.] 












1. 1 









1 AncIo-SoioTi 











0, « 




















a, ak 










Icelandic ... 










Swrdiih ... 





















$ 18B. This table fs not, perhaps, exact in all paniculan^ 
as regards the modem forms, but ii will gire a sufBcicnl idea of 
what may be expccicci. I'he principal results are the following. 

(i) The Tcui. A may be lengthened to A > 6 or ft. 

(3) Tlie Teut. E may be ' graded * to A 011 ibe one band, 
and on the other. 

(3) The Tcui. t may be graded by being Etrengtlicned 
AI, or weakened to I. 

(4) The Tcut. EU may be graded by bcii^ tUc^gthen 
to AU, or weakened to U, 

■ SnbUltutni for the islnc* Is the ublcii «ee the Kami* above. 
* A.S. Av A conimonl]' btcomc E. ton^ '■ 






We Urns form four groups of Hounrtg which arc related by 
gradation. In case* a, 3, and 4. we may collect tbcm as 
follows :— 

The E-gTOup ; E, A, O. 

The I-gro«p ; t, I, AI. 

■nwU-group; EU, U. AU. 

I !iiere call ihe second the I-group because all the varieties 
contain I ; joiA for the same reason I call the last the 
U'gToap ; but the tmc slaning-i>oints arc t and £U. 

Wc may abo note some of the results as follows, 

Teut. A : remains as a usually ; A. S. alio has ta (before 
/, r, h, or after g, e, te) ; also <r ; also « (chiefly before m and 
»). See Sievcrs, 0. E. Gram, jj 49-S4. throughout. 

TeW. 6, for A ; here Gothic has long o, to which answers, E. w. 

Tent £!, for A : here Gothic has long e, to which answers 
A.S. rf, commonly E. re. 

Te«t- E : regularly weakened to / in Gothic, except before 
r, h, fav, wfacD it appears as a short ai. !n A. S. it often 
remains as « ; or becomes t' (chiefly before m and n); or to 
(lieforc I, r. A). 

Tctil. 0: becomes « in Gothic, except before r, A. frw, 
when it appears as aa. A. S. has 0, occasionally w ; the 
lattef especially before tn and m. 

Tcut. I : unially remains i in the Teutonic languagcjf. 

Teut. t : Goth, ei; Da. rj; G. <■/; the rest, f, 

Teoi. AI : Goth, ai; A. S. £; loeL a; E. (commonly) i; 
G. «', if, the rest. /, 

Teut. U : Ckitlv., Swed., Dan. « ; A. S. and Icel. «. o ; Du. 
and G. 0. 

Tcol. EU: Goth, iu; A.S. h (and w); Icel.>J; Swed. 
y»; Dan. ^; G,, Du-w; E. long*'. 

' E. rAMff u an encplional form ; Ihe rigbt vowel U w, ai io Ihe 
cA«tv {fat *thm\ trttf, freai, ttellU. TIk M. E. form li ^JU*-*m 
Ih« fonncr 1 long). 




Tciit. AU: Goth-, loel. «»; A.S. fa; C Da. &\ Swed. 
Dan. long <i. 

Lastly, ir ttie Table in $ 1 54 be compaKtl with that b 
% 80, p. 96, which was obtained from difTcrcnt considcnuiont^ 
the results will be Tound to agree in all nseniial particuhn. 

f 168. We are now able to compare some at least of the 
Wwcl-souii(tit in different languitges. By «ay of examplr^, 
we may take the following. The Teutonic long 1 wis 
pronounced like tt in ti^l. Thin tound b stitl preserved ia 
Icelandic, Swedish, and Danish. Il wns also 10 pronoonced 
in A.S. and M.E. Bm in E, Dutch, and Gcnnao, ii ha* 
suffered a precisely similar altcralion. I( has be«n mowd 
on, as if by a new gradation, from I to AI ; so that the 
Du. ij, G. «; and E. long i are all now sounded prccuely 
alike, i.e. asi'in biU^. Or again, we may consider ibe A. S. A 
whence came the E. o in stont, and compare it with other lan- 
guages. The A. S. A has not alwa)-s ibc same value, but m«i 
often it has the value indicated in § 155, Le. it answers to 
Teui. AI. We should expect this to ansn-cf to Du. long t, 
and accordingly we find the Du. stttn answering to h. S. Jii» 
and E. stont. In coiij. b, »tem i, the G. corresponding eomid 
would seem to be it, Imt the fact is that theC./ri/^ (dro^'e) is 
a modern form ; the 0. H. G. was drtib or Irtih, and the 
M. H. G. was iTiih. Hence the G. a is the right cqoivalau 
of A. S. d, ax in G. Slein, a stone. Having obtained the 
remit, wc arc prepared to Gnd other similar examples, of 
which a few may be cited. E. bom, A. S. bdn, Du. btm, 
bone, leg, shank; G. B«in, a leg. E. wktk, K- S. hit, D«. 
*«/. G. *■//. E. oalh, A. S. 4^, Do. ttd, G. Eid. E. 4>*l. 
A. S. 4t, Du. «*. G. EiehH. E. w^. A. S. t4p-<, Du. «<^ 

' Tbe ifttrmtiiaie wund bclHvcn > (ly is t<t() and ai l,t in biU) b n 
(a in tiamt). Thii Is lujipiMcil to luic txieii Ihc tound of E. t lo tbe Uae 
ofShiLkcipcsre. OliMTicllliil German aduatly ntaini l^ ucliai;: ipdl- 
ing iVtiu, cotntpcndiBg to a time when that w«k1 vaa ptcooiBioed 1^ 



« IS"-] 

Vio Da. 

V Bpedal 

n/S AlfGLO^AXOAf /.O.VC A. 


G. Seif-t. It b not to be concluded (hat the A. S. if answcis 
lo Du. «. and G. «' in all cases, for thcte arc numerous 
Bpedal imiances to the coolrary, but u-e sec heic quite 
suOicieitl reguhrity to shcvr what we may often expect, and 
wv cui also sec that difTcrcnces of vowel-sound in the tnotkrn 
forma of related langua^s may easily arise from the same 
original sound in the common Teutonic type- 

} 157- As I haw attcaity. in Chapter V, exp1ainc<l the A. S. 
long vowel-sounds at some length, it may be interesting to 
compare tbcro, as we can now more easily do, with their 
German arul Teutonic cquivatcnls. For this! pur|iosc I shall 
say a few words upon each sound, without giving every 
detail, b«-giniung witli $ 43. 

Tho JlS. & (long n). In many csiseii this answers to 
Tcut. AI, G. «'. as explained in % 156. Examples : tmd, two. 
G. CTw'; Aff, whole, G. htil; 4dl. dole. G. ThtH; Op, oath. 
G. £id\ eldfi, clolh, G. Kifid (a AKii); Idp, loath, G. teid 
(troablesome) ; g4il. ghost, G. GtuI; Ms, hoarse, G- hcis-<r ; 
4n. ODe, G- ««; >ldn, stone, G, Suhf, bin, bone, G. Ban 
(I^) ; kSm. home, G. //am ; Jdh, dough, G. Ttig, *c. Bui 
there is a Bccond value of the German equivalent, which ii 
less common, vii. th; as in rrf, roc, G. Jirh-, sld, stoc, G. 
Schith-t; K>d, woe, G. W^; gd, go, G. geh-*\ Id, toe, 
G- Ztk-*\ Ur, lore, G. LtAr-t; stSr, sok, allied to G. tfAr, 
sorely, very; K4r-f, more, G. meir. This sound is, in 
general, merely another development of the same Teut. AI, 
and either occurs at the end of a syllable, or is due to the 
inllucncc of a following A or r : thus A. S. rd is also spelt 
rdk; and A. S. lU is a conlnLCled form for 'tldi- r ; Me 
further tn Kluge's Etjm. G. Diet. 

S 16S. The A. 8. 6 (Icmg e). This most often arises from 
a mutation of i. a» cxpLiined in Chap. XI. Thus V^/tt/, 
A.S.///, is the pL of>o/, A.S./«)?; cf. G. Fun, foot, pi. 
FOfje, Hence we shall often find that the corresponding G. 
sound b long s. Examples : A. S./iff-an, to feel, C/ii^ft ; 




gr/n-t, green, G.grSn; ciVc, keen, bold, G. Jt^hn; h/J-m, 
lo he«d, G. hm-fii; ir/d'an, lu breed, G. hrOt'tn, lo hudb; 
twil-t, sweet, G. rft*r; gr/l-an, to greet, G. grOit-tn. Bm 
there are several examples tn nhich the A. S. / Itas another 
origin; thm A/A, high, is a shorter form of A/ai, high, and 
corresponds, regularly, lo G. Anc*. 

§ 160. Tha A. 8, i (long i). This comDwniy answers to 
G, ei; bcc § 156. Examples ; A. S, M, by, G. ia; trti, (roB. 
G. Eittn ; kstil, while, G. Wtilt, Ac It is very easy to 
multiply ex am pies. 

f 160. The A. 8. 6 (long o). This commonly answers to 
Tetit. 0; see the pt. i ot shake in $ 153. The A. S./ar-M, 
to go, makes the pt. U/ir; with which cf. G./uhr; so ibd 
A. S. 6 cominonl7=G. long t* or uh. Exam{4e9: uS, iboe. 
G. Schuh ; din, lo do, G. ihun ; li, loo, G. tu ; ru>6r, svoie, 
G. tt/oMir ; /*-, floor, G. Flur ; /«/. stool. G. StuU; hif, 
hoof, G. Huf; Mid. blood. G. .f/x/; h-id, brood, G. ^ntf; 
AAi hood, G. HtU; rid, rood, G. Rulh-<, ftc. The G. 
tSiU, cool. M. H. G. ktltlf, is allied to an unmodified form 
kuci, appearing in M. H. G. kuoi-fMut, a cooling house ; and 
thin klier agreen exactly with A. S. eil, cool. Two imporlMl 
examples occur in A. S. hr4dor, brother, G. Brudtr; ami 
mSdar, modier, G. Mut/tr. It is surprising to find ihu this 
G. long V, answering to a Teut. long d, was really A in the 
AT}-an parent-speech. We ilius get the rentukable variety 
of long vowels seen in Lat ml/ir, Doric Gk. fuhnipi f*^ 
p$Tv, A. S. midor, O. H. G. mwlar {G. ifulttr) ; or again, 
in Lax./igus, Gk. ^lyit, A. S. i*. G. Siuhf, a bccch-trce. 

f 181. The A. 8. t^ (long n). It was shewn in § 46 that 
the A. S. £ ha« been devvIo[>ed into the modem diphthong 
01V, as in h£i, a house, just as the A. S. / has been altered to 
the modern diphthongal long i. Both of these changes ban 
taken [iloce in German also '. Just as tlie 0. H. G. vMm is 

' T he m«oo, in both linginMSC*, b llic sunc. I hii« miteady f^'tai H- 


THF. A/fClOSAXOy 1.0NC Y. 


now Wfin (E. KtJw), to the O. H. G. k&t is now Haus (E. 
lmtti\. Eiampics: br&, brow, G. Augeniraut; sir, sour, 
G. tautr ; /ill, foul, G. /au/, comipl ; Aiit, house, G. ffaut ; 
l£3, loose, G. Ltaa ; miU, mouse, G. JIftau, He. But there 
are cases in which German has picscrred ihc & unchanged ; 
as in i£, thou, G. Ju ; nil. now, G. mm ; cH, cow, G. XuH. 
Such iiutanccs are useful, ns ilicy enable the EnglishnKin to 
realise what the onsinal A.S. ti was tike, especially when it 
b remembered that eco {cow), nw (now), moos {mouse). Aoot 
(hoU4e) ure ([uiic common wonli in provincial EiiKlixli. 

§ lea. Th9 A 8- ^ (long y). As found in A. S. rn^t, pi. 
of mtfj. mouse, it answers to G. Jfw in Mnuif, mice. The 
A. 5. /y&, filili, majr be compared with G. Fau/nisi, rotten- 
ne«a. Much the same soun<l apjKars in A}!r, hire, G. //eiur ; 
jyr, 6re, G. Fmr. But in G. //an/, hide, A. S. iyd, and 
Brauf, bride, A. S. irfd, the G. aH has sufTeied do modi- 

j 183. The A. S. A. It appears from the 3rd stem of the 
coajugaiion of the ^'erb /o btar (§ 153) that th<; A. S. it 
answers regularly, in «omc cases, to G, long a. Examples: 
rf/, eel, G. Aa/; mdi, meal, repast, G. Mahl; d/tn, cwning, 
G. Abend; tfrde, speech. G. Sprath-f, Sild, seed, G, Saat: 
4d4, deed, G. That; ndtil, needle, G. Naiitl; tldp, sleep, 
G. Sthlaf, tec. Bui there are numerous cases in which 
A. S. word* containing d are mere derivatives from words 
containing d {=G. ri), as explained in the next cliapicr. In 
such cases, Gcnnan keeps the //of the more primitive vord. 
Thus \. S. Jiii/-att. to heal (G. &»7-fn) is derived from A. S. 
^, whole {<?. Aeif). It is obvious that German is here an 
excclleni guiile to stich a method of deriviilion. 

{ 164. Tbe A. S. 4«. It appears, from the and stem of 
the conjugation of ck»t* {} laj), that the A. S. 4ti rcprcKnts 
Teut. AU, and is e<iu:valent to G. o. Examples : y/a, flea, 
,G. ^'ki; iof't, car, G. Ohr\ iati, cast, G. Oil; 6/iit, bean, 
y SoAn't; tirAim, stream, G. StrMi. But examples are 



wmal); i 

not warning in which G. has kept the Teat, au unchanged 
as in te-r/af-ian, to bereave, G. ie-raui-en; Ua/, le»f, G 
Laui \ Uam, a seam, G. Saunt ; dr/am, a dream, G. TVash 
hfam, beam. G. ^.iMm (tree); k/ap, a heap, 0. IIauf-t\ 
Al^ap-ait, lo run (leap), G. lauf-tn ; c/ii/. a bargain, G. Ka*/ 
(both [terbaps from LaL tai^, a hncktter, ilrougb Klngir 
consi<lcrs thcw wttrd* as pure Teutonic). 

S 165. The A. 8. 4o. It appears, from the ist stem of 
(hcest ({ 153), that the A. S. <% (Goth, in) answers to T 
i.i'ir 4 i x-ix EU, G. it. Examples : s/o, she, G. ti*;/f»h, cattle (fee), C. 
■'-•"'■-";,»*: f*f^; ^"t bee, G. Bit-m; Jfyr, deer, G. 'TAitr (aninal); 
B^ ^or, beer, G. Bitr; e/ol, keel, G. Kiel; s^-an, lo 

^^^H G. tiftf-fti, &c. But there are cases in which an A. 

^^H arises from contraction; and here G. has ft; a» in ^A, 

^^H lliree, G. ^a; /r/o, free, G./rei; /doni. Hcnd, G. Feati 

^^^1 (enemy). Another contracted fonn occurs in A. S. friw, 10 

^^^1 NCC, G. sth-m. 

^^^B § 166. The above examples an: intended to ithew how the 

^^^H same original Teut. sound may be quite <li?ctcntly developed 

^^^B in such langiiagcs as modem English and modem German: 

^^^H so that, for example, the great apparent dilTerenoe between 

^^^1 the rounds of 'i^pa and G. /YM can be explained; thef 

^^^1 arc different devielopmcnis of Tcul AU, and that b aU. 

^^^H Grimm's Law only enables us to say lliat, in such a pair of 

^^^1 words as the £. fckin (.\. S. I4ct>i) and the G. ZeieAtm, ibc I 

^^H is regularly shiAcd to a G. .Z, and the .t (A. S. «) to tbc G. fi. 

^^^1 But wc can now go further, and say tliai the A. S. rf and 

^^^H G. ei arc botli alike developed from Teui. AI, and encily 

^^^H correspond. Hence the £. loktn corresponds lo ibe 

^^^H Ztiehm all the way through, sound for sound ; and It is onlj 

^^^1 when we can prove such an orij|;inal idinlUy of lurm thai 

^^^B words can flirty be said to be cognate. Tlux is to say, we 

^^^H are bound to explain not the consonants alone, but the 

^^^H vowels also. If anytliing, ifae vowels arc of even more in»> 

^^^H portancc than the consonants, as they enable us to apply 

i .67] 



a mort dtiUatt htf. Jl is not (U) this principle is thoroughly 
ondctsiood that inie philolngjr begins. Itfcre hap'hazard 
COinpriM^n.t are ounly worthies. 

$ 107. Freotiool appUcati(»t of the principle of 
gndation. A knowledge of gmdaiioD, *& cxplalrtrd aliove, 
enables us to trace rrlaiJonshipft between words wlittli might 
otherriw seem unrchlctt. Thus wlten we know that lotig a 
and dbon a nrc connected by gradation, we can easU)' 
ujwkntand Lbai the vowel may api>ear as short a in one 
language and » long a in another. Take, for example, 
the Skt. fapAa, a hoof. Here the Ski. f, though pro- 
nounced aa f , is weakened From if, and the ^t. /A is aii 
aspirated fi, so that the Aryan form of the Grxt KylUhIc was 
CAP. By Grimin's Law, the Aryan k and p answer 10 Tcut. 
A andyi respectively, thtis giving the Tent, form of the same 
sylUble as iiAr. U the a be graded to I, it becomes, in 
above, on A. S. i, which git<es us A. S. Ai/, a hoof, at once. 
Wc cannot doubt ibac the Skt. fapAa, which, practically, 
differs from A^only in exhibiting a »hort a instead of a long 
Li^onc in tlie first s>-] lab Ic, is really ctywofr with the .K.S.Mf, 
^KE. JttK^i for tlie words sire idenliciil in meaning. Similarly, 
^B'Wc can pcrcei^v such connections ns llic following:. A. S. 
^FmAw, noon, allied to Gk. pti^, moon ; from the Aryan root 
I Ma, 10 measure, the moon being the mea.iurer of time ; cf. 
Skt. «4, lo measure (§ 160). T.. food. K.S./^-da, from 
tl>e root fK, to fee<! ; Skt. pd, to feed. E./ntf/, A. S,/*. Skt. 
/J(/ nr pad, a foci. K. tooi. udv.iniage, A. S. i4t. G. Buiie, 
reconciliation ; strengthened from the Tent biise lUT, good, 
preserved in Goth, dai-ha, belter, itfMj/r, best ; where bat= 
Aryan ikiau, a» »ecn in Ski. bkad-ra, excellent. £. tUol, 

RL S. tlii, a chair, support ; G. Sluhl, chair, throne ; Gk. 
T^*i», a pilbr. named from being firmly set up ; from the 
Lryan root $ta, to stand firm. E. timl, A. S. dt, allied to 
cci. kal-<i {pL t. kit), to freeze ; A. S. ttai-4, O. Mercian 
M/-rf(§33),E.»/-rf; cf. Lai. ^rf-«. frost. E.*»tfA, A.S.WA, 

VOL. t. K 

'"**, c^-^ SiniHJB 

-T^ Jii. -■-— i .^ -liiri--*;. JT-TT, *- --^. 

jW. "';.- :. I'T :-- -.-r-.T= sTse rtm Tat i): 

r. --. r .. .; u- i. r ^;rt: —.ni nc l:^ :r « aae 

.-. ;i. ^.- ;r, _- : i-r- .." .:r^ .-^. li He ■Tf=.-- r';!7T | - "^ -^jif 
i ;--■;; :-r ':--:7 ^ ■-..■- -r.r-: r: :ii u J_ri.ii. m s i 
";-■:.:;,•■'.: ■.- ■. j.'..: "i. Z. ^i;:-?.:'^: .:i i.r ;a iiriKT e«. rwaj 
.. ..i- -„ -. ;._. : - ^-.j:"^ : -:.: :-J..r; i.iSLA >C>3^ 
J_:r..i-. :.ii. .-J-- — .-.- ":-^ f,,- ;t x;d Li .■■enir. Ifa ce 
.'. / -- -- :. /■ .•^■.-:= .r '.-■'E. = ".'st.- . ^ ; -Jrau:! 

'ffw.. ... -.;«..-; I -T-"-. f: :^: E. .-cL J-. S, »t, 

' ' ■ .-i! = ' .L'.T ■_. 1.:-. :;:.. i7.---». >i. t;;. i-hmr^ 

\i: .'.:-.-; ,'-'..^ Z. .1- --., r. .''-^ k;!^-::- 'zz 'sairs 

.y :-:■: .; ■-■■ '■.-.:=' .:-i.' .i Zi::. .-.nir" r:3±. lotL 

.-,;■*-- 'j: :::; ■,'■'..—..■-- -7 L.-^ZLJi^i;.T : Tfz;. iUfTBa 

.-..' i- 1--.-.- --, .-..- L.-. ij:~- T-<t -'-"7*^ asT- aeaiK 


! ■ .- : ! .". :'■.: Ei-i>T- "•:,;: j z-:-±Jz^ bci a p«- 
■':- :..- , ■ .i. ■'.—. :t:~ —-t -V-yi^ r:-:: & :;■ be. 19 sea 
-. ■-.. 1; -v T-i'- -.■-.■?- T: .r ::.:-: ":;i;'e iii ioch a 
4 . -4- .-■ -.r i.: -j.i :r.i-r_il Mz« of Ais rooi; il 

r.-.v, . k-: y irr.'^-L- ■ v, r..-"-.:.^': i^ j^:; iz. Jr^ SkL .i^-~>, Tdal 
•-■ . ;;:■;. f.-.-i .-.;i :; !:t.: > ■ -.l-.i: ■ai,;:h live*,' benot 
a ■■ . y ',: ■.rT:-.r„ Tr.i '..;.'.-.:i j'i-r iiri in SkL is tOMl, 
..:.-■ i: Jl'.i.f'/ ^i^iir.s a: p. 63 ' j. v. j.-i. is properlT tbc 
■ /.s«./ ' ;:'. '.-.'.-jri ;.-. ;-.• Ora;=:==. a=i ii of ScMri. or^ia; ast 




. pan. of ox, lo be, bul meanl al«o right, vittuons. steady, 
eii«raUc, excellent The feminine rorm was reduced to sati, 
villi (he sense of * a virtuous wife'; and this term n*a> aTier- 
twards apfilied lo a vriduw who iininttlaied hi;iscir on thC' 
ncral pile of her husband. This b ihc word vhicfa we 
soaUj write iuJltt, and bcorrcctl}- apply to Uie burning of 
, widow. Tl»e SkL short a l>eing sounded as ihc IC. u \a 
ud, we have turned sa:i into stt//ef. jiisi a; wc write jungU, 
^k, pundit, ^t^atffO!, thug, Pun/auh, for the &ame reason 
of the mott inierestin^ bctt in pliilolog}' is llic briti^ng 
together of many words which at first sight look unrelated : 
id it CUD be shewn thai the same root es, to live, Is the 
ate MUrce of all llie words following, vii. am, art, it, 
f, tin (English): tctentf, mtily, ah-itnl, pre-stni (Latin); 
^prefix), {J>xlir)-<mli>-le^y (Greek); aiid tuiltt (Sanskrit). 
§ 160. But the most important application of the principle 
'gndatioD is the following. We see that each strong verb 
four stems, some of which are often much alike. 
rhi», omitting sulSxe«. the stems of scac-OH, lo shake, ore 
'(i) irat- (i)u^- (2)ieic- (4)rfirc-. j-jclding only two rariciics, 
11 viz. itae-, tc&-. It is found iliat derived words, chiefly sub- 
^■natilivcs (sometimes adjectives), do not always preserve the 
^■primitive sicm (letu-), but are sometimes formed from the 
^fvariani {se4f). Thus tlie mod. £. jAj//, sb., agrees with the 

stem uafi- of uaf-an, (o shape ; but the A. S. nip, a poet, lil. rt» I , 
b^ sluper of Eong, agrees with the stem uSp, seen in tlie pi. t. 3 
^KiDg. of the same ^-erb^ It is, howe\'cr, not correct to say 
Klfaat it&p^ a poet, is derived from the pi. L it6p ; we may only 
^say that it is derived from that strengthened form of tlic ba>« 
whkh f^peais in iIk past tense. It is precisely the same 
ns Dcnifs with respect to tlie Gk, X*Jir-fii>, to leave, perf. 
U->«nr4 ($ [34). We find the adj. Xoiir-itt, remaining; not 
oed from the perf. W-Xwn-o, but exhibiting the samt 
radatioM a» tlut which .ip[tears in X(>XiHir-«. If now we 
aploy the symbol < to signify 'derived frota,' and the 
» a 



sj'niliol II to sigDify 'a base with ihc esuic gradation su,* ' 
may, vfiili [terfeci correctness, tipress ihc etymology oTa^^ 
. I ;](] a poet, by writing se6p, *b. < II se^, pL L of uAf-an, to icayt. 
This is sometimes loosely exprct>»i] by omitting ilw Bjtnbol I, 
but it mutit always ht imdcrshod; so that if at any time, (a 
the sake of brevity, 1 shouKI S[»eak of tc6p, a poet, as 
' derived firom the pt. t- of seap-an^ this in only to I» rcg 
u a loose and inaccunilc way of saiing that it is ■< 
from a base with th« same gradation as i<6p! And this i 
all that is meant when £. st>s. are said to be derived 
forms of the past lenses and past pantciples of strong vrriA ' 

§ 170. The result of the last section is impocutu, becanc 
most EiiftUsh i;ianimars neglect it. Instances arc- ^tta to 
Loth's AngclsAciit^i^chcnglische Gtammaiil;, bui ibey m 
taken from Anglo-Saxon, and do not clearly bring out ihc 
giir%-i\a] of the principle In ibe modem language. As ttdi 
point has been to much negleclet), I have endcavooml U 
collect such examples of gradation as I have observed 
in modern HngUsh, and now subjoin them; but I do not 
suppose that \\\v liNl i.< com]>1cle. 

§ 171. /■.///-conjugation. There arc no examples c^ 
derivatives from a secondary stem, because lite past tense 
in fonncd hy Tedu|iliralion, not by gnulatioii. The verb tt 
fill is derived, not by gradation, but by muialion, as will be 
idiewQ hereafter ($ 19a d). From the primary stem «t 
have such substantives t& fatl, hold, span, ftc-; where tlie 
derivation is obviou):. 

\ na. i'AiJ*r-conjagaiion. There arc no modem 1 
of derivatives from the second stem, except in the 
of iokt, token, K. S. s6Cf tSe-n < fl lie, pL L of sat-OH, 
contend; and in the doubtful case oi growt, K.S. grif\A 
< \iSri/, pt. I. oi graf-an, to grave, cat. But 1 believe! 
wiltbcfoundihai the A.S.^^is unauthoritei] and tmag 
tlial groovt is a word of late introduction into English, 
unknown in the M. E. period ; and thai il was me 




borrowed fmni Du. grotve '. Nevertheless, the principle still 
applies : for Du. gTM^ is dcTived from the slem seen in 
grot/, pL t. of Du. gravtn, lo graw. 

\ 173. j9«r-oo«jugalion. The stems arc (i) frr- (j) iar- 
{3) ^ff' (4) b<rr-, as Ken in iw-tfit, to bear; or (i) mm- 
(3) nam- (3) Mdw- (4) mtm-; as seen in nim-aa, to take. 
The following are derivatives from the and Slem: £. bair-n 
(child), A-S. htar-n < II kirr { = '&ar\ pi. t, of itr-an, to bear. 
Also K. Aiir-w, A. S. Uar-m, the lap; from the same. 

^shar€,»&iapUKgh-shart,A.S.setar{='sear) < | (ner 
(for 'sear), pt. t. of J(rr-iwi, scier-an, lo shear. 

E. giuU-m, A. S. cwm/-jw (=*rttvj/-w). pcsiilcncc, death 
< I A^ S. rtwr/ (="rto«/), p[. l. of A. S. avtl-ait, to die, 
which b now spelt fMH//. 

From the 3rd sicm : itw, A. S. bdr < II tttr-on, pi. t. pi. of 
ier-tw, to bear, 

Fiom the 4th stem : tur-Jai, lur-lhtii. A. S. ijr-Jwr, a 
loitd < (bj' muUtion) l| bur-ra, pp. o( ier-an, to bear {§ 193). 
Similarly ^V-zA, A.</. 

E. AeJ^ A. S. W, a hoUow, cave < 11 M-en, pp. of A.S. 
tul-an, 10 hide. 

K Kivc, A. S. sor. a score. i.c. Iwcnly < II kot'Oi, pp. of 
setr-mi, 10 shear, cut. 

We may also note beie that nm-b-le and mmmA arc both 
from A. S. iH*BiHr/r, to take; tlie latter adj. was actually formed 
from the pp. num-en. 

$ 174. The ^rr>coRJagaiioD. 

From the ind stem : lay, v., A. S. keg-an < (by mntation) 
I lag (=*/a^), pi. t. of licg'On, to lie ($ 191 a). 

E. w/, A. S. tett-OH < (by mutation} II tal {=*siif), pi. L of 
liff'on, to sit (5 1930). Likewise E. sfft-lt. a bench. 

K. /rwfr (not found in A. S.) < 1| lrad(=-lr<uf), pt. I. of 

tred-an, to tread. 

' '<7rB.'/«,or Cfww.i FttTTow'; Hnh»ni»nu.Dt:Li658. llcnciw 
of nu BoUiatily iMgrteMMau E. word oldci tliuiSkltincr <i67i>. 

1 82 

yO WEl-CRADA TlOlf. 

tCMtf. X. 

E. team, A. S. vaerg-n < II was. p«. t of vyg-OH. (a cany. 
E. awr^*, M . E. mrak, that which is driven a^orc < 1 A. S. 
torae (='«Ti»-), pi. t. of wrec-an, lo drive {to wreak). Abb 
E. wrtkh, A. S. iw<w-ftf, likewise < a artw. 

From the 3rd stem : E. tftteh, A. S. tfitift, older ktm 
tprd(^ < I sfTcfcen, pL L pi. of tprtr-an, to speak. So >1» 
the Scand. word laH (Icel. urti) is to be compared with AS. 
idl-on, pL t. pi. of sitl-ofi, to at. 

From ttie 4111 stem : E. tai-r, A. S. kg-tr < | kg-*", pf^ 
ot Ikg-an, to lic. 

E. i^flrf. A. S. icrf, a prayer < \\ ttd-en, pp. of Md-tu, to 
pnt^. The same principle is applicable to Scand. words alio. 
Tbiis E. /o2t<, A. S. lag-u, Imrrowed from loel. /ag, order, pL 
iiig (with sing, sense) law < || Icel. Id (for *iag), pC L oT 
iiggf^, to lie ; ihc ' law " is ' that which lies ' or is BetUcd. 
§ 176. Tlie (//-wti-conjugaiion. 

From (he »nd sicm : Iv. 6€tui, v- A. S. 6enJ-an. to bua 
ft String on a bow, and so 10 itfid it, from A. S. inuf, a baa^ 
which Is derived (by mutation) from a base poraUel.wilh AmA 
pt. I. ot iiad-an ($ 193 a). 

v., cram, A.S. eramm-ian < leramm, pL L ot ertrnm-itM, 10 

E. Jrtnch, A. S. drtnt-OH < (by rouuikm) a dranc, pt L of 
driiKttn, to drink (} 199 «). 

E. m^'^. A. S. m<aU, steeped grain < I tucaU, pt. of mr/Ma, 
to melt, hence to steep, soften. (Wc may observe thai tfae 
A. S. pp. mallen a, siiil in use.) 

E. quenth, A. S. ewatcan < (by mutation) t noam, pL I. 
of ewinc-aH, <o become extinguished. 

E. long, M. E. s(mg, sang, A. S, tang < t iOfg, pL L of 
tiHg-an, losing. SoalH'i sfngt, A.S. f^^-iiir (lomake losing)^ 
to fcorch (alluding to the-singing noise node by bonung 
logs), derived hy mutation from the same stem song (} 191 ^. 
E. tttncA, A. S, tlene < (by mutaiion) g liime, pt. l of 
ilinc-ant to sUnk. 


E. tiwif , A- S. ^-oHg < N '/tMHg, pt I. of *ptving-tta, 
only found in O. Fries. Ikwiitg'a, O. Six. /Awing-an, 10 con- 
strain, comjircwi. 

E. ihr^tig, M, E, MriM^, Hiraitg, A. S. /rai^f < R ^"og, 
J*. L of /rrtng-art, to crovrd. 

E. wander, A. S. waud-r-ian, frc qiienuiivc verb < (| tf^n4, 
pL t, of wmd-an, to wind, turn abouL So also E. awW, 
origina'ly a pliant rod, that tould tie wound nr woven ; and 
even \Lu<ni4, to go, formed by inulaiion (191 a). 

E. -ward as a suffix (in !o-:iiard, Sc), A. S. -wiard (GoUi. 
-ivaiFlh-i) < fl A, S. u<ear/>, pi. t of weorf/'on, lo iKCome, 

■orig. to be turned Co. 
E. viarp, threads stretched Icnglhwise in a loom, A.S. 
I vaarp < It wearp, pL t. of we^p-ait, lo cast, throw, throw 
1 across. 

^k £. wrai^'lt, fr^uent^tivc from the stem wrang, pt. t of 

Vtwny-oR. (o twist, Eiraiti, wring. So also wrong, adj.. A.S. 

VwruMf, i.e. pen'crw, from the same stem. \Vc may also 

note that E. swam-p is allied to sw<imm, pt. t. of twimm-an, 

to swim. Simikily the Scand. «ord slang, a pole, stake 

(Iccl. tiang-r) \% lo be compared with A. S. s/ang, pt. L of 

tftng-^m, 10 sting, poke. 

^_ Froro the 3rd stem : E horcttgh, A.S.kuri, Imrg < it burg-<m, 

^Ppt. t. pi. a{bti>rg-an, to keep, protect. 

From the 4lh slcro : E. h«rroiv, A. S. borg'tan, verb fonned 
from iwA, i«»y, s., a pledge < II borg-tn, pp. of btorg-an, lo 
keep. So also ^rr/, A. S. byrg-au, formed by mutation from 
the Munc Mem ($ 193). 

£. bitHd-l4 < II buH(f-tn, 'pp. of binJ-an, to bind. 
I £. cnmb, A. S. crvm-a < || <rumm-m, pp. of (rrJuvm-iMi to 

cram, squcew. ,(, 

E. drtmi-ard < II druMc-tu. p»H, of drine-an, to drink. 
$ 170- Tbe </<rrW^onJugalion. 

From tlte lu stem : E. ehitu. a fissure in a sea-clifT, A.S. 
, A fissure < R ttn-an, lo split, crack. 

1 84 


rlp-an, to K«p. 


E. ripe, A.S. rtp^, adj. < 
b ' fit for reaping.' 

E. tHrrup, A.S. stig-rdp, liL rope to dimb or raonnl 
by < (I sttg-an, lo climb- 

E. i/v, A, S, Jift'-o, a pen for caitlc ; from the same. 

Prom the 3n<l stem : E. aiode, "iA.lLabwd < | K.S.A4Sit 
pt. t. of dMJ-aii, to abi<le. 

E. dough, A. S. dih < (I Vi*. pt. t of 'dig-an, to fcnw4 
only found m the cof;;7iate Goth, dtig-an, to koead. 

E. drovt, A. S. drj/ < \\ A. S. drd/, pt. 1. 0/ .A^/^^bb, 10 

E, grope, A. S. grdp-ia/i, weak verb < ^r.^, pt L of 
grip-an, to gripe, sci^e. 

E. loan, A. S. /ii-j» {a rare form) < n I4h, pi. i. of Hh-^t, 
to lend i the -« i« a suffis, and the A is dropped 

E. lode, a course, A. S. Idd < I 143. pt. l of <!f?niii, to 
travel, go. Here the change from Gna] 8 to finaJ d is (he 
to Vcrncr's Law ; the pt. t. pL of tii-an is iid-OHy and the 
pp. lid-vi; i 130. 

E. hre, learning, A. S. iUr < E */£t (not fouiu)), oogitaie 
witli Goth, his, I have found out, pt. t. of *leii-an, to track, 
find out ; sec p. 155. Sec Lort and Li>im in my Etym. Diet. 

E. read, A. S. rdd < |] rdd, pL t. of rid-an, to ride. 

E. ijC;*^ aniwcrs lo an A. S. *«<^0 < | sldf, pL t. of t^-cit, 
to slip. 

E. Shreve (in Shrove-Tuesday) < R E. s/wevt, pt. L of 
thrive, A. S. tertf-aa. 

E. ifrii*^, A. S. slr4c-ian, weak verb < I */r(fc, pt l of 
tfrfe-an, to strike, 

E. tenr/Zi, adj., A. S. uf-if^, i. c. per^-erse < n wrd3. pt. t. 
wrtS-oH, to writhe, turn about. 

We have at least two Scandinavian vrordt with a corre- 
sponding «em-vou<eL Tlicw are 6ai/, IccJ. irit-a < | ini. 
pL L of *«j, to bite; *ad raid, 1«1. reiff < | rn?, pL L of 
r0-a, to ride. We may abo add ileai, gleam, ktne, lend, ready. 



% <7«.l 



'Mr, v^ stair, totak, wreali. all fonncd b^ mutatton. See the 
!Xi Chaptw (4 193). 

From iIm 4tl) Klem : £. bit, A. & ^jV-d, sb. < g A. S. iit-m, 
I. of W-an. to bite. 
E. rf/'i/'-/ < I A. S. dri/tn, pp. of diif-an, 10 drivfc (The 

:ed / vill be cX[ibine(l licmrter.) 
E. j-M/. sb., A. S. grip^ ' < || grip-tn, pp. of grtp-ax^ to 
gripe, grasp. 

£. /t^, sb.. A. S. A/t^ < II A/aZ-ot, pp. of Mid-an, to 

£. Wf?, sb. (whence M. E. tUt-ten, verb), A. S. j///v, sb. 
•< I slit-en. pp. of tSi-an, to rend. 
E. uhH-lU^ to pare with a knife, from A. S. pmt-d, a 
ife < I pwH-ta, pp. o(pttil-<iit, to ctu. 
£. tun/, A. S. (^Hon/ < p wril-tn, pp. of wrU-an, to 
I Besdes ibcsc obvious dcrivaiivcs, wc find oihcre, such as 

^1 E. eiin-i, formed with niflix i from a ba»c eAin- < i! <~/Nyi>, 
^kp. of cta-oM. to split, crack. 

^B E. fAj^ A. & e/i/, propcily a ' steep,' or a {Jace to climb 
^iip; the same as Ice!. M/, a cliff < ti led. *i(/^-j>ut(ob»ol«t«), 
pji. of kH/-a, to climb. 

E dsvin-d-k, formed {wiU> excrescent rf) from 'i/uin-b, « 
reguUr frcquentuive verli < n datis-rn, pp. of Ju/tn-aa, tO 
decrease, dwindle, languish. 

E. tlifi. weak verb, M. E. sUp-pm < 11 slip-en. pp, of 

to slip (strong verb). 
E. ihr^-t. A, S. stri/'l < jj sen/'tn, pp. of sertf-an, to 


£. fAZr (to climb OKr), in which the 1 has been lengthened 
lo» o\ g, M.E. sliytl, A.S. slig-ei < || atig-e«, pp. of 
n, to cUub. 

CuTtaiuIy motf h, ^fn^ u a vert b tatv, torrovptd from F. grifftr. 
* Not nally a Tntoiuc wgtd : but tiortovcd from Lu. uriitrt. 


■■ — *«=r.-.-- 






to feTin«nt ; the orig. scnscj being 'tliat wliich is 
fcrmcntc^' Otserve that the vowel ia irmd. though now 
abort, was loDg in M.K. 

E. 'Ust, the commonest mtBx in Englnli, also hns a 
shortened vowel. It answers to M. K. •ttts. A. S. 'Uat 
•< I Uat, pt. I. or Uoi-an, to lose. The suffix -/wj means 
* deprived of.' The A. S. t/as u-a» also use<l as an adj., with 
the seiue of ' fa!« '; hence K. iras-ing (A. S. Wm-ung) in the 
sense of ' falsehood.' The adj. loose is Scandinanan, from 
led. laun, looae, cognate u-itli A. S. l/as, loose, false. 

E. »m/, caule. A, S. nAil < || n/ai, pU I. of n&Jan, to use, 
tm^oy- Hence the sense is ' u^ed,' domestic. 

E. rtavt (commonci in bertavf), A. S. rh/-\an, to strip of 
clothes, desjioil, from r/jf, %.. clothes. Spoil < II riaf, pi, t. of 
T^o/'^ut, 10 deprive, take away. 

E. rtd. M. E. Tu4, A. S. r/,7</ < || Had, pt. t. of r^-an. to 

E. r<r*. *^ A. S. r^, anutlier form of r/iu, smoke < II r/ae, 
pt. t. of r/M-an, to exhale. The original Tcut. AU is siitl 
Been in the cognate G. Rauek, smoke; § 164. 

E. thcaf, A.S. le/d/ < || se/a/, pt. t. of it£/-an, to shove, 
pu«b together. 

E. tkttl, A. S. ft-//-^ jrj^'-fi * aheel, allied to se/at, a corner, 
foldj.coiner of a sail, sheet or rope fastened to a comer of 
a tail < I lee'aJ, pt. t. tX tt/ei-an. to shoot, hence, 10 project. 

E. Ihret, A. S. l>r/a < || /'t/nv), pt. t. of pr/ow-aa, to 
suffer. The vowei in E, tArct may have been influenced by 
the Icel. form frr4. 

From the jrd siem : E. gul, A.S. gutt, properly ' a channel' 

< I gu/-tM, pt. pi. of g/ot-an, to pour. 
E. jW-x, pi. < t sud'an, pt. pi. o( st'oS-tin, to seethe, boil. 
E. /«<?, weak vcib < || tug-on, pi. pi. of &ii-m, to draw, 


From iIk 4ih stem : E. bode. A. S. bod-iax, lo announce 

< t iod-tn, pp. of h^od-ati, 10 command. 




[Chu. X. 

E. fimv, 3 w«ipoii, A. S. it^-a < II ti^-fn, pp. of btig-an, 
to bend, bow, 

E. tro-lb, A. S. bro-3 (where -<f ia » suffix), put for 'irm>J 

< II Irt-u^m, pp. oibr/ow-an, to brew. 
E. lA-d/, A. S. drop-a, s. < G drop'tn, pp. of iriBp-tut, to 

drop, drijx 

E. i/rcjj, A. S. tfrftr, tvdiinnit, l!iat wlitch falla down < | 
dfMHfi, pp. of dr/os-an, lo fnil, drip down. 

v.. float, v., A, S, fiol-ian < II _yf(»/-rfw, pp. oXfleol-an, lo BooL 

F,./ratt, A. S./ros-l {/ suflixcd) < U ^frffz-cw, orig. (ord (rf 
fro\-tn. pp. ot/rA'S-iiM, to frecie. 

E. M-^0A a mass of tnctal poured into a mould, &om » sad 
^«/ < gal tu, pp. oig/ol-an, to pour. 

E, /Di-it, s., A.S. loe.a, a lock < H loefn, pp. of l£c-an, lo 
lock, fasten. 

E, /iJjf, v., M. E, hsien, A. S. hs-'M, orig. to become loose 

< II 'loi'tn, orig. form of lor-en, pp. of lAfOH, to lox, 
which became M, E. /«-i-«. nnd is ohiiolcie. 

E. M. 8., A. S. Aiol < [| A/o/-(w. pp. of hUot-an, lo choose 
by lots, assign. 

E. *Jl<i/, s. < II ifcl.*ti, pp. of sceol-an, 10 shooL Also «*< 
in tt^-fnt, vhich is a doublet of jAd/, and pcibaps a Scud, 
form. Cf. IceL s/tol-mn, pp. of rit/^, to shoot. 

E. j4f>:v, A. S. stof-ian, weak wrb < II seof'tn, pp. <rf 
u6/-an. lo push. Hence ihtn'-iL 

E. f/o/, A. S. f/c^/«' < shp-en. pp. of ii£f>-att. lo dissolve, 
lei slip. £/i^ wai espedall)- u-wd of the droppings of a cow. 

E. /"loA;, s., A. S. tmot-a < u smct-tn, \>p. of tm^-an, (o 

£. W, wet or sodden turf, hence soft turf < a tod-tm, pp. 
of tM-an, to wethe ; cf. soddin. 

We liii^v prcsertvd two old past participles, viz. rotitn, \> 
rot-mn,».nA/tMr-iom,K.S./vr-hrrH; both belong to »i 
verbs of the rAoer^oonJujjalion. Shu^i. tcuffii aie 
words, allied to ihovt. Some derivatives are formed 


( <78.] 



mutation, as hrilt-k, dive, drip, &c., which will be explained 
hereafter ; see pp. 204, 208, 203. The verb lo shut and the 
sb. shutl-U were also formed by mutation from the 3rd stem 
(tcu/'on) of sUoi-an, to shoot ; see p. 204, note i. 

Brisf Summary of Results. 

§178. The chief results of 5§ iS,3, 154 may also be ar- 
lan^d as follows : — 

There are 4 principal gradations ; A, (for A), as seen in 
ihaiu, pL t. thook, with the variation £ (for A) seen in 
die pt. t. pi. of bear, viz. Goth, ber-um, A. S. bdr-on ; E, A, O, 
as seen in biar (A. S. ber-an, Lai._/fr-rf), pt. t. bare, pp. bor-n, 
&c. ; 1, AI, I, as seen in drive (A, S. drif-an), pt. 1. drove 
(Goth, draib), pp. driv-en ; EU, AU, U, as seen in choose 
(A. S. e/as-an, Goth, kius-an), pt. t. chose (Golh. kaus), pp. chosen 
(Goth, kus-ans), &c. They may be thus arranged, so as to 
shew the oldest forms (including the Old High German) : — 





0. H.Gernuui. 

A 6 ... 

a ... 

a S ... 
a A 

a 6 ... 

" J KD ... 

E A 

\ai a av 

I e a a 

e a 

t a 


{ i a u 

1 AI I 

ti at > 

{ d i 

( ti i 

/ « . 


>v an u 

h ia u 

a a 

jS auKu 



io 6 




§ 176. 'A man said to Goldiurh, buy a toAoUgeeu anda 
caw cheap.' This is my memorial seni«nce, for rememberiag 
[he principnl contents o( the present chapter. I may rcnuii 
that Goldiurh is a real name ; il is Ihe Dame of the beroiac 
in the old £ni;lisb romance of Hawlok, which l>elongs to ibe 
reign of Kdwarij I. I Khali now discuss each of ihe wo«b 
printed in iialits in the above sentence. We find, in Sweet's 
ARi;lo-Saxon tirammax, the following facts. 

I. The )>l. a{ manii, a man, is mrtm, men. 

i. From go!<i, s. gold, is formed the adj. gylden, goldeti^ 
and tlie verb gyldan, to gild. 

3. liurh, a bnrough, town, makes the plural hyrig, town*- 
The dat. sing, is also fyrig. 

4. From h&l, adj., whole, is fornted tlie derived \-erb hSs». 
to heal, lit. to make whole. 

5. G6s, goose, makes ibc pL g/i, geese. 

6. C&, a cow, makes tlie pi. tf, cows; hence, by ibe way, 
mod. E. ki-nt, which stands for */-<» (like tync, eye*, for ty^ 
Here *»'- = A.S. c^, and -m is a pLsuSs (A.S. -an); 
Oial ki-m{=ki-fii\ is a double plural '. 

7. Cfeip, A bargain, whence our ehtap is <kriv«d, prodncecl 
s dcrivatii-e verb citpan, efpan, to buy. This verb was 
times written ctpan, whence our keep. See Cfuap, Ktep, in m; 
F.tym. DicU 

' I1i« pL tjK occurt ia Korthera Eagtith ; it i* speb Hi ia Gotdlng'i 
tMiulaiioit (rf Ovid*! Meumoipbaict, fed. >6 (1(03); c£ p. 66, nou; 


I i8l.] 



% ISO. To tlK«e multe we may luJd one more, x\t~ thitt 
as in tlic 7th example wc see <0 changed to it, or y (jt 
a later ajKltiiig), &o we fiixl examples in wliich the 
ented ta chapge» to the unaccented it otj/. Even fi> 
tchsnges like <^, and to like m. These facts can easily 
'be rememlKreiJ in connection wlih example ;. Tliu« 
ciofalm, clcalb, ^ves the vetb A-ewiilm-aii, d-cwylm-aa, to 

■kill ; ji/iw, a s:ecr, ox, gives the derivative sISeric, stjfrie, a 
tUik ; and kforle, l>cari, gives llie verb luerJan. hyrlan, to 
hearten or encourage. 

1$ 181. 1-mutatioQ. II wc now tabulate the abot% results, 
and call ibc secondary or derived vowels the mutaliont of 
their respective |>rim:iry vowels, we obtain (he following 
■rnnfcmcnt, uhcrc vowcIk in the row marked (A) arc 
Ibe primary, and ihosc in the row marked (B) are the 
derived vowela. 


• an 

• 7 7 

t d a 


to. t 

This vowcl-mutaiion, -K\\v},ifrtqum!ly takes place in forming 
derivatives from older words, is called, in German, umlaut. 
If we were lo cn<|ut[e ttjorouglily into all ilie cums in which 
mutation occure, we should find that i« ntry ease the 
primary towcI is inSuenced by the occurrence of an i or 
u (rarely 0) in die next sylbble. This refers only to tlie 
primary form of the word, and cannot alwn\^ be detected in 
the known forms of Anglo-Saxon ; for it no: unfrequcntly 
happens tliat the (, after having produced a mutation of ilie 
preceding x-owel. drops out of tight, and is lost'. This will 
be understood by considering a few instances ; but, before 
giving these, it is necessary 10 halt by the way, in order to 
mention thai, in all the cx.implcs already cited, the effect is 
produced by i, not by v. The cases in which u j4vduces any 

■ T%H it called <Mwia/(i/iiwtAtiOiii,* m ceitaaliJ umtaat. It iivny 



effect arc. comparatively, so few iliai I kave ibetn oui of 
nght Iic-re. The principit of mutation is t]te itiinf; to be lini 
acquired ; after ihat, all is casjr. 

§ 183. Concealed mittatioQ. An ca»y example of cw- 
cealed muiaiion occur* in ibc word Fratch. Frtntk is ikon 
for Franh'sh, But the a in Franh'sh, being fc^wed bj- an 
i in ihe next syllabic, ■ is modified in the direction of ». liw 
result being a new vowel intennedtatc to li>c oilier two,' ai 
Mr. Sweet puts it in hU A. 5. Render, p. six. There ^ 
in fea, 8 tendency lo tum Frankitk into Frmkith, and we 
actually find, accordingly, that Frnuist is Uie A. S. dxta of 
the word. This Frmkith (A.S. Frtmeist) was sftcmnli 
shortened to Frtnt/t, as we now have it ; so that ibc i, tha 
modifying the a to an t, lta& disappeared; thai U, ibe oioe 
of the mutation ha» been am*al<d. On i)ie same prindpie 
we can now explain ail the above results in order, which 
ml! proceed lo do. 

% 183. A>E. We found (i) that the pi. of man is mtm\ 
or, in A. S., that the pi. of mann i$ mtnn. The Icel. pL ii 
also mtnn. This particular word is of aoomiilous declcnsov, 
so that the process is the le]« clear. Gothic, wbtdi is re- 
markable for nm<T exhibiting mutation, makes the notn. pi 
both mans and mannam ; and it is probable that the IsUtt 
fonn wa« nhonenc-d to *mama, and afterwards the fins) 
vowel weakened, thus giviog *maniu, wliich would be r^u- 
larly changed into mttn in Iccl. and A. S. O. Frieiic. 
O. Saxon, an<i 0. H. G. have the u»changcd plural 
(the same as the lingular), which would result from Uk pL 
mani, by loos of x. We can see the result more clearly 
the dative singular; for it hap[)Ciis that the A. S. dat. 
talics the form mttm as well as the i>om. pltml ; «-hcreas 
loel. dai. sing, is manni, lbi» aflbrding formal proof that 
MMM < 'mtnm= manni. 

jl84(j). 0>y. The adjectival suffix -at b wrillen 
-niu in Gothic, which luu guUh, xoM, gvf/A-tim. golden- 


f issl 



Not «■ is raeiely ihe Goth, way of writing / (long 1) ; so ihat 
g<<!d-tit nay be equaled lo 'gcttt-fn. The ^(Uke produce* 
a mutaiion of o V>j; so that 'gotti-!n became gyid-<a quite 
regularly'. Similarly, we can explain the verb ^//rf; forthe 
regular A. S. infin. KufRx of causal verbs (whereby x-erbs are 
fonned from pre-cxisicnt subsiantiveit) is -ian, so that from 
lu/-u, s.,love, is fonned the verb luf-ian, to love, Ac. Henoc 
Ihe i\>.goU gave rise to the causal %-crb 'gofd-fan. to gild, 
which regularly became gyU-an by mutaiion and subsequent 
loss of i. This process is extremely common in causal 
Tcrbs ; wc constantly find iliat -ion is shortened to -an after 
fDOtation has taken )>lacc. Modern English has substituted 
geldtn for gildtn*, but retains the old mutation in tite verb 
/o gild, ibc form of which is now explained. 

§ 186 (3). U>Y. BurA. town, makes the pi. fyr:^. As 
the )' is bere retained, the cause of the mulatioD b obvious. 
I may mention, )>}- the way, some curious results. The dal. 
sing., tike the notn. pi., is also fyrig ; so iliat ibc A. S. for 'at 
the town ' was af I'drt iyrig, the word bwh Iwing feminine, 
and requiring Uie fem. form of the def. article. In later 
Englbh, ibis graihuDy hecamo at thtr bury, or (by assimila- 
tion of th to /) ai itr bury, a form which at once c][]>l^nft 
the nimame AUerbury (i.e. at tlie town). The name was 
borne by a bishop of Rochester, who attained to some fame 
in the reigns of Anne asd Ocorgc I. Curiously enough, the 
fact of the word hrmgh bdng of the feminine gender was 
often (axA at last entirely) lost si^ii of, whilst the true form of 
the daliiv waa likcnriso forgotten. Hence hrmigh was treated 
r; as an unchangeable neuter, and the very .-ame |>lirase also 
^bpeared as <i/ /m iwtmgk, where Itn represents the A. S. 

^^M Strictly. i1 becnme ^il/' fVt, bnl final -it ii nted IW 'in id A.S., tlic 
^■mx -tw Wvaz dUllkcd : Kc Sleven, O.G. Grim.. \ 69. 

• M, K jfi'I^ : ihm S(. ChrysoHom U talUd ' lohn GiUta-mslh,' or 
Golden Mmuhi Spccimtnof Kngllih, ii9fi'rjgj, «<1. MorriiaadSkoat, 

I VOL- I. O 



[Cm. tl. 

}<dm, ihc dat. neuter or th« Act aitlde. This has given «s 
the well-known name AtUtilor&ugh. Further, it was nd wi- 
common to use place-names in Ihe dative or iixativt eat*, and, 
in some instnncex, ihc prep, trl (E. at), which ^o^Ynts a didre. 
was expressly introduced ; see noic to sect, iv. 1. 99 in Sweet"! 
A.S. Rmler, ^ih ed. This at once explains tlie use oT tbe 
dative form Bury as a place-name ; though we also Bod tbc 
nominative Bnr_^h, Borough (as in Borough Fm, 
and Brough (in WestmorelaniJ). 

% 188 (4), X>!on? Ei. The verb * htal is 
plained. Fcoin the adj. hAl, whole, was made the 
verb *MhiaH, whence (by mutation and loss of i") the forn 
hdl-an. M. E. htl-at, K. heal The original form of the 
cauxa! verb is quite certain in this case ; for Gothic always 
employs the form kail-Jan {=kaif-ian) from the ad}. An&. 
whole- In Gothic, the letter usually printed 7 i* reaDy 
an Engli«h^ ; and y i.< the semi-vowel coTFesponding to i, •> 
shewn in 5 iig; p. 150. 

§ 187 {5). 6 > fc. The mod. E. j^te, A- S. ^r, laiswen 
to a Teut. type oans'; see Kluge'* Wjjrterbach, s-v. Gum. 
But its declension followed that of the fcminiiK 't-siems.'ind 
its plural oom. was originally 'gdiij, which became VAu by 
mutation, and was then shortened to g/s*. Sbnilarly, iht 
dat. sins- V^i<' became V'' ''/ mutation, and was sboncned 
to gA likcwiw. The word /aot, A. S._/W, aiuwera lo * TeiiL 
type f8t, of the masculine gender ; see Kluge, b-v. Frnt. 
In Gothic it followed the H-decleRsion. but in A. S. it adbeted 
to the consonantal declension (as in Greek and I.jitin): heaee 
the nom, pi. y&A>and the dat. sing, yiMtboth produced the 
formyV?. It is curious, however, that the nom. pL 

■ Not CAMtl, ni In Fide. iii. gy ; for this stem wodU 
row«I-ch«n|^ tvea in the nom. ttag. 

* On 'Ihe lintmmt of temuntl coDionititi umI vmrett' in tlivTaa. 
]aogUkgei((i.otiiUulgritli'!.cLStt<mz andMcyn'k IIM. ofthcGcnM) 
L«n|[wtcc p. 61 ; iht acoonnl tl>crr Glvm ii, buHcrer, iscomplde, ttd 
t«f(n to Cotbic only. Sec Ixetoi, O. E. Gnai., t 133 <b). 

. BOtoetina^ 

f 189.] 



. fol 

foUcwx a different decknsion, and apjiears xi. /Slat ; whilst 

M.E. wc c^-cn find three forms of ihc plura], v'vt./ift./otm, 
utd^ftj, ihc wo latier being of raie occuirence. 

Oilier examples appear in tooih, A. S. /ifJ. mate, pi. kfth, 
A. S. a9, rarely lHas; and in ^^, A. S. M^, fern., pi. ^^; 
but (his form was exchanged for ihal of the M. E. Mes eoon 
after the beginning of the tbirtcenih century. 

5 1S8 (6). lowig U > long Y. The E. mouie, A. S. mis. 

answers to a Teut. fein. base hC^s*; tec Kluge, s.v. Maiu, 

It belongs to the consonantal declension ; the A. S. plural 

originally *m&sit, which passed into the form *m^tis 

\rf mutation, and was (hen shortened to nyfr. Other 

examples occur in E. toust. A. S. i&t, and in K. (kc, A. S. 

both of which are feminine; the pi. forms being lys. 

Of liicse, ihe former ix E. liee\ the latter is the 

(occasional) Tador E, and prov. E. kit or kyt, aRerwarda 

lenglbemcd to hi->u, by analogy with ty-ne and sht'o-n. the old 

plurals of tjt and thix. On the other hand, our house, A. S. 

i£i, vss a multr noun ; and, having a long root-syllable, 

remained unchanged in the plural ; sec SieverT*, O. E. Gr. 

S 338 ; ]). 1 17, 1. 4. That it., tlie pi. was fi£s, now extended 

iofu-fs in order to make it conform (o the general rule*, 
his b why we nc^-cr use the plural ^«'*{1). 

§ 180 (7). Long EA > long IE (Y). Tlie explanation of 
tt^fi^H, M buy, is precisely similar to that of httl-an. to heal ; 
L e, the mutation is concealed. The sb. r/ap produced the 
dcrircd verb 'eia^tan, after which the /caused mulalion and 
then vanished. The other examples arc of precisely Ihe 
same character. In t^r-ic, stirk, from tUer. the »' is visible. 
The sb. cwealn, death, produced a verb 'cwtalm-ian, pasting 

^B * Nm Kttst, M in Fldt, III. i^r; for thU alem would hare ouucd 
^EsntatioQ trttD io Ibr nom, ilng. 

^r • Note (he proT. E. ktusm. to often commended m 'a tnw old 
AbcIo-Sixoo fona' b; thiNe xbo know no better. I( is mlran culy 
I E foRD, nem found befoitt Iht Co 


[Cur. XI. 

into ewielman or ni'ylman, to kill ; and the sb. htorl-e, hean. 
produced the «rb *htorl-iati, pasting into httrlan or hyriai,-^ 
to encourage. 

% ISO. TJ-mutation. I have now t;one tbrougb tbt 
examples rcprcscnicd by the mctnoriiil sentence in % 179. 
adding a few more by Ae u-ay. It now cWcfly remains lo 
add that the [irincijile of mutation is extremely common is 
A. S., and may also be due, though rarely, 10 llie occumnct 
of », or even o. in the following syllabic, as veil as to tlic 
occurrence of »'. Striking examples are s<en ia the A. S. 
mtoltK, milk, stoi/or, silver ; wortU in vfhich the ea seems to 
be dtic to K-muiation rather than to a mere ' breaking* of ( 
into to Iwfore a following /; see Sie^'er3, 0. E. Gram., \\ 
39. 107. In the former case, mtol-tu stands for mi.'-iu^ (d. 
Goth. mil-ui'S, milk) ; and the to is technically described » 
being ' a «-mutation of i',' because the u has tamed 1 into 
19, In the setoiid case, the Tnuiniion is concealed ; ttol/tr 
is contracted for 'stoHo)/or or 'seoHu)/<ir, and <« is, b 
before, a w-mutaiion of i'; the Gothic form being tUtiir, 
0- Sax. silttiar. These forms are of some interest, because 
the vowel i in the mod. E. words mi/i and tt'htr shews ih»l 
they belong rather to the Mercian than to the Wcssw 
(Ualect. The form siTi>/er occurs once, and tyi/ar twice ta 
A. S. [>r>eiry. but ifol/ir is the usual form. The O. HercJaa 
syi/ur has been already noticed ; sec $ 33. The NualliHiii 
brian form is suiter (Malt x. 9). 

$ 181. Examples. I now give several exaroptes of 
the above t'-muiation^ in A. S., referring for die present tDck' 
as are still reuincd in the roodCTn language. These arc of 
such importance that tbey trill be noticed separately in $ 191- 

(1) A > K. A. S. ioHg. long ; compor. Img-ra (for 
*laMg-irat='latig-iBa)\ GotI). coin)iaratives end in -aa', d. 
g 130. A.S.i/roiF^.strong: compar. tlrtng-ra, Mrunger. Abo, 
&om A,S, long, the verb Itng-an (='lang-iaH), to prolong. 
From A. S. land, land, llie verb Itnd-an (ss*/itir<^)<M), to 








land From A.S. w^M'^, ttnanlC|(hcvc^bnrwH•dtt(=*Malml- 
J(M), to name. 'I'h* euoDg verb ' to hca^x^,' with pt. t hi/, 
has the weak infinitive hebban (^='ha/ian), instead of the 
regular *Aa/-an, which b not Touod ; ue Sweet, A. S. Reader, 
p. btx', Simihrly, ilic strong verb 'to swear,' with pt t. 
sto^r, has the weak infiniiivc nvtrinn {='swar-ian) instead 
of 'nearan, whidi is not found; id., p. Ixxi. 

In order to save space, and for the greater clearness, I 
shall use (as before) ihc symbol > 10 mean ■ produces,' and 
Ibc s}inbol < to mean ' a pniduced, or derived, from.' I 
also use two dots ( .. ) as the sign of ' mutation,* »o iliat > .. 
will mean 'produces by mutation,' and < .. will mean 'is 
derived by mutation.' My reason for the use of Uiis symbol 
is that, ill German, mutation i» denoted by tv*o doLH over a 
vowel; for example, tlic pi. of Mann (man) is Afdnntr, 
where df is the modified form of a. In accordance with this 
notation, A. S. twtrian < ..'swar-ian; anil again, A.S./4r>^--ra 
< .. *laiig-ira, compar. of iang. 

(3) O > Y. A. S. gold > ., gyld-m (for 'gold-tn, as CX- 
plftiDcd above). So also A.S. horn, horn > .. fyrn-td, homed. 
A.S. slorm, ttona > .. styrm-an, to storm, aiaail. A.S. 
/erm-a, firj* > .. /yrm-rst {='/&rjn-isl). first; really a double 
superlative (E. /ortmcsf). A. S. /itif:-ian, to follow, often 
appears in the mutated fonn^^/im. A. S. eor^ \\ tortn, pp. 
of cAu-an, to choose > .. O'r-f, choice, A. S. god, goti > „ 
g/d-tjt {='gyd-tH), goddess; cf. O. Giill-in, goddess, 8x. 

(3) U > Y. A.S. i^A, borough > „ hyrtg, pluraL A.S. 
mure (aJso ■wtore)^ work > .. vyrean {='wurc->an), to work. 
.A-S. Widl, wool > .. uyil-tn, woollen. A.S. viul/, a. wolf 
> .. uyi/'tn, ■ 8be-«o)f; this is not in ihc dictionaries, but 
appear.s in ttie following curious gloss: 'fidlona, i. furia, 
Jca t>eUi, mater Martis, uyl/m ' ; where ' i.' is tlic usual con- 

* Not« Uk form M#d«, not A^/ttn ; tlie doubling ot Ibt i m dye lo 
the oantnctico cniuisg the Uia of /. Obaerve, loo^ chftl A. S. pots M 
lu'^i Swetl, A. & K«ada, p, ixniL 



iraciioii for I'J al, iliac is to say*. Pi.S.hungor, hunger > 
hyttgnaa, lo hungiir. A. S. mimuf, monk (merely 
from l^t. morui^Aus) > .. mymten, a uun; whence iIk 
name JMiH<hin. 

(4) Long A > long M. A.S. Arf/, whole > .. Adl-m. w 
heal; as in g 186. A.S./(/r,]orc> .. /4&--ii]«. 10 leach. A.S. 
UdHt Etonc > .. sidv-m, made of sione ; also ttdn-aii, v., to 
stODe. A. S. dr, oak > .. i&'-'n, oal<cn. A. S. ^r-ifd*, fanad 

> .. brdd-tm, to broaden, make broad, &c. 
(g) Long O > long E. A.S. ^A, goose, pLj/f ; »' 

/ifir, pi. l^; /*, ()l./<7. The A.S. Wf, book, make* ibe 
M-, as if=E. 'jJeri; but the M, H. pi. was fo^Es^, oow A«ib. 
A.S. i(!/, advantage, I£. Aw/ > .. ^?-(u» {='*>/-«;», Gob. 
io/Jan), 10 piofu ; Lowl. Sc. A-*/, »o profii. amend — hence, » 
add fuel to lire. Bums uses it metaphorically in lus Epislt 
to Davie, 8t. S : — 

' h warms me. It cliartns me, 
To mention but her name; 
It heats Tnc, il Sftft ok. 
And KCls me a' on flame 1' 

(fi) Long U > long Y. A.S. eH, cow, pi. ff, ki-ne; 
in § 188. So also c^3. pp. knov.-n > ., rf3-an {='t£)-iiiM\, 
M.£. tytktn, to make known, shew, dUplay. 

'For genii] hertc kylketk gentilesste.' 

Ckaucur, Sgti, TaU, 483. 

A. S. I&n, enclosure, tovm > .. fj^ifua {=' /^n-i'mi), (O en- 
close ; M. E. ^iien. Thus, in the Prompioritun Pan-nlonnu. 
written in 1440, we find: ' Tynyd, or hedgydde, Se/Jiu- 
A.S. ser^J, a sliioud > „ str^dan {='jerliJ-ia*i% to clothe, 
cover up. 

(7). £A > IE {Y). A. S. eA^, a bargain (oar f Am/) 
tfep-tMt fpp-an, lo buy (our lu^, in $ 189. A. S. d/aJ, 

> .. d^-an {=i'dAid-iaH), to make dead. kilL A. S. mCmt.' 


• Sm WriclitV Vocats ed. Wilkktr, ooL 194. 

i '9'-z 



a bonoload > .. iftn-an (=*j^m-uut), to load a Iiorse. 
K,S.dr^am,')oy > ,. Jrjm-an, 10 nyAcQ. A.S.«1m^ need 
> „ nyJ-an, to compel. 

$ 102. ll remains to give namplcs of the t-mutation in 
modern English, in which it is b}* no means uncommon, 
Uwtigh our ^ammars usually say but litllc about iL 

1. (o), A > .. £. In ilic following words, the Gothic form 
at once &hc«s thai the A. S. < is an t-muiaiion of c. 

E. m7, a. 5. fgl-OM ; Goib. agljan, occurring in the comp. 
ut'Ogljatt, 10 trouble escvctlinglj' ; allied to E. awt, from Ice], 
agi, fear (Goth, agit, fear). 

In E. bar-ley, the former sylliible = A. S. bere, barley; 
Goth, tan's, barley. (Mod. E. puts ar for <r.) 

E. M, A.S.ifi; Goth. iadi. 

£. bellewt, pi. of bfUow, M, £. Mow, bflit, btU, A. S. b*ig, a 
bag ; Goth, baigs («cm io^i-)> a wine-skin. 

E, htnd, v., A. 5. bmdaii, ofig. 10 string a bow, fasten 
a band to It, from A.S. bend, a band (Goili. ba$»di, a 

E. brriy, A. S, btrigt (= 'bazige) ', cC Goth. &)«; a benj-. 

E. bttUr, A.S. btlra {=*ba/ira); Goth. ^dZ/sa, better. 

E. bat. A. S. A^i/ {='b,>tisl) ; Goih. ia/irilr, best. 

E. dretih, A. S. drtnean (ss'drantiat), to give to drink ; 
Goch. draggifan, to give to drink (wliere ggi = i^i, by an 
imitation of Greek spelling). 

E. A A. S. '/w (short for V/wi = 'aiin); Iccl. «//», GoiIl 
aleirui, a cubit. 

£.f/(/, A.S. <//a; allied to Goth. a/Ja, except; cf. Lai. 
a/ias, oiherwue. 

E. f«d, A. S. fndt ; cf. Goth, andi-laus, endless. 

^/cn, A. S./enn; Go\\i./aiii, mud. 

£, guett, A. S. gal, also gail; Goth, ^iu/j (stem gas/i-), 
a guest, gastt'-gods, good to guests, hospitable. 

£. AfjV, A. S. M A'/^; GotlL ^d^Vr, hell. 

E, jS«i, A- S, Jifim (originally 'bfttjd, sec Si«vers, O. Eng, 


ra WEL'MUTA T/oy. 


GnuniDiiT, eil Cook, $} 356, 358), and so fcm. of A. S. lum, 
Goih. hana, a cock. 

£. kat, to know, M. E. katitm, to make known, led. kauu, 
Goth- tamtj/m, to make known. 

E. itllU-, A.S. eti/i; Goth, iatils; not a Teat. woM, b« 
borrowed from Lai. ea/iUut, dimin. of catrinu, a bowL 

E. <^, v., A. S. /rtyan (=*/f(fiiini); Goifa. It^jaa. Here 
<-; is merely a way of n-riting ff; and Ibc gemination' or 
doubling of ilie c » due to the contraction ; {£g < fi). 

E. Ul, v., to hinder, delay, A. S. ttitan (■s'latian), to tnike 
1at« ; Goth, laljon. to be laic, tarry, from the adj. laJ-t (A. S. 
lai). laic, slow, Tlic double / is due to contraction; (//<*> 

v.. menl, \.%.mtU; Goth. wiiA (stem mo//-), meat ; Hotf- 
ialgt, a meat- bag. 

E. mert, a lake, A. S. mtr/ ; Goth, marti, sea. 

E. ntt, A. S. tKt, ntti; Goth. naji. 

E. »Mc/, A. S. imdan {^*saniian); Golli. sandjtm, 

E. w/. A. S. stttaH {=:'ia/-iati)' ; Golh. i<Ujait. 

E. iMI, A. S. »c,//; cf Goth. tia//ci, a tile. 

£. tfauf, a. place, A. S. ttede ; Goth. jAi^, pL s/adas (stem 

E. ramr, A. S. taxr-itm, « strong verb with & veak iiK 
linitivc ; but tlie Goth, tnlln. is iwaran. 

E. tmtrt, A. S. /u.v^c, ftt^r^; Goih. fttxili/. 

E.Kv<jr, to wear clothes, A-S. wvrfiia (="w«M»); Goth. 
tuasjan, to clolhc. 

E. »V(/, A. S. weddian, v., from ti-rrf, s., a pledge ; GoUi. 
leW/, it pledge. 

E. uvW. A. S. wendan (=*aun^(aM), 10 turn; Godl. 
waa^an, 10 turn. 

(^ Besides the atx»x; words, to which the true origjn of 
the « ii so clearly shewn by the Gothic forms, iltere are many 

' C«iuiiation u oominon in A. S. ta wiM^i of thit Mil- Thai htU^f 
■'*litffiim<.*iafitH\tBt % 191), w (luxi>f>M. Soalso ji>rf:n>a| 


I 19* ] 





c/Hten, some of irhich are explained in my Dici)onar3r. 
Thus Ntnd aDBwcrs lo A. S. Mfntlait, 10 blind ; but as bttndan 
[^^*bSaad-ian\ vs really Uie causal verb due lo bland-an, 10 
mix, ihe two were confused, and the secondaiy verb look 
the KDse of 'blend.' Brmk, A.S. b€t»c \=*battk-f\ is a 
derivaure of hatik. Dwell, A. S. dwtllwt {=* ihoaiiaii), is a 
dcrivatiw from ibe base dwal- occurring in Goth, dwal-t, 
fooUsIt ; it meant originally lo lead into error, then lo 
liindcr, (iehy, and intransitively, to remain. ¥.. nigf, A. S. 
reg (for *aggi}, is cognate wiUi Lac. ofi-es, and answers lo a 
Teui. rom aajq (Fick, iu. lo). £. Eiiglish obviously iiiands 
for Angle-tii; the A. S. form if Efiglisc or j£nglite, dcrii'ed 
from Angle, pi. tbc Angles. Fill, \.S. /rll-an, is a causal 
verb (= Vtf'/-'<n»). due to the strong \a\i/«ili-an (for '/all-an), 
to fall. Frah, \ S./tric, xiandx for A. S. *far-iit, i. c. full 
of mov-cmcni. Sowing, as applied to water that aluays flows, 
and is never stagnant; formed from yiir-ftn, to go, move, 
xnih ihe common sulUx -ise (£■ -uA). Hedgt, A. S. ht<gt 
(sec Supplement lo Diet-), stands for 'hag-jo, from the older 
form /utg-a, a Itcdgc, which is the mod. K. haw; cf. <^gf, 
A.S. erg (for '^g/o), just above. £. lenglh, A. S. lengS, 
answem to a Tcul. form LAnnrniO (Fick, iii. 365) ; from 
itaig, long; so also Icel. lengd, lenglh, from hngr. E, luUtr, 
A. S. ntkit, is cognate with O. H. G. nttSi (Schade), from a 
Teut type iiKATiLo, dimin. of hkatjo, a nettle (O. H. G. 
noxbt); Fick, iii. 81. E. peimy, A. S. pmii^, older form 
ptntHi^, is probably a derivatix'c from the base pakd, as seen 
in Du. /ok/, a pledge, C PfaH^, wbich is (1 iliink) non- 
Teutonic, being borrowed from Lnt. pannta, orig. a cioth. 
E. qutll, A.S. (WtUan {=' (Wal-iati), to kill < .. » cweet 
(= *ewat), pt. t. of avtl-tm, to die ; where tlic syml)o] < .. || 
means 'derived, by mutation, from tlie sumc base as that 
seen in okuI'. E, gutnch, A. S. ewenean {='(wane-iaii), 
10 exltngui.ih < .. ■ ewane, pt. t. of AMivaK, to go out, be 
cxliogaKhcd £. Mr. M.E. J0ww, K.^t4tgaa {=' sag-ion); 



cf. loel. ifgja^ lo say ; ihe original a appears in the lb. 
i.«. a saying, A. S, sag-u. E, udgt, A. S. tag (i^'ufgj*) 
lit. 'cutter,' i.e. «wofd-gta$3 or sword-plant, froin ita shape; 
die original a appejirs in A. S. lag^, E. smn (cutting iotmi- 
mcnt). £. Sfl/. A. S. itJ/an {^'tai-ian) ; Uk orig. a appean 
In led iai-a, v.. salt. £. tiagt, put for *M«)p«, M. E. ttng-a, 
A. S. scng-an, liL to make to sing, from tlte hissing cf ■ 
burning log, &c. ; the orig. a appears in A. S. sai^, lain 
form Jt>f^, £. «or^. CixaMceT has senge toT titigt ; CT-ggjl. 
E. sltmh, A.S. tiene, a fttroiig tmell, tlie stem bein^ ttat^- 
(scc Sicvcr8,0-E.Grani, ctl. Cooli, { 266) ; < .. D iAnn-.pLL 
of sfiK-ati, E. i/mi. E. j/i;/*, v., A.S. slefifi-an {='sl^iaa}; 
from the strong t-erb s/a/>-an, to go, advance. E. jt!ra|^ 
K.S. tlreng3u (=* straugSi^ ; from tlrai^, Y^UroKg. 

So a]soE,j/ni^, A. S.j/rfnr-',» lightly twisted cord; fro*' 
llie same A. S. ilrang. E. UH, A. S. /f//iwi (= 'lal'tan) ; 
A. S. £i/-», a number, a nartutivc, E. bUt. E. tmtempt, u 
irnJ^Ri^V, uncombed; from A-S-frtwi-m, lo comb < .. 
E. 'M»^. K. uv^, A.S. wtbi {^'uta/'Jo), since M renhs 
ftoni the doubling of / (Swcel, A. S. Reader, p. xx^-iii) 

< .. (( waf ^{'wa/). pi. t. of xtyf-an, to weave. E. W<lth. 
A.S. wt/-ttr, foreign < .. A.S. wi-a/-A(=*im/-A), a forvigiKi; 
the mod. F. R'altt ]>ropcrly means ihe people rather than the 
country, being merely a pi. sb. meaning 'foreigners'; A.S. 
xoeaJ-as. E wrekh, A. S. wrtcca, lit. an exile, iwtcut 
{ = 'wrae-Jit) < .. || tvrtre {=i*wrat). pi. I. of tbc Stnmg 
verb xvrte-ait, lo drive, urge, drive out. Ct E. wrati, 
the same root. 

§193. 0> ..Y. I now give tome example* of the acooodf 
t^atatioD ; from K>y. 

s. («). £. giiJ, v., A. S. g^ld-an < .. gM, gold ; thb 
been already given. Similarly, we have tlie follttwing :— 

£. iigkl, a coil of rope, a hay, A. S. byhl, a bay. lit ' bend' 

< .. B itg^m, pp. of h£g-c«, to bow, bend. E. ^Ih, IceL 
iurir, A. S. ec&yr-d< .. n bor-en, pp. of htraa, 10 bcv ; ko 







alsoE-Airrrfoi, A.S.4»r-^-<j». E.Aif/7rf, A. S.V'^-ff'»< -A-S. 
&;&/, ft building, dwelling. Y^liiry, A.S. ifrgan, Ayrig-aH< .. 
I b«rg-*n, pp. cSbeorgan, lo hide. iL iliip. a Scand. word, Ban. 
drytft, lo drip < .. || led. drop-tS, pp.of drjUp-a, .strong verb, 
lo dro^> ; cf. A . S. Jrop-m. pp. or the siton^ v-erb dr^op-em, U> 
drop, drip. E, dritsie, a frcqucntnti^c fomi from a base drys- 
^-< .. B *dret-tn, orig. form of dror-en, pp. of dr/osan, to Till 
In dropfc ^.^ily, a, Scnnd. word, ItxLfylJa < .. icfl/cli, 2 
foal; cf. A. S. /•&, a foal. E. first, ^..^./ynl { = 'for-ist) 
<. „ h.S. /or-t, before, in froiiL E, kernel, A.& tymtt 
{='evnftla)< ..tam, E. torn; Uw scDxe is "a lillle grain.' 
E, <ttM, v., A. S. tytsan (='cost'iait), (torn foss, s.. a kiss. K. 
Am'/, A. S. enyllan (~*cnol-iari), from mol-la, a knot. E. /y?, 
a Scand. word, Iccl. lyfia (pronounced ty/la) ', put for 
*lefl-ia='l<ift-ia\ from the sb. kpt (pronounced toft), w"r; 
Uras ' to lift ' is ' 10 niac in the air ' ; <S. E. Z^:)*, a-/^, also 
from Icel, lopt, E. vixtn, M. E. wli'fw, ^jr«», a she-fox, 
K.^.fyx-tn {='/oX'iti)< .. /ox, V../ox; precisely parallel 
lo A. S. syd-m, a goddess, fcm. of ged, and to wylf-tn, fem. 
of tw^; $ 191 (3). 

(jS). The iuune muiaiion is remarkably exhibited in four 
words borrowed from Lalin. Thus Lai. toguina, n kitchen 
> .. A. S. (yctn (for '<oc-in), E, h'khea. Lai. molina, a mill 
;'> .. A. S. myltn, myln, M. E. mr/n, E. ini//. LaL mmeta, a 
jnt> ..mymt, £. mint; cf. E. mon-iy (F, mmnau) froni the 
•amc Lat. word. Lai. monmttrium, a monaslcry, nas short- 
ened lo 'timn'tter> .. A. S. mynsler, E. mmittr. 

§ 194. U > .. Y. Tlurd muiaiion ; from « to^-. 

3. (<■). There are two good examples that can be iUus- 
traicd by Gothic. E. Isin, A. S. lyn ; Goth. kmi. Y^fill, T, 
A.S,/yUait {=*/uii-iai>); Godi. /u//jan, to fill. In llie re- 
markaUe verb ta /ulfit, the second syllabic naturally lakes 


M. J.-i 

' Tliere b no writlra ft \nO. IctUndie ; W to (l«noM<I alwftjr* Iqr 
Ijilin tjmbol /<r \fi. \M.. leriffta', , bnl it U proBomioed ft. 



[Our, XL 

the motalrd fonn, the »cn$c being ' lo fill (oil,* tfaoogfa, in 
oompoation, ibc order oT the elemenu is revened. 

<lD). £. brink, M. E. brtilt}, jtaswering lo A. S. ■^■A-^ (boi 
fDuml)< „ II hrui-m. pi. t. pL of br/ttaa, to break up; d 
A. S. bryltan (= ■Ac«;-m«), to break, a secondary weak terfe. 
E. dingy, le. soiled wiih dung ; we find the A. S. verb jy- 
^ng-an, to mttinirc, in Alfred, IT. of Oiosiu.i, i. 3 ; < .. AS 
dtmg, E. duMg fl A. S. dung-en, pp. of <//»y-<w. to tluow awj, 
E. /»/, v., as in the phr. it NtMh, A. S. ^-^/lin (s'iku^Ma). 
lo dcsitc< ..A. S. tuil. deftire, pleasure. E. pindar, alio 
pintKf, an impounder; from A.S.;»>w£i« (=*/'W«i/-riMX(o 
wcSy impound < .. pund, a pound, enclosure. £. thtU, M.E. 
ikullen, jkillm, A. S. seylioH, lo sliul, lo fasten a door «ilh a 
bolt l);ul is t^t)/ Acro$s< .. g tevl-^n, pp. L pi. of seiolat, tt 
shoot'. E. J'/^. properly 'to shorten'; cf. A. S, Uynlot, 
occurring in the com\t./or-ttyn!an, 10 make dull < .. A.& 
ttuni, stupid. The peculiar Kcnse occurs in the related Scud, 
words, such as Icel. sfyUa (put (bi *t^mii). to shoncn, AM^ 
(put for 'ihmlr), short, stunted. There b a further trace of 
Uie A. S. verb ttyntan in the gloss : ' Hehttat, sljiuid ' {/u 
aljoitiS) ; Wright's Vocab., cd- WUIckcr, 35. 38. £. ami, 10 
aeem, as it occurs in the phr. mtthiats. i. c. it seema to rat, 
\.S, m/ Pyfui3, from Pynctm {=' ^tnte-ian), to twetn; dl 
Golh. ihugkjan. i. e. 'tkunigan, G. dte«in», to seem ; whence 
it appears that the base of this t-crb \& ^tatc. It happem 
that we also find A.S. Pane, ifaonght, Goth, thagkt (Le. 
*lhanks). rcm<-mhrance ; from the TeUL base TtutXK, to 
Intend, think (Kick, iii. 1 38). Fick explainx the base /m^ 
as due to a Teut. thoj«-jo, which is possible ; but it is ex- 
tremely likely tlial there realty was once a strong verb 
Vw"". pt. L *Pa'K, pp. 'pwHtn, as suggested by EtOnlllla'. 
E. Ihrill, M.E. thrillen, tkirltn. h.^. ^•riioH. p_yrtliM, 10 
pierce; a verb formed from >*>■«■/, a., a hole. Kunbcr, ;>r r* 

' Or clie, froo) the Iiue Keii ia A.S. troi-tn, pp. of tlie aae itrtt; 
wc ibc laM NCiiod. Ii maJn* no tUScKDce. 

i i4S.) 




stinds for 'iyrh-tl{^ sliewn by the cogoale M. H, C. Atrthtl. 
pierced) < ..A.S./«r^. pr«i)., E. /ji/-tf»yA. Thus 'nlhirl' 
was 3 hole through a thing ; wlicnci: itic vcrl> Ihirl, ihriU, to 
pierce. K. trim, properly to set linn, make stable, as in 'to 
trim 3 boot': A. S. trymman, Irymian, to make f]nn< .. 
Intm, fino, nrong. E. wiruome, A. S. wynium, \. e. pleasant, 
from »»w, Wfm, joy, a fcm. sb., put for 'Biewm (sec G. 
W<^au in KIugc)< .. n uurim-m, pp. of witfurit. to nin, gatD. 
Sec also Liilri in my Dictionary. 

(y). There an; twogooil cxampleitorwonl.t lx>rro«'ed from 
Latin. Thus Lat. muia > .. A. S.y/Wf, E. ineh. L. futttu, a 
well, pit>_.. A.S. Vw''(for V"''-). M E.>w'/. 

§ 106. \ > .. i^. Fourth t'-inutaiion. 

4. (a). The following examples art- well illustrated by the 
Gothic spcllinit ; we muHi TL-meintwr that the A. S. A com* 
monly repreitenU Teut. AI (Goth, or) ; { 7 1. F. htal, A. S. 
hdlam {='W-ian), Goth, hailjan. to hcal< .. A. S. hdt, Goth. 
haih, M.E.Aw/,E. «-Apfr. E. r«r, A.S. rrfi'ajr(=V<(«-ia*t), 
Goth, raiijan, to mine, cause to rise ; where r sUikIs for r (with 
a s>sotuKl}, by Verner's Law. We should also particularly note 
tbc dotiblet raiu, which is a Scand. form, Icel. rtifa. Ajid 
jiui as led. ra'fiK .. | Iccl. reis, pi. t. of rfi-a, to rise, «> 
iikewtfc A. S, rSer-OHK. .. \\ A. S. rrfj. pt. t. of ris-an, to rise- 
Shorily, n»r and r<rjV are holli causd forms of n'sti but 
one is Engliih, the otJier Scandinavian, 

ifi), E. any, M. E. d/n", A. S. ,fn-ig (with long <#)< .. A. S. 
in, Y^ oat. E. Mut, orig. 'pale/ A.S. ^/<£<' < .. n il4<; 
pt. t. of Hie-an, to riiine, look bright or white. E. hrtai-lk, 
in which the final -Ih is blc ; the M. E. fonn is bndt, brttdt. 
.S. brdd-u. This iti one of the subKiantitts of which 
ievicni remark* {nee brAdu in the Index 10 his O. E. Gram- 
mar) that ' they have taken the nom. sing, ending from the 
if-dcclenKion,' though llicy properly ' belong to llic weak dc- 
densioD. since they correspond to GoUi. weak sbe. in -li' Le. 
Henoe brdd-ti b lor *traJ-K .. A. S. irdtt, broad. And, 


in fiicl. wc find Goih. braid-H. breadth, which is the vm 
cognate form required. E, fiud, enmiiy, is a renuTi:ab)7 
erroneous form. The tnod. E. form should have been *fai 
or */<ad, but it has been curiously contused with tbc totdj 
different word /f*rf, a fief, which is of Ercnch origin. TTk 
M. E. fbnn is /tilt or fti^ in the Nottbein dialect (»ee Junie- 
!<on's Scot. Diet.), answering to ihi,- l>an. ftidt, a qnand. 
feud. The com-sponding A. S. wx)rd Ufdh-^t, enmi(ir< .. 
f&h, /&. hostile, E. /ot. E. htta, A. S. hdht, is precisdy 
parallel in form lo A. S. brddu, bradtb, explained ahow. 
Hence lite ^ h. an t-mutaiion of 4; from A.S. hit. VLX. 
AmI. E. ^/. E. Attf, a command, M. E. Jia/, baa a final ex- 
crescent /; cf. K'kih-i, &c; the A.S. form is h^s, \iat as 
fieluft IN tlie A. S. form of E. bthfsl. The (arm htis is difi- 
cult, but probably stands for 'hds-si. which again stands for 
•,4rf/-/» (cf. iliis. A.S. (V/«. M(fj. from *ffA. bltlbc">. The word 
is certainly formed, by mubilioii. from the verb hdlan, GoUi. 
hoilan. to command. Curiously enough, the Goth, (brm <i 
the sb. is Aa///. which presents no difficulty. E. lead, v., A.S, 
lAdan (='ldJ-ian)< ..ld<f, a course, ^. lodt, E, ii'tfiv, », 
A,,S, Id/an, 10 le;ive l)ehiiid< ../(^ a heritage, that whidh 
remains. H. lend, widi excrescent >/ and shortened voweL 
M.E. laim, A.S, lthian< ..Ida, E. /oon. E. slair. A.S. 
atdg-tr [=*if^-ir})< ..sldh, ildg, pt. t. ofs/fg-an. tocBmh. 
E. ntfii/, v., M.E, tweiin, A,S, ncd/an i='jti<d/-ian) < _ 
/Muf/, s., sweat. E. rtr«ii/, A. S. >r<*rf (for *^d-di)< ,.firi- 
w-an, to tlirow, to twist. 'I"hc word to /h-eof formerly hid 
precisely the sense 'lo twbt,' like its Lat. equivalent tar^wrt; 
cf. Ihrmotier in Halliwell. explained as ' one who throws or 
winds silk or thread.' Cf, also G. Drakl^ thread, from drthet, 
10 lum, twist, E. wriath, A.S, VirdS {■=*wrASi), a twottd 
band, fillet< .. || wr&S, pt t. of irrtS-an, to xrrithe, IwisL 
Wrrst and wratk arc similar fbnnaiions from th« sane 


Sk Bchider, Dit Vabikb«tti<U, iSSo^ p, 6g. 


* i9«.l 



$ 196. 6 > .. £. Fifth /-mutation. 

5. (o). We have already nmwi tlw pluraU y^c/, y «k, ittlh, 
tKoaJoet, goost, iocih. A foutlb siicti word is A. S. br4S»r, 
brother, which made the pi. br&Sru, but ihc dai. sing. hrfBtr. 
The IccI, hriSir made the pi. hraSr. now written bra^r, 
where the a ati&weni precisely to A. S. /, tieing the /- 
mntalion of 0. Ilencc the pi. brtlhtr v-as introduced into 
Northern English :iik1 even into the Midland dialect, and, 
finally, with t)ie addition of the characteristic jil. nuQix -^, 
into tile Snutliem dialect. We find hrdhri, Ormulum, 8369 ; 
drtlhir, Rob. of Brunn«, tr. of Langtofl, p. 01 ; irtthtr-m, 
Layamon. L go, 

(0). Id tlie lit'e following examples, the Gothic form kHcws 
dearly what wn» the orig. A. S. form. 

E. dttm, A.S. <9!!'fli-(in(=*</ifn-('iiA), Goth. i&M/iifl, to deem, 
judge ; from A. S. d6m, Goth, dovt-i, judgment, opinion, £. 
docm. E./itJ, ,\.S.//Jau (=y<S./.wB), Goth. /<«^<m, lo feed; 
from A. S./SJ-a, ^./eed. E. mtet, A. S, m/i-an {='m6t-iaii'), 
Gotb. meljan. In the oomp. ga-motjan, to meet ; from A. S. 
mil, g^mH, a meeting, as*embly, preserved in the K. phr. ' a 
moot point,' Le. a poijit for discus&ion in an assembly. E. 
teeM, A. S. t/tan { =. 's4c-ian\ Golh. soiy'an, 10 seek < II A. S. 
sif (Goth. toi). pi. t of sacan, lo contend, dispute ; wlicnoc 
also saie and toJte or s«ten. £. weep, A. S. w/fi-an {=wdp- 
taH\ Goth. w^JoK ; from the A. S. tb. wt^, a clamour, 

I (yV E. &/<■-*. A. S.^/«: i«fA«,adJ..A.S.&t-ffl(='M-6») 
< .. Jdr, a beech-tree. It thus app<:aTs that the true word 
for ' beech ' was hit, now only used in the sense of book ; 
hence the adj. Ut-en, becchen, as well as a new form 
Met, beech. E. bleed, A.S. hl/d-nN (i=*bl6d-ian), from 61M, 
blood. £. iieit, A.S. bl^tian, Norihem form iloediia 
(=A.S. 'iJ/JsiM); also from b/^J, blood. The suffix is 
the nmc a* In eleem-se, A. S. eliht-sian, from ddn-t, clean ; 
and the orig. sense <^ bJas vas to purify a sacred place 




or alur u-ith spritiktcd Mood '. E. ^rW, A. S. hrii-at 
{='br6d-iaH), from brid, E. Irrood. E. gUA. a liw coal, 
A. ^.gUd(='gtS-di, see Sievera, O.E. Gram. $ 369): frooi 
g^-wan, £. ^Vow; w}ierc the w is lost, as in Ihrtad btn 
/trMU ID § t4>5. £. grtm, A. S. gr6i-e, O. H. G. jtmnl 
Teu:. GkoNjO (FJck, iii. lis); derived liom \.S, gri-vsm, 
allied to led. gr^^, E. grenv. Grttn is the cotoar of grtto- 
ing hcibs. E. itel, to cool, as used in Sbake!({)eai«, A.S. 
rfj-mi (=V<!/-»tf«); from rf/, cooL E. »/wrf, A.S. ^ 
{=spS-iii, Ficlc, iii. 355), tiucc«f»; froin A. S. ifi^wan, a 
succeed, prosper. Cf. ihc remarkable cognate Ski. ^Utt, 
prosperity, ^A^i, increafic, from sfidy, to cnUrgc. E. ilmi. 
A. S. tWJa {=' sl^il-jo}). a Mud'horec. stalbon, war-horec: 
fiom A. S. 4lSd. M. £. stood, nov,- speit and pronouacvd as iJW. 

1 197. U > ., t. Sisth I'-muiaiioD. 

(a). An excellent example is seen in tlie E, hidf. a skia, 
A. S. hjfd. This j^/t/ clearly slnnds for *h6di. because it ^ 
\yy Grimm's and Vcmcr's Laws, the precise equiiralent d 
Lat. euiis (ttein mli-), 3 bide. The pIuraLc azitt, Itf*, h'-mi, 
from moute, iwsf.emv, have Ixen discussed above; see { 18S. 

(a). The E. df-JSle is a strange compound with a F. (itv£x : 
the true old word is simply file, as used by Sbakespore, 
Macb. iu, I. 65. and by Spenser, 7. Q. iii j. fit. The A. & 
form hjyi-an (='/til-mn) < ../it. foul; 90 lhatj«il' = lB 
make foul. So also the sb. ///A, A.S: /)'IS (cf. O.H-G. - 
fiiiida) < ../£/. E./MI/. E. dive, A.S. d/f-m {='da^iaii^M 
a weak wrb derived from the strong verb d6/-<ut, to^ 
dive; whence also d6f-a, E. dot!e. Properiy, dive b a 
causal form. E. ^Ih, A.S. t^, knovrlcd^, acqaaintance. 
relationship (s'ltur-?!); cf. Gotb. kunlhi, knowledge; < 
A. S. n?^ (s'lwifJ), knc»wn ; with which cf. Goth, htnlhi, 
known, in the mod. E. kilh. the i has been shortened. 
pridi, A.S. pr^t-e; from /Wif/, E. proud. E. awA, v., A.* 

■ Thla drmolocT U dse ta Uf. Sweet (Anglta, IH. t. liC)^ 


wfican {s£'w£it-(an)< .. wise, a n-ish, s.; it b obvious 
ihu ihe mod. E. las really preserved (lie fonn of the vrrb 
oa\y, though wuss, on the contrary, occurs in LowluDd 
Scotch both as 8. and v. To the above examples n-e may 
add the prov. E. rima; common an tlie name of a tool for 
enhupng scTcw-holes in mciftl (sec Hailiwcil). It simply 
means 'roomer,' being derixtd from A.S.cyw-iM (=Vtf«- 
iak), to cnlaTRe, from tlic adj. rUm. large, room-y. 

§ 198. EjV > .. Y ; EO > .. Y. This is true, whatever 
be the tenglh ; i,c, ea '>y, /a >y; to >_>-, and /o >y. In 
«arly MSS^ the y is vmiten i*. We take atl ihese logcther, 
as the sevmth r'-muution. Examples in mwt, E. arc rare. 

(a). The mod. E. c/Ar, ti^st, corrcsjiond to A. S. yMra 
{ym*yid'ira\ yldttl {='yldi,la).< .. laid, E. eld. The sU 
dd^h- S.yld-u, old age. 

(fi^ E. wori, v., A.S. wyrcan {='weorc-iim) < .. wtort. 
E. uwi, s. Mod. E. conftucs the m xiidy, so thai ihis cannot 
£Ufl]r be instanced. 

(y). In the same way, E. iti^U, a high lower, is from 
ttttp. high ; but ihe A. S. form slfptl is formed by I'-mutaiion 
bona tteap, xieeiK So E. Ittm, v., M. E. Itrnm, is from ttam, 
M. E. Itm, /ffm, a family; but the A.S. verb fjfm-ian is 
formed by i-mulaiion from the &b. //am. 

(8). ^e may insutnce also Iccl. dyfif, depth * < .. IceJ. 
i£fr=\. S. J/"/, deep. Modern Kn^li»h imitates this in 

rming dtplh from ditp. So also l/u/l from Mfj/"; A. S. 
}4e/3e, iheft < . 'pA/, a ihief. TTic clearest example is 
tli'rk, a bullock, A. S. sf^r-ie, formed uiih sufiis -f and 
ct-muiaiion from A. S. slAir, an ox, a x/ivr. 

$ IBO. UutatioQ in Uodom Snffliah. By way of re- 

ipilulation, I here colIci:t ibo^- in^iatices in which tlie 
mutation has been clearly pre:^r«-cd even in modem 

iglish. Tlie explanations of the words have been already 
' For».^'i/A''»;.cf-TeDL lakcitko, lengdi, M p. tot. 

vol- 1. P 

aio VOWEL-MUTATtOy. [Ciuf.XI. 

1 . (a) man, pi. mm \ compare hank, Itneh ; taw (a nittc;), 
coiDpar<^ with s(^i. (() Sub^anriws dcritvd from ad- 
jectives, as : long, Imgtk \ tireng, xlrngtM '. (t) Adjechn 
from •iub<ttatittve«, an: Angk, Englith; Frank. Frtntk; 
Waits, Wfhh. ((/) Verbs from substantives or adjecting 
as; band, hrnd; hk, id (to hinder); tale, uU; tale, /i^ 
Here we may insert the cases In wl»ich ihc tubxtantive lies' 
nearer in form to the root, as: fual-m, yuell; ieng, lingi 
wand, wend', tvratk (sea-weed), wrtkh and toreek. With 
these we may rank : tomb, untempl, cotMadering lUt^ 
as a pp. {i) Weak verbs from the base parallel with that of 
Uic pi. t, of strong verbs, as : am, hn (for tart is an old \aa. 
tense as reffards its form); drank, drtnth; fall. /til; 1^ 
(A. S. la^), lay (A. S. letgan). which arc dtsiinguJabed by 
Mssgc; sal, sti. Simibrly we have stank, simch, though f/rrwt 
is a sb. (/) Adjective from a verb: /are, frisk. 

2. {a) ior-n, Sink and iitrdm; com, kernel; drop, dr^\ 
fere, first; fox, vixen ; gold, gild; knot, knit; tnon-ey, mini; 

memasliry, minster. {^) Of Scan<L origin : foal, filly ; J^ 
hft, (t) Similarly we bsve hmv. sb. (A. S. hg-a | beg-en, ppi 
of b6gan), bight; b<rrrow, v, (A. S. horg-ian | korg-en, pp. ol 
teorgan), iury, v. ; rf/-«j(A. S. droi II tbvr-em=*dros-*n, pp. 
dr/osan), dritsU. 

3. dung, dii^y; fvH, fill; hst, Utl; potasd, pmd-^ 
stunl-ed, stint; tkrougfi, Ihrili; won, pp., uin-mtnt, 

4. broad, brtadlk ; Jot, feud; kol. An/; load, bad, T.j 
loan, len-d; one, anj-; rote (pt. t. of rise), rear; tknu, 
thread; wkole, keal. So also compare wroth, adj. (A.S. 
wrd9 B wrdd, pi. t. oF wriSan). with the sb. urea/k. 

5. {a)/Mt, /ett; goose, geese; tooth, ttelk. Cf. hr^tr, 
hrethr-tn. ($) book, beech ; blood, bleed and bless ; tool {lA- 
vantage), btrl (10 profit, kindle); brood, breed; doom, dim; 

' . Heie belong! A. S. itremg-e, now cpclt tiring, fivm the ndj. itrcai 
So >1>b the fith calltd t, ling mt (ormerlj cilteil Itngt i,Ha>nt)ok, Sji) 
uuJ nttipl)' nttuiB ' the long fiib,' from il< ifaapc 





« Joo.] 



/o^. yW ; gl<mi, gitdt (live coal) ; grew, grrm ; ecol, ieel (to 
cool) ; m09i, nut! ; toh, sctk ; j/W, ilad, 

6. (<j) fAW, ki'tu ; /dM/f, AVi^ ; meust, nict. \S) ikvf, dive ; 
/otiJ, dt'pU «ihI _^/rt ; un-foHlh. kith ; proud, pride ; /■*"»?. pro*-. 

E, rimer (a tod) ; Lowland Sc. wusi. s. (a wish), ifith. v. 

7. (d) A. S. EA : tfld, tld-tr. (i) A. S. ^ : Mm/*, ift^ ; 
sittp, jtetpU ; Aum, tftm ; where mod. E. shews no difTcrcnce 
in 'iie vowel-sounds, (?) A. S. £0 : sktr, Uir-k ; also detp, 

(depth ; rt(^, Z/;^/. 
Ii (Inia appeant that clear examples of mulAtion can be 
traced in nearfy eighty iiulanea c^'en in tnodem English 1 
Surelf this b a point of some importance, such as iiliould 
not be inssed over in our dictionaries stnd j^mmant ax if it 
were beneath investigation. When we find that Webster's 
Dktionaxy, for csample, cxplaiiis food as being the A. S. 
/eda [lie ; no accent], fsora/idan [«<■; no acccntl. to feed, 
bov an: we to trust an etymologist who does not even know 
this elementary lesson, that the A. S. ^ la a mutation of 
a prccxisieni 6, and who thus ignomnil/ reverses tlie true 
order of diings ? 
§ SOO. It rctnains to be obsen-cd that, in many instances, 
H (he original vomel of the root has suffered both mulali«n and 
" gradalion, so that the results of the present chapter may often 
have to be taken in combination with those of the preceding 
chapter l>efotC the form of llic root can K' clearly seen. 
Thus the wrb xofeed is formed by mutation from fiod, A. S. 
/Aia. But the tf in /iiif \a a strengthened form of a, so that 
the Teutonic ba<e lakes the form fad, answering by Grimm's 
Law lo an Aryan pat," appearing in the Gk. jmr-tn^oi, I eat. 
Aryan pat is an extension of the root pa, to feed, 
^ippearing in the Skt. pd, 10 feed, Lat. pase-^rt (pt i. pil-oi), 
I to feed, Ac. For further information on this subject, see 
[Oiapter XIII (betow), where the method of discovering 
|Ar)'an roots is more panicularly discus$<d. 

We arc alw now in a position to explain words similar 10 
r s 



those mentioned in §$ 47, 161 ; as e.g. 1^, need, hr^, brid^ 
gtl^/an, to believe, kjd, hide, /fil, fist. Of these, «)tf u- 
swers to Goth, nauths (stem nau/Ai-), bo that the y ia an »■ 
mutation of ii» (A. S. /a). At the same time, the G. JV«!l it 
cognate with Goth, nauihs, the G. long being equivalent b> 
Goth. a». Hence we conclude that E. n^rf and G. NeOt 
have related vowel-sounds. Similarly, E. bride, A. S. br^ ii 
cognate with Goth, bniihs (stem brtilhi-'), and therefore irilh 
O. H. G. 5rtf/, whence G. Braut. Geljfan, to believe=V<- 
l&if-itm, from ge-Uafa, belief; and, as A. S. A=GotlL im= 
G. a«, this is precisely the G. Glaube {=*ffe-laubt). E. Hit, 
A. S. ^(/, answers to Teut hOdi (Fick, iii. 78), cognate with 
Lat. eii/i-s ; the O. H. G. fonn is A£i, whence G. BuO. 
Similarly, A. S. /jfst answers to 0. H. G. /ifa/, whence G. 
Fautt. These examples may suffice ; there are many more 
of a similar character. 





§ SOI. PkefulES. a considerable number of the prefixes 
in English are of Latin origin, and due to preposiiions, such 

ab, ad, anU, Ac. The pre6xL-s ^ English origin are not 
Tfexy numcTout. Tliey arc given in the Appendix to my 
Etyoi. Did., in both editions ; but it may be useful lo give 
bere a brief ll.ti of the chief of ihem. C(. Koch, £ng. Gram, 
iii. lis; Sweet, A. S. Reader, p. Ixxix. 

A-, from various sources. (Only the Imlonic sources arc 
noticed here.) 

1. A.S- o/', M in of-dune, F. a-dawn. 

», A. S.m; as in M. K. onfole, H. a-foot. 

3. A. S. ttitd; against, opposite ; as in A. S. aitd-Iatig, 
E. a-iong. Sec Ail-, TTn* (a). 

4. A. S. tf-, intensiv'e prefix to verbs ; as in A. S. d-rUan, 
a-riu. Tbia A. S. &- is cognate with O, H. G. or-, ir-, ur- 

(mod. G. cr-), Goth. M/-, ur-. Tlie Goth, us is alno used a.i 
a prepi signifying ' away from.' The chief verbs witli this 
prefix are a-Mt. ae-iunt (wriltcn for a-atne by confusion 
whh the F, and L. <w- = ad), a/-/righl{3iavHai\y, for a-fright), 
al-lay (smiluly, for a'tiy), a-matt, a-riu, a-rotut; we have 
also the pa«t participles a-ghast, a-go. Among ihnc woixb, 
ac-mrtt and a-route seem 10 have been formed by analojiy; 
they have no rcpreeentiilivca in A. S. The pp. dmaatd, 
amazed, occurs in Wulfstan's Homilies, cd. Napier, p. ijj, 
L 23. Sec Or» below, ]>. aifi. 




5. A- in a-Jo is short for al, wliich ims nsed fa the Nonh 
as the sign of ilie infinitive. Tlic pruv. K. ' Here's a pidCf 
/i?-iJ0' is equiv:;tlcat to tiic old phrase 'Much a-do,' Lc. 'nuicli 
at do,' roucti lo do. There was an old phrase ' out u doon,' 
besides itie more usual 'out of doorii'; bence itie pbr. mi 
a-doort, vfbich maj- rcpreMnt cither of the older forms. 

6. In some words, the A. S. prefix gt-, later /-, y-, w>s 
turned into a-. Thus A. S.^^uwr isourn-uure; and A. 5. 
ge-ford-ian protluced M. E, a-/ortkm, mod. E. a/-/erd (for 
-a-ford). Sec E-. Y-. 

We may also notice a-vghi, A. S. dwihl, where if- is a 
prefix meaning 'ever,' cognate with aye. cv'ei, whicb is None- 
After-; A.S. a/lcr, sfier, prep, used in cotnposition. 

An>, in an-twtr, A. S. and-iumru, %., an answer, refJ]'. 
Hcie ihc A. S. and- is cognate with Du. ok/-, G. eni-, Ol 
ani, Skt. anii, over against; the sense b 'against,' or 'in 
repi}'.' The »ame preltx appears as a- in a-loag, and aif 
in un-bind. Sec A- (3). TJn- (a). 

Ana-, in ann^l. A. S. on-dlan, to set on fire, burn, bolie- 
Thus the preRx is really the common piep. em. In sook 
sense*, the word may bc*f French origin. 

At-, in al-dte, is the common prep, a/, A, S. at, 

Bfr". This is A.S. ^-, Ai-, the same as ^, prq>. by; E.^. 

C-. In c-lukk, the prefix seems to be (lie A. S. gf. This 
is somewhat doubiTul. 

E-. in t-mugh. Enough is M. £. t'-MoA, A. S. gt^nih ; 
Goth. ga-noAt, enough. Hence the prefix b the A. S. gt; 
Goth, ga-, 

Edd-, in tdj-y. In this obscure word, the prefix seenut la 
be A. S. td; back, again ; cognate with IceL j3-, O. tJ. G. 
it; ifit; Goth, id; back. I'hc loci. i3a. an eddy, corre- 
sponds to the Lowland Scotch j*^, an eddy, which occms 
in the Boke of the Houlaie (aK 1453), St. 64, L 817. We 
(in<l the O. Sax. prefix idug; bock, in idug-iStiin. to repay. 

Smb-, in fmi'^ dayt. From A. S. jm^rytu, a circiuL 






The prefix is A. S. ymh; aboai, cognate wiih G. ««-, 
O. H. O. tmAi, Lat. ambi-. 

lV>r- (i), E. and A.S. _/&r, prep. Used in such com- 
poonds M/or-at-nuich./or-fiitr, Sx. 

Ffflp- (a), A. S. /or-, prefix, as in for-gi/an, to for-give. 

Cf. \ix^, /or-t/yrif', DaiL/ir-, S»cd._/or-. Du. and <j. ver-, 

K^3iii.fra't/air', Skt. parii: The Skt. /wrd is an old instm- 

tncnia) case of para, far ; heDce the orig. sense is * away.' 

Allied to IL/ar. Tbe prefix \\ia aomcihing of an intensive 

roroc, or gives llic sense of 'away.' or 'from.' The chief 

dcri(aii\'C8 ^ik /or-biar, for-iid, for-ftn4, for-i^o (miswriiten 

firf'g^t /or'g(l,/or'givt,/dr-lom, /or-iokt, /or-rwear. 

■ For*-, in front ; A. S./ert, before, prep, and adv. Cognate 

. with Du. WW, Iccl/yrir. Dm./vt, Swcd.ydr, G. vor, Goth, 

/aura, Lai. pro, Gk. irpJ, Ski. pra. Orig. seiiM ' beyond '; 

allied to E./ar, and to ihc prefix ^r- (i). 

Torth", forvrard. A.S./orS. adv.; extended bom/ort, 
before ; see above. Cognate with Du. voorl, from votv ; G. 
yfcr/, SI. H. G. vort, from vvr. Cf. also Gk. vporl (usually 
'pit), (onards, Ski. firtUi, tovards. 
I Fro-, as in /ro-ward, L e. turned from, perverie. The 
prefix yh)-, Northern K./ra-, seems to be tltc lci:i./r4, from, 
closely allied to Iccl/ram, forward, and to V../rom. 
I OaiD-, against ; M. £. gein, A. S. g^, against. Hence 
gain-iay. gam-Hand. 

Xm-, as in im-M, im-park, is the form which the pn^ m 
assumes before a following b or p. 

Id-, a. S. in, prep., in ; oflcn used in coinposiiion. See 

If, in ]-tnte, which b short for al-one ; where a/ = M. £, 
ai, mod. K. aiV. 

Hid>, in ilie n-ord mid-wi/e, is nothing but the A. S. prep. 
IkK/, with, now otherwise obsolete; cf. G. mil, with, mU-hri/nt, 
U> help with, assist. So also the Span, (tmadre, a midwife, 
IB, literally, a ' co-tnother.* 



[Cmw. XII. 

UiB-, wrongly, as in mis-dttii, mit-take. A.S. m>-,wroDgl]r, 
amiss ; allied lo Ihe verb lo mitt. Also found as IceL, DaiL, 
and Du. mil; Swcd. miss-, Goth, mitsa-. 

If- (i). A prefixed M- in E. words arises from a miadmaoo 
of consecuiivc words in a ]))iraK. It most often resiilu Iram 
Ihe DM of the indclinite aitidc an. Thus an twt became 
a luwt, an ekt-name became a niek-naat, an tngol became 
a ningol (whcn(;e probably a ni'ggol, lued by Nonh, and 
mod. £. d m^gff). On the other hand, ire must Tcmcmber 
— . . ' . that a naddtr became an tiddtr; a nafiron > anafiron; a 
, a ( f^^fr, „^^ff. -^ g„ auger ; a-ttP^mng* a a» ertngt ; a nrarA > an 
ouch ; a nnmpirt > on nature t hence llw curious fonna 
odAr, aproH, augir, orange, ttuh, and uii^t ; all of which 
have lost an Initial n. 

IT- {]). In ihc cose of nnmk, ihc » is due to the final 
ktler of the first ixisseMivc pronoun ; so that my nutu/e < 
ntyn uruh, mine uncle. We even find the form naun/, from 
miftf aunl. 

IX- (3). In the word it-ortce, which only occurs in ibe phnse 
/or the Hcnee, v-e hat-e the M. K. /or the nonts, miswritten for 
/cr Ihm ones, for the onec. Here then is the dat case of ihc 
def. article, A. S. 3im, later forms San, Ihan, then. 

TS- (4), negative prefix. A. S. n-, prefix, sliort for ne, not. 
Cf. Cioih. ni, Kuss. ne, Irish ni, Lat. nt, not ; Skt. na, not. 
It occurs in n-aughf, nay, n-etlher, n-eeer, n-iH (for « vSl), 
«•«, M-om-, >c0r, »-«/ (sliort for n-tfif^-A/). SceUn-fl); p-SlT- 
Of-. Off-. Tile p'cj). of a invariably written off in rbm- 
IKKtiion, except in the case of of/ali, where the use of ^ 
would ha\-e brought Uiree/'» togetlier. 

On- ; A. S. on, prep., £. on ; in compoflition. 
O^, in nr-deal, or-ts. The prefix b A. S. «r-, cognate 
with Du. tor-, G. wr-, Goth, acr- or us-. It is therefore only 
another form of A- (4). Or-d/ai, A.S. erd/l, ord^, a cog- 
nate with Do. aordttl, G. urtAeil, judgment ; -Aal is the tome 
Kt E. deai, a jiortion. Tlie word meant ' that which a deah 

I »'■) 



[Out,* faence, a dedtaon. Orfli is pi. of or/; cognsle with 
>r !jorrowc<I Troni Mid. Du. oar-tlt, a jMCce left tmealcn, lioia 
J. tl-tn, to eat. 

Out-, A. S. £/ ; the [>rcpi. oai/ in coin[)Osition. 
OTer-, A.S. ^r; the prep, evrr in composition. 
T^ in l-wil, A. S. ai-y.ilan, to Iwil, reproach. Thus /- ia 
short for at-, which t$ the same as al, prei>. ; see At- in Mur- 
ray's Dictionuy. 

^Tho^oa^-, in Ihtreighfart ; the same as ihrovgk. 
To- (i), in l^^jt, it-morroiv; rocrcty the prep. I9, A.S. 
, to, as to, for. 
To- (»), intensive prefix ; obsolete, except in the pt. I. to- 
vraif. Judges ix. 53. A. S. li-, apart, asunder, in twain ; 
cognate with O. Fries, to-, k-, O. H. G. sa-, «-, K-, all with 
the««nsc of 'asunder*; closely related to O.H.G.aa-r-,w-/^-, 
Mt'-r-, G. u-r-, piefix ; cf. also Gotli. twit-, as in twis-siandoji, 
^ 10 separate oneself from. 

B Twf-, as in twi-lighi, A.S. /ntf-, lit. 'double,' hence 
H'dooblfid,' allied to TL-tuio. Cognate with Icel. A-/-, Du. Aiw, 
V'G. noif, wtiiclt arc allied, respectit-cly, to Iccl. totir, Ou. 
tttxt, and G. swti, wo. 

Oo- ( I ), negative prefix ; A. S. wt-, from Aryan k- (sonant), 
D^atire prefix. Cf. Du. m-, Iccl. 6-, £', Dan. «i-, Swcd. »-, 
Gocfa. utt', G. aw-, W. OH-, Lat. in-, Gk. i^, J, Zend, amt-, 
Pers. lit-. Ski. <m-. Sec H- (4); p. ii6. 

On- (3), verbal prefix ; A. S. an-, alao on-, short for ond' = 
Ka.S. oMe^; cf. Da. on/-, G. n/-, Glcairj. It is therefore 
'nlttmaidy the same aa an- in an-tuter, and a- in <z-/0f^. Sec 

An- abo^'e; p. 314. 
h Un- (3), in wt-Ay, iw/c. The prefix is cqui\'alcnt 10 the 
^O. Fries, and O. Sax. «W, up to, as far as to, Ooih. uvJ, up 
to, unto. Ttie A. S. (WcMex) Kpelling of this prefix is d3. 
nnder- ; the prep, under in compo^tion. 
TTp- ; the prep> if in composition. 
Wan-, in nuw-Aw; see iVanttm in my Dictionary, 




vat, ■ 

900K I 

With-, agaimt ; the prep.wtM mcompositioa. TlieA-S. 
tvi? commonly means ' ag&inHi ' ; ihis senM k retaiued tu 
pbrasc ' to lighl ir;'/A one' licnce ■mik-staitd. 

Y-, prefix ; as in the archaic words j^£y/. named, jmw, 
certainl)-, M.E.j-, *-; A.S.^r-; oognati: iriili Du.^*-, 
^, Goth.^d-. This prefix, once verjr common, made 
llitie difference lo die sense ; sometimes it has a coll«tiV 
force. It was, perhaps, originally emphatic. See A- (tl 
and E-. 

§ 202. SUKTANTIVAI, SvPFIXES. Tbc HibiltuitivjU 
of E, origin arc ui* three kinds, viz. (i) those like -dbm, -dd^ 
where theA.S.suflix wualtoanintelli^-iblewoTd; (3)nffi«t 
ex{ffe»vc or diminution; and (3) suffixes consisting ofonlf 
one or tu'o letters, stich as -m in di>o-tH, -Ik in Img'lh \ »ooc 
of tliesc being double or compound. 

(i) In the lirst clatis we iiatv only the following: 
-hood (also -hiad), -lotk (also •l<^i) ', -rtJ, tk, -skip 
•seape, vihich is Diiich). See Koch, Gram. iii. i«; 
Sweet, A,S. Reader, p. IxxxL To these should I* addrJ 
A, S. Idd ; see imder -hood below. Tlie •<ra/l in prial-<Tafi. 
&c., can hiirdly be regarded as a mere EiilIiK. 

-dom. A. S. ■dSiii. the same as A. S. dim, jadgneM. 
E, doom. Cognate with Iccl. Smr, Dan. and Swed. -Jam, o 
in lce\. />rce/-dimr, Dai]. Iralilom, Swed. trill dom, UmJdam, 
Du. -dom, G. -Hum, as in Du. ha'iig-dom, G. fifHig-AHm, 
saiictuat]', relic. It occurs {a) in pure E. words, ts hir/k-dm, 
tarl'dom, frtt'dom, heathen-dam, iing-dtm, ikeriff-dom, wit- 
dom : {h) in words of Scand. origin, " kali-dom. Ihrai-dm: 
(r) in words in which (lie first element is foreign, as : Chridat- 
dom, diJce-dcm, martyr-dem, petr-dom, p«pe-dom, pri'iKt-dat, 
serf-dom. New words, TisfiuitlUy-d/m, can be coined. 

-hood, -haad. A. S. -fidd, Priesic -Attf; cC \ 43. The 

A. S. kdd meant sex, degree, rank, order, condttioa, stale, 

nature, form ; so that man-hood means ' tuao's estate ' ; kc 

' 'n»%»tb)L-itet${~tttti)iai!*itt>i bcluog to ihit cUh. SmI tja 




Cognate with Du. -htid, Dan. -M, Swed. -htt, G. -heil, 
appearing respecliirdy So Du. vrijfitid, Dan. fri-htd, Swed. 
/ri-hel, G. Frti-hal. freedom ; where the Swcd. form looks as 
if it were merely borrowed from Gein)an,a9 perbaps tbcDao. 
form was also. Cf- also Goth, haidus, manner, iny; furtlier 
retsUcd to SkL hUt, a sign by which a thing is known, from 
kit, to perceive, know. It ocean (o) in pure E. words, as 
irviAfr-hood, tkiid-kMd. knighl-kood, Uktli-hood, maidm'hood, 
man-heoii, neighiimr-Aood, siiUr-hcod, widouhfiood, tvt/f-hood, 
woman'AMd, and is epcit -hiaJ in God-htaJ, maidm-kead: 
(6) in words in which llte first elemenl ix foreign, as in/atit- 
kaod, prieil'hocd. In toy-hood, ihc word hoy is Fricsian; ii iii 
not fotux) in A. S. The form liat-ii-hood is corrupt ; here 
•li-hood has been subsiituicd for M. E. -lode, and the real sufiSx 
b A.S. -Atrf, aa in li/-!dd, provisions to liv« by. Thi* A. S. 
Idd is the Kime as mix). K. lode; sec Lcdf in my Eiym. Diet, 
•lock, -ledBO. Only in wtd-loik. knaw-lalgt ; the former 
of whkb has the pure E. sulTix, from M.E. -idk, shortened from 
M.E. /at = A.S. A£c, whilst the latter exhibits the cognate 
Scand. foini, leeL 4(ikr. The A. S. i&c is probably preserved 
in the motl. E. ulang term />ir<(, nport ' ; it meunt 'play, contest, 
^ft, offering,' but was alM) used to form abstract nouns, as in 

»ria/-lde, robber)-, wreAZ-idc, accusation, wtd-ldc, later wed- 
tac, matrimony, tlie wedded stale. The cognate IceL ia'kr, 
Swed. /ct, play, b also Irccly used as a BuHix, a<i in loel. 
iarifttr, Swed. kSrUk, Io\'e. There was also a corresponding 
A. S. veibal sufllx 'kkan (^*'ldcian), as in A. S. n/ah-tdxan, 
M. E. Hth'Itehtn, to draw nigh, approach ; and it \% not un- 
likely iliat the form of the suflix -dtehe in M. E. tnmv-leeke, 
knowledge, was really influenced by this A. S. \«rbal fonn. 
^It makes no great difference. 

H^ -red (1), A.S. -rddm; only in hal-rtd, km-d-rtd. In the 
^■atlcr word the middle di& excrescent, the M.E. form being 

^ ■ It tbonlil rallwr tEtv« gim w > mod. E. lekt ; tbe coramon Noith- 
D laU, a (port, u ftwa Hm Icel. UiJtr. 


iin-rfde, answering lo «n A.S. *eyti'rtfdm, not found. So 
also hal-rtd, M. E. hat-rtdtn, answers to A. S. '^htte-riUm, 
also not found. We fin<t, howc^'cr, A. S. /r/md-riia, 
friendship, shewing that the suffix, like -ship. signiRcs ' Kia' 
or 'condition,' originally 'readiness.' Il even occun u i 
separate word, meaning ■ condition, rule ' ; and is allied lo 
Goth, ga-raid-fins, an ordinance, rule, G. be-rtit, rcadj", and 
£. ratdy. Curiously enough it is related to the veib Ai riit, 
not, as might at first be supposed, to the x-erb lo read. 

-red («), in hund-rrd. The suffix in htaidrfd, A.S. Am* 
rtd, is not the same as the above. It appears also in IttL 
hmd-raS, O. Sax. hunJt-rod, O. H. G. hundt-nl, G. hmitH. 
In this case tlie suffix -rtd means talc, number, or DttC 
literally, 'reckoning"; so that kimd-red means 'a faitndicd 
by reckoning,* the A.S. htaid (cognate n-iih LaL ttnl-tm) 
meaning a hundred, even when used without the suffix. 
Goth, ga-raik-jan, to reckon, to numbcf. 

-rio, in biihoP'ric. From A.S. rtl>c, Goth. rrA-*, do 
allied to rtg-num, kingdom. 

-Bliip, A.S. -scipt, originally 'shape, form, mode,' btm 
scepp-an [=*jcap-ian), lo shape, make. Cognate with l«l 
-skapr, I>an. -skab. Swed. -ikap, Du. -ukap, G. -uk^ a 
seen in A. S./r/6nd-teipt, V)3Xi. /rtmd-ikai. SvtA. /rJUtd-tit^ 
Du. vrieud-iehaf, G./retaid-seka/i, i. t. friextd-thip ; for whicft 
the Iccl. word is vm-skapr. Sec Wcigand, £t}in. G. Diet.. 
ii. 540. The suffix is used (a) in pure English words, seme 
of which arc in early use, ax: /riaui'Ship, hard-th^, kri- 
thip, loam-ship, wor-skip (=v>orth-sfufi; others in later use, 
as : honemaH-ship, king-ship, ladyship, shtr^-ship, toii-thip. 
ttaoard-ihip, ivard-shipi {b) wiili Scand. words, V /dim- 
ship : (f ) with French words, as : (Urk-ship, etmrl-th^ tc 
The ii«rd knd-scapt, originalty also land-^ip, was borrovti 
from Du. landsthap in tlie 1 71I) century. 

§ StOS. (3). Suffixes expressive of diminution. The cUef 
diminiuivc A. S. suffixes are -t, -tl, -m, -ing, nbicb on; 

. ttnl-tm) 
iffix. U 



cainbin«l, giring the sccoudarjr Toraig, nich as -k-in, 

{piobably from Teat. -xo). The word bull Aat% not 

in A. S^ tfaoogh we find led. hoU, a bull ; but wc 

id A,S. iftii-u-e^, E. iull-o-tk. It is dkuaI to regard the 

IX 'Cek as indivifibic, but I would rather icgard the suffix 

as double or compound, and due to some such form xs a 

TeuL double affix -wo-ko; or otherwise, the -o- (A.S. ■«-) 

n may have arisen from the ending of a stem in some word of 

|Bbis class*. This -txk no doubt came to be regarded as 

^KidivulUe, and was used lo form diminutives ; hence hill-oek, 

Hm small hill ; kumm-ock, a sm^ll hump or heap ; rudd-otk, the 

Utile red bird, the redbreast ; laver-o<k, little lark, from A. S. 

Iduitrce, liftrtt, a lark. There is an equivalent diminutive 

suffix in Irish, spelt •<\g (also perhaps for -o-jf), whence our 

tkamr-Mk, Irish stantr-<^, dimin. of t<amar, trefoil. Cf. A.S- 

maU-uc, aull-uct W. nai-og, a maiZ-oci, where the W. word 

may be of A. S. origin. The origin of Aadd-ock is doubtful 

The word Aammetk is W. Indian, so that it is of entirely dif- 

lerent fotmation. Originally kamaea, it came to be spelt as now 

by association wtih words ending in -ofk. PaJd-oek, a toad, 

I is a dimin. formation from Icel. padda, a toad. It is some- 
dmes said lo mean ' a large load,' but diis is a mere maUer 
of osage. Padii-oek, a small enclosure, is a cormption of 
parr-Mk. as is curiously prowd by the fact that Paddetk 
Wood, in Kent, not far from Tonbridge. was formerly called 
Parreckt (see Archaeologia Cantlajia, xiU. ia8; HaMed's 
Kent, V. aSti). This is the A. S. pt^rnie, a paddock; from 

II t fiarr-cn, later parr-tn (with loss of j). lo enclose. 

^H In the word tfir-k u-e have the simple »uflix -k. It is the 
HsiiniQ. of tUer, A. S. iUw ; whence A. S. sljri-e, a stirfc. 

~ ■ Not iuBmt*. u cniUj given ; tba ilat. am M/utt occnis In the 
Lili«c SdntUUi^, ted. s-f 
• Ct O. Sax. -^i-u, » hoae. Rem •tH-WO, cognitk with L«l. t'}irKt, 


DrMTm/nvB suprrxss. 


-el, or rather -t-i, where the -I answers to the Aryio 
suffix -LO. See § siS. Thus E. irambft (with cscrexem 
b\ A.S. irtm-d, is rcrmcd (with Amulitiion) from A. 
brSm, broom {Kluge, g.v. Itrwi-bttri) ; giWng hr^m-d < 
'Mmi.l (see Sievera, O. E. Gr. $ 265). Simibriy, E 
ji^o-f/ is a dimin. of A.S. ji^ a house E. hrn-tl, A.S. 
cym-el, is a dimin. of A. S, oim, a ^owi. a grain. E. uv^ 
A. S. na/eta, is a dimin. of E. noDt, A. S. nqfa, the boe of 
a wheel. £. padd-U, ,1 little spade, formerly tpaddU, b ■ 
dimin. of spadt. E, nmu-tl, 3. rivulet, A. S. ryn-el, is > 
diminutive of r)ttt, a course < .. || ronn-en, pp. of ruman, 10 
nai. OibtT diminutive forms are ax-Jf, imui-if, m^f-k, 
next-h, pimp-U. spang-lt, spark-U. In the word eeck'V^, 
a little cock, the suffix b the Ar^-an -ko-u>. So also ia 
pik-tr-el, a young pike ; moag-r-tl, a puppy of mixed breed, 
from A.S. majsg {gt-maHg), a mixture*. 

-en, or rather -o-a (Teui. -ya-ha ?). In the word maid-*; 
diminutive of maid, the cognate O. T{. 0. maga/Stt or wugfd-(t, 
dimin. of O.II.G. magad, a maid, shews that the soSi 
answera to a TcuC, -In, which Scbldcher (Coropend. $ 313) 
shews to lie a com])Ound suffix. A similar sufRx is used to 
form Gothic fcminincs ending in -tin-i (stem -fi-ni). It it 
also diminutival in E. ehici-tn, on which see the note in 
the Sujiplcmenl to my Dictionary, and ed. In E, kiit'O, 
M. K. iit-oim. the suflix was originally French, and therefon 
this word does not extiiblt the A.Sw -tn, but tlie Angjo- 
French -cun (Lai. ace. -onm) ; the change from -cttn to -«t 
being, [iowc\'cr, due to asaodaiion with diminutives in -m. 

-ing, i.c. -i-n-g, is due to a Teutonic compour>d snffii; 
see § 141. It was chiefly used in A.S. to form patrooy- 
mic», as in a}>tl-ing, son of a noble, from a^iU, noble. 

* Kttt-it, smtt-h, are alto (UmlnudvcR, liut uc both bora«weI fioa 
L«t!n, vii. from lol-iUiu, illmla. of taiiitm, a txml, and ttuhtll*^ i 
oi UKtnt, a tny. 




II does not seem to be now nwtl as a mere <!iminultve, 
except when -/- precedes. Sec below. 

-1-ing. is compounded of t^ie suffixes -/ (•</) and 'ing, aod 
was caily used to foTni diminutitvs. Fxamplcs are : cod^ 
ling, Jiui-Ziiig, goj-h'ag, si,ir-liftg, as diminutives ofetd, diuk, 
gw>u, and of prov. E. ifart, A. S. tSar, a surlJng. Many of 
these (ana* aci]uiied a dcprcciaiory scnw, as : /opting, lord' 
lii^, tlrip^ng, wit-litig, uvrld-iing. Some aic related to 
ihc primary words iodirectl)-, as : nesl-Ung, a small bird in 
a iKst; tap-liag, a young irce full of Mp; iln'ffling, a lad 
as thin as a strip ; jvar-ling, a creature a year old. Some 
aie from adjecti\-e^ as: dar-ling {=diar-iiHg), fat-ling, firtl- 
l"V<J^''^g-^'"S- Some from «tbs, an; change-ting, /ound' 
ling, tsirt-ling. nun-ting, ahave-tittg, slarve-ling, siuk-ling, 
rtoM-ting. Ster-ling is a Latinised* form o^ £aUer-li»g; see 
my Dictionary. Scanl-ting does not properly belong bcre, 

t being of !■". origin (F. tjehantitton). 
I -ktn, 1. e. -k-in or •j(-i-if, seems to be a treble suffix. The 
Cognate O. H. G. -Iiln or -clUti, as. in ulifMn, u^iSe-tifit, 
dimin. of wii. a woman, shews that the i was once long; 
moreover, -In appears to be a double suffix, as said above, 
in discuiwtng -«a. The suflix -iin it not found in A. S., 
nor is it, in general, old; in many words it ii due to 
live borrowing of Middle Du, words ending in -im. Per- 
lia{i& it first a|>pears in names, as Mat-ttin, i.e. little 
Maid or Maud, i. c. Matitda ; whence E. gri-malktn, a cat, 
with tbc word gray (or jtcrhaps I", gris, with the same 
ense) prefixed. Tbc words tamb-iin, pip-kin (dimin. of 
Ihimb'lim (a ihumb-scicw) arc probably of native 
va. Gris-iin originally meant, not the spine of a 
but a little pig ; the base i« Norse, from IceL gritt, 
a pig, E. sis-tin, a song-bird, is from Dan. sit-gm {~*tit- 
v), a little chirf)CT: cf. Swed. dial, sii-a. to make a noise 
Ice a iroodgr»u6c. Id nap-kin, the E. suffix is added to 
F. nafpe, O. F. nape, z cioili, from Lat. nta^, a cloth. 



-i — -71 IT -o/ or -*n liiff •■ 

r-- ^ Dins^-nstL. dncLO 
3uisxi far ""jrac-ca a 

:xr-—;= J.^ -i, — i,-;;:^ :. I '^ n . ' Tiftnscis ^nt 

..js:— sr 

r I. =xi •^i" 3dDl- 
1 :k. r<a£ii<cb- 

'• — ■:. _ ar-.. i, — _: rm-^" . iTijr-^si. ■ ■ "— ■' fmairht , 
.r.:L 1*:. iK:mi^at. t:- iT-'-^ "^ — -* iiTn. jc-b*. !:■«. T« 


ScBSTAxnvAL SrFFixES {eonlittueif). 

§ 204. (3). Excluding ihc sufExes already explained in 
last Owipicr, ilie [irincfpsl subsianiival suflixc* are due 

< c«ruin original An-iin suffixei which may he Drrangcil in 
following order, s\t. -o, -a, -i, -u, -10, -ia, -wo, -wS. -mo, 

-irOX, -RO, -to. -so, -KI, -NU. -TO, ^I, -TV, -TEB (or -TOB), 

^Ko, -o«T, -ES (or -fls), -Ko; or else, lo combinations of 
Tbe Arjnn bnguagert delight In the use of com- 
ad suOises, somctirncs doiil)Ic, somdimcs treble, and 
DDally even still more coiDplcx. 1 shall consider these 
suffixes in ibc above order, and discuss compound 
fixes (such as TcuL -ma-n) under the firsi element (such 
-Ko). These Aryan suDixcM often appear in a sliglnty 
different fbnn in Teutonic ; thus -to becomes -tho or -tua 
{by Grimm's Law), or even -do or -da (by Vcmcr's Law). 

% 20s. Aryan sunx -O; fern. -A. Tbb suHix invariably 

lUiiappear^ in modern English, and nee<l not be dt.tctused ai 

cngih, (hough a large number of sbs. originally belonged to 

bis class. It occurs as -a (fcm. -i) in Gothic, in ihc sicms of 

Dth. sbs. of ilie A-declensi»n, as il is called; see my Gospel 

' Su Mark in Gothic, p. xxxvii. It answers lo the Glc. -<k in 

-I-, a yoke, and to the Lat. •*- (formerly •»-) in iug-u-m. 

Thus E. //A. GoUi. fisk-t, has for its stem fiska, appearing 

tbe dat. {J. fitka-m. E. hal/, Goth, halla, has tbe stem 

HALBd, dat. pi. iuilbo-m, where -fi is a long vov,-el, and an- 

VOL. t. Q 



swers to Aiyan -£. E. ihip. Goth, tiip, hu ibe Una 
SKiFA ; dai. j>l. ihpa-m. Of ibese wordi, both in A. S. nd 
Gothic, fith is masculine, half \% retninine. anil tA^^ a 
neuter. Modem EngKsh has given up all idea oT disBD- 
guishing Renders in ibh wajrL The Tollowii^ l« « brief 
list of some of (he suttsuintivci of ihts claA. Cf- Sic*ca 
O. E.Gr. §(a39. »5i. 

(<t). Masculine; E, day, A.S. (faif, Goth, dagu 
dMgh, A. S. (fttf, Goth. <fe^». F../M, A. S./jc. G«h. 
E. hmnd. A. S. hmd. Golh. A«<w/r. E. /m/, A. S. hMf. 
Maiit. E, ealh, A. S. 4*, Goth. ailh. E. /Aw, A. S. 
Goih. tkahs. E. j/i\^, A. S. sJdfr, Gotlt. //<^x. E. ttvy, K. 
weg, Golh. rw^/- E. ml/, A. S. k«//; Goih. wtd/i. 

(b). Nctiier: E. dttr, A.S. AW-, Goth. rf/V«. E. grtOi 
A.S. ^ra-/. Golh. gras. F„, A.S., W/. a wood. E., AS- 
Goth. land. E. ship, A. S. nr/, Goth. ih'p. E. wn, 
A. S. »*■, Goth. Mt'r. Z.jftar. A. S. fi&r. Goih,>r. 
yoif, A.S.g/or, Goih.yW*. 

(f). Feminine : E. tare, A. S. earn, Golh. Arra. E. ioK 
A.S. Am^. Goth. Ai/^a <Hde). E. Arr</. A.S. Afw^, Golh. 
hairda. E. ririy. A.S. hrting. Golh. hn^ga {= krwfiy 
E. u"?m^. A. S. vaatb, Golh. wamha. 

\ 206. Tontonio-Ay; fcm. •&«{=Xn)l This suffix Is eooh 
mon in many cases of A. S. weak nouns, but does noi ippesr 
in modern English. Thus E. longue, A. S. Hing-t, f., nukM 
ihc gen. /»ff^-a«; the Gothic A^fff-ii {ssltmgS) makes the 
gen. tugg-on {=luag-iii); the Teut. fofm b«inft tomi-m 
cf- S 305. Other nouns which had this kuQix are j<w( 
animal), tov (for shooting) ; houm (brook), eovt, dr»\ 
thani, smoke, sf ark, slake, «-//(wi»c iiutn),all masculine, 
the fern. sbs. erow. ear, eyr, fiy. fuarl, wttk ; and the Ici^ 
ashts, A. S. atc-an, Goth, asg-ifi. 

' Modem E. t/taAts b (mtialTl A^VnA ■■«. It ikpcndi «iii diiiiaakMj 
of Id. The A.S. jjcnder l> ^i«miwafiVi(/, Le. h dependioa tb«fc«w^ 
the n«ne liicl', which l« qiiitc a <UHenBt thing. 


$ 307. AryaD sufflz -I. This sullix disappears in 

lOtkrn Fnglish. like the preceding. It is commoiUy known 

mly by its causing • muution' of Uic root-vowel of the ulcm. 

occurs in ih« stemx of Cotb. nbs, of the Ndeclcnsion ; as 

tirais, nn arm, (Ul. pi. armi-vi. There aic no neuier 

of this fofm. It 0CCUT5 also in SkL ah-i, a snake, Gk. 

-ft, Lat. mgu-i-i, Ac 

Examples are: (a) Masculine: E. htj> (of the thigh), 
A. S. fyfif, Goth. Aufit, stem hitpi. E. mat, A. S. m/fc, 
Goth, ma/t ; T«ui. mati. E. i/rin^, A. 5. jy^-^iq^ (= *t/rangi), 
Uied to ttraitg, strong. {6) Feminine : E. ftum, A. S. 
t, Goth. 4uv)M ; Tcut. Ewfoji. E. i«/rrf, t.c. fate; A.S. 
•J < .. B tvord-m, pp. of tonrpait, to ti3pj)cn. 
Fw further exampIcK see Sievers, O. E. Or. § 363. 
308. Aiymn sul&x -U. This suffix likewise dis- 
in mod. E. Il occurs in the stems of Goib. shs. of 
the ir-dcclen«ion ; as in kanJu-s, a hand. It occuni in Skt. 
d{-u, quickly, Gk. ut-t-r, swift, Lat. ae-u-t, a needle, &c. 

Examples arc {a) Masculine : £. wand, of Scand. origin; 

loet. i>di«/-r = Goth, wand-us; where o is the u-mulation 

of a. ifi) Feminine ; E. chin, A. S. dtin, Goth, iirmus, Gk. 

yirvt. £. hand, A.S. hand, Goth, handtu, (i*) Neuier: E. 

/a, A. S,/cfti. Goih./ff(iSi(. 

S S09. Aryan aulILx -10 (written -JO by some German 
writers). This suflix appears as -ja' in Goth, haird-fa-m, dat. 
pi. of hai'rd-iis, masc., a iJicphcrd ; and in kua-ja, dai. sing, 
of iuti-i, a., kin. It is repienented accordingly, by Goth. 
KULK. sbs. ending in tii, and Goth. ncui. »b«. in -i; see my 
Gospd oC St. Mark in Gothic, p. xxxvii. It is commoR in 
as -ii»-, as in cd-h-, stem of odium, baixed. Id A. S. 
suffix became simply 't, as in Gotb. and-tis, A. S. 
/, M. K. (wfv, in Chaucer, mod. E. tad, where ^ic >uffix 
di3a|^>cai«. Similar words axe: £. herd, in the sense of 


' TIhi OoUi>/ it prouosacnl u E. /. 


riwpherd, A.S. kird-*, til. Goth. kaird-*a. m. tfat 
Teat. REBO-TA (Tide, tit. So), E. in-A. A. S. U>« 

JS?i-o>,aphjr«cian,TctiL««-Tju IsotberwordBte-w-i 

(A. S. •<) has sometimes caoied a doriiii^ oT tbe 1 

tbe A. S. fom. and hu aAerwanb bDes ain^, tbomftftl 

often lelt lu mark upon tlie word \if prodncni^ m < 

of the preceding vowd. Thus E ^ A. & ^ (ja fe^ 

^m), U >bo foond in tlie fuller A. S. fatra J fm- € (sjo ti 

E. hiH, A. S. ^'// (=hvi^ta), CDgmw wiifa offo. t 

ri^, A.S. Aovj* (=Art8r= ftavo-TAV E. m n fgi. AS 

fBisg> <= tnqpr = vao-ta). See Sieven, O. En^. Ct.\ tfi- 

In A. S, the DCntcT Tcut. nffix •* drops off, bm ■> 
before it hu canscd f -nmuiioQ. Good examples uc wn ■ 
em; a. S. JnaV, Golb. tadi, E. ^, A. S. ^p^ CiA 
iwu'. E. iw/, A. S. iMV, Gotli. ibiA'. E. tMd; s. (a pfe^ ^^ 
A-i^), A. S. wfdj, Goth. RMdi'. Other examples, inoedjr bcos. 
occv in A. S.. Tiz.,h.S.. Jtun (cC O. H. G. imi, G 
Tiniv, a floor). E errand, A. S. eh-end-e, IccL lyrtai^- 
E. iw, A. S. Am-, Goih. AmvC. E r»*, A. S. nM (O.RG. 
n>i^). E. nvi. A. S. wtU. where the A. S. doable I ttiak 
IS usual, for double /, so that wtM = *tDa/-ja < . . i A Sj 
m^(ror *tc>9<%pL L of iN^-Oi*. to weave. E vH, A.S. i 
Goth. itv'/-i', from A. S. and Goth, mit-^m, to know. 
vvTk, S., A. S. ttWTf. Goth. ga-7tiaurt-i. It shodd 
particukrly noticed that a// the dkkI. E words qtuUd 
this section (cxcci>l Itah and Awr) are pronounced «^ > 
short Tovcl, this effect bcii^ due to the node of ther 

Aryan -I.V This is Ibc correeponding yhnMnsf rafit. 
appealing in Gothic as ^ in tbe dat. pL wrai-J«-m of tk 
■bu ttfrai-ja, tvogcance. The Goih. sbs. cominoolr eJ 
in ^ in tbe nominative bat ihe A.S. dntps the sdlb 
altogether, though its original presence is marked, as bdn, 

< la lUi wotd tbe wffix b otmoHly AmMt: tliw A.S. ArWc* 
TcM. An.AKt>-TA. Cf. CoHw air'^a, ■ la MMg er. 




\ff the doobling of ihc final consonaDt (unless there arc iwo 
conionanU aliea<)}') &nd by I'-muiaiioD of the prccediog 
vowel. As before, ihe vowel in mod. F.. is UKuatly tkorl. 
Examples: E. bri^t, A.S. hrycg, f. (Icel. iiygS-J")- E* 
cr&, A. S. crtU, f. (0. Sax. kribb-ia). E. 4dge, A. S. Kg, f. 
(Dn. ^-*). E. At//, A. S. A^/, f., gcD. Arf-c, Goih. Aj/ya, 
gen. Att/yt't. E. ^>r, A. S. Atim, fonned with {•muiaiion froin 
A.S. latsc. ian-a, a cock. E. fc<^e (lii. Kword-grass), A. S. 
»«y, a sword {=*«f;/4i, i.e. euu-tr), fiom Tcui. base s.\o= 
Aj]-an root skk (Lai. ut-art, to cut). E. f Ar//, A. S. sctU, 
Goth, ihai-ja, a lile, alUcd to £. sctUe, A. S. jc<i/-<, a husk, pod. 
E. silt (of a door), A. S. {|-;/, a base, supporL £. sin, A. S. 
tym (for '/fKO. O. Sax. sund-ia, G. 5fi«ife, 0. H. G. 
sml-a •. Cf. Sievers, O. E. Gr. § 158. 

\ 310. Teutonic -van, -in. These sufExes appear m iomt 
sbs. of ibe weak declension *. Kzamples axe : (ti) mascu- 
line: E. *M, t., A.S. M-a, gen. tbb-an (= 'a/jan)'. E, 
twviE, A.S. inetc-^i, gen. intu-an i^='hiak-jan). E. ivc/f 
(^riDg of watci), A. S. tttll-a, gen. tvell-nn {= *wal-jaH), fiom 
ilieba5ewAL(A.S.uva//-(M), to boil, boil up,, s-A.S. 
vHii^i gen. mll-aa, Goih. nuVyii (stem wil-Jan). E. wrtlch, 
A. S. wrtt<-a, gen. wrett-an (= 'wrak-jan), from ihc base 
WRAJt (A. S. twiw, pu I. of wrtc-an, to drive away, hence to 

(j) Femtainc: £- //</, s., old age (obsolete), A.S. jr/tZ-u, 
uld-u. derived by i-muution from eald, old, answers 10 O. Sas. 
tU-t, O. H. G. tli-i, old age, and therefore bad originally the 
stem *tald-i». So also E. kial, A. S. hdl-u, from hil, hot; 
Adt-u bad originally a stem 'h/ii-in. The Gothic weak fern. 
«bs. of this class exhibit tlie suffix -tin, as in manag-tin, dai. 

* Alio MM/M : KM Scliadr. 

' The ' ircak ilcclcatioii ' is the nunc |j:lveii 10 (h*i of Rtmt eodi&g in 
s ; tec SicTVri, O. K. bi. \ 176, aoil mj UuthSu Ur. ) >i. 'Ilic ttrm '■» 
no* a bippf one 

* Ik A.i> MtUBl*(oi^</. Cf. Coth. ofC E. q/*. l-e- from. Hence 
<W, from *iVV^ *(3** ' ''■* '*«*^°K' ""''* *<^* (^^'^'^O 



of managti, multitude; and this -tin answcra to a TeuL- 
Sieverx wdl r(Mnarks(§ 379): — 'As respects tbetr origin [L^ 
etymological]}-], the abstracts in -«. •«, such as brU*, ' 
breadth, hal-u. salvation, mtng-u, nteiig-o, muliitude, itrtng-*. 
streiigil), iiid-u, age, belong to the weak declension, sinct 
ihcy correspond to Goih. weak noun« in -n". Thejr hioe, 
however, taken the nom. sing, ending from ibc d-declctisoD. 
and thus rid themselves entirely of the old infiectional fofms.' 
Here likewi*e belongs E. ///, »., A. S. jyN-«. fern. < . . >iff, 
adj. full ; orig, stem '/uJl-ln ; cC Goth. ut-fuJl'iin-s, folixss. 

Tout. -t-NA. Corresponding to this is the A. S. suffix -m, 
as already noticed in § 203. The vi'Ords maiden, ekukta, 
h:tvc been already cited as diminutives. Otlicr examples arc : 
(pcriinps) E. mai-n, s., strength, A. S. magfii, ncut., coguu 
with Iccl. mrg-in, strength, O, Sax. eug-in, O. H, G. mek-iM. 
E. swiHf, A. S. !Ui-Sn, neut., cognate with Ice), tv-ln, GotL 
no-ti'it (ntein szv^ita). In the latter case, the suffix Wt» 
orig. adjectival, as seen in LaL at-tma (Varro), relating lo 
sovs, from tu-, crude fotm of tus, a sow ; cf. £. jear, A. S. 
tt^, s£. H. irtut-ai, A. S. iracc-an. Is really a phiral fbn>, 
being the pi. of A. S, briue^, of ihc weak declension. Otbct 
words in -<n will be discnsscd hereafter. 

§ 211. Aryan sufttx -WO {written -VO by Gcnnau 
editors, who write v for w, needlessly). It occurs in Sb. 
af'Va, a horse, Gk. t<nro-r (= ^vcfo-i), Lai. ef-uu-s ; Ski. t-m, 
a course, Lat. a-uu-m, a life-time, Goth, ai-wa-m. dat. pL flf 
d/ie/, an age. It is not oluer\'al)!c in A. S. in iho hob. 
sing., but a]>pears in oilier cases {except in the nom. pL antf 
ace pi. of neuters) ; see Sievers, O. £. Gr. § 349. Esantpls 
of neuter sbs. are : E. iaU, s., harm, cvil^ A. S. ifot-u, gcs. 
i<a/-Wf-s, cf. Colli. iaJ-wa-avtfi, s. f., vrkkcdiKss. E. ad, 
also fiJ, A. S- tud-if, aimd-u, twid'U, gen. emil-iof^. Tent. 
KwiD-WA (sec Supp. to tny Etym. Kct., and cd.), E. mtal. 
ground corn, A. S. Ktol-u, gen, mrtt-wtt ot mw/tr-uir/ (where 
ihe insencd •«• is euphonic), TeuL iul-wa. E. tar, Ki 



ItOr-U, gCI). iKT-Wt-t, St«Dl TIK'WA = TcUt. TKR-ITA, foi 

TRE-wA ; the word b of adjectival origin, and denoted 
ofigiiully 'bdongtng lo a /r^'; cf. /rfir b«low. Other 
neuters of thie cbw* arc: V..gtt*, A. S. glig,gl/o, gen. gH-we-f, 
Tcui. olI-wa. lu iwe, A. S. i-wA, fmW, gen. e»/o-uv-t, cog- 

iiiaie Willi Goth, int-u, gen. ini-wi-t, Teut. knr-wa, allied 
||o Lat. f «-«, Gk. yor-B, Ski /dn-u. E. //■«, A. S. /rA, gcn. 
JrA-Wf-t, Goih. //■(•«. gen. Iri-toi-s, Tcui. trk-wa, cog- 
nate with Russ. A-^-w, a tree, W. Jer-u, an oak, Gk, Bpi-c 
(kn oaV. Tti« sulEx appears as -w in mod. £. sfra-w, 
A. S. jfrea-jv, as seen in s/rtaw-ifrigt, a strawberry. Wright's 
Voaib. ed. WlUcker, col. 198, Lit; cognate with G, A'froA, 
O. H.G. itr^, s/rau, gen. tiraw-ti; the corresponding Goth. 
I Hem would be 'stra-wa (Klugc, s. v. Slroh). E. /re, Lc. 
I abeiter, a Scand, foini, Trom Icel. hU, iee. is cognate with A. S. 
hl/o, Alertff, gen. ile«-«v-s, a sbcller, preserved in prov. E. 
InVt warm, invii, tlielter. 

Masculine : E. ob-tc, A. S. Aa-To, gen. Jra-we-j, cognate 
will) G. 77<nr, Teut. da-wa (Fick, iti. 146). E. io-w, a 
hill, mound, grave, A. S. hid-w, hi<i-u/, dai. hl4'-iM, kid-wt, 
cognate with Goth, hlai-w, a grave, from the Tcui. bate hli 
1= Atjran root krei (klki) ; cf. Lat. cU'-mu-s, a hill. E. tno-w, 
A. S. snd-w, Goih. mai-w-t (ticin itiai-wa), 

{ 312. AiTsn -WA, fem. form of the preceding. Examples 
occur in U>c following fero. sbe, : E. <!a-u>, M. E. r/u-w, A. S. 
eJd-zeu, pi. eld-ity, cognate will) G. Klaut, O. H. G. ei/a-uia 
(see Schadc). Fick gives the Teut. form as kla-wa, iii. 53. 
Perhaps it is better to suppose the Tcui. form to be 
KLA-w.t, resulting from klaij-X, where klau is a 'graded' 
form of the Teut base klki; = Lat. g/u- in glu-tre, to draw 
together ; see Schade, s, v, ehluwa. Also : E. gtar. A, S. 
grar-we, fem. pt. e<iuipmenis, formed from the adj. gear-u, 
(nooi. pi. gtar-we), ready, yarr. Teut. gak-wa, adj., ready, 
(Fick, iii. 102). E. mtaJ^ also mnJ-tra.; .\. S. ntdd, (lac. 
mddut, Niem h,vi><wS, so that mtaJ is from the nom. case, 



and nuad-t/o} from tbc dative or ibc ttem; moreover, the 
-»- is for -TH- = Atjan -T- ; in fact, die E, -A acnullj 
occurs tD ibc forms a/kr-maik, tatla-'maJh, iuid ibe tt)Ol is 
tbc AT}-an had, lo mow. Similarlf , ibe double fonns to £. 
thade aod £. shad-ow arc explicable by help of tbc A. S. lim 
sb. teead-u, of which the acc. pi. is Ktad-VM (Grein 
tm-*w, A. S. sin-ti, imh-i, ncm. pL itm-tot, Grcin, iL 
E. jfi^-U', a place, A. S. lif-u', gen. tif-tix ; fiom ibe 
root STA, to stand, remun. The word mallow, A. S. mai-wi, 
is a mere borrowing from ibc Lat. iHoJ-ua. 

$ 213. Teutonic -wax. There U an instance of tUs ii 
G. rtva/!-ow (bird), A. S. tweaJ-wt, s. fcm., gen. nnuZ-iMa, 
Teat. ewAL-WAM. Other examples aic (probably) : £. arr-m, 
A. S. OT't-ice (gen. arrtt/an), a late form, pointinjc K) 
carhcT 'ar-uv, gen. 'ijr-auN, answering to a Goth. fcnt. 
stem *arh-win, as ^ewn by the dosely allied Goib. ark' 
wa-BKa, an arrow; TeuL stem akh-wXh, also found in 
the vborter fonn aKii-wa, whence Icel. Hr (gen. lit'ta'T), an 
arrow. The Tcut, ark-wa = Aryan abq-wa, whence Lu. 
arpt-it-s, more commonly orfw-j, a bow, weapon of defence^ 
from the rool ahq, 10 defend (Lai. arcfrt); see Pick, iii i*. 
£. iarrou/ (in uhtfl-iarroso), M. E. iarowt, barwe, aosvcring 
to A. S. imr-wf. gen. Ivar-wait, as seen in tbe caop. 
mtox-btarwe, a barrow for dung. E. t^arr-ao, A. Sl iftax- 
we, gen. spear-watt. E. ^arr-mo (milfoil). A, S. gtar-iti, 
gea. gtar'UMH. The word «vitf-M7, A, S. tcid-a>e, toud- 
-sr-UY, is cognate wiifa Goth, wid-vwa, gen. wid-u-vut, 
which seems 10 hate an additional prefix before tbe final 
-Wax, answering perhaps to the -a- in Skt. vidh-a-vA. 1 
widow. The K-ptU-mi) is not Teutonic; « occur* aa M.E. 
fiii-toe, A. S. ysy/-*. But there must have been a longer A. S. 
form •/yZ-ici-, cognate withO.H.G.^«^'./AMAiw(Schadc}i 
all the forms arc merely borrowed froni LaL puIuiitMt, a 
bolster, cushion. Such words as iiU-<no,/tirf<w, marr-tm, 
wiil-ow, do not belong here. 


t )Ml 



{ 314. AiraQ -MO. This is well marked in Mod. £., in 
which it appeats as final -m, or as -om (in iot-om, boil-ent, 
/ti/h-<m) '. All ihc exUnt woixb with this prefix arc {I think) 
of ihc maK:ulinc gender, except /cam, which is neuter. It 
should also be pariicutarly noted chat, with ihe exception of 
the words' in -om, all tlictie wordi are now moHosyllabt'e, and 
all cxmiain a vowel that is hug, cither essentially or by 
positioa; for, except when the vowel la esscniially long, 
words of litis class end in a douHt consonant. The A. S. 
suffix is -m, anxwcring to Goth, -ma, Lai. -mti-t, Gk. -fio-t 
(■•m\ as in Lac. <ul-mus, a sialk, Gk. caXn-^iac, a reed (ntXd-pif, 
a stalk), which is cognate with E. AiJ-m, iiaul-m, a stalk, and 
Russ. talo-ma, straw. 
Examples : £. hea-m (of timber). A. S. b/a-nt, Du. boi>-my 
I a tree (E. hom, bonowcd fiom Dutch), G. S-iu-m, perhaps 
allied lo Gk. tpo-iia, a growth. [But the Goth, form is 
iqg-mi (Hem iag-ma), which points to an Aryan root ntiAcn, 
as in Skt. hA-n, targe ; see £ougi in my Etjm. Diet] 
k£. iM-mn, A.S. i^s-m, G. But-m. £. hllem, A. S. bol-m, 
' G. Beitn, ptob. allied to Gk. jrvd-jii;*, nn<l to Vcdic SkL 
(ntdh-na, depth. £. dtx^^m, A.S. di-m. Goth, do-ms, stem 
oo-ka, allied to Gk. A'-fiK, that which is set or established, 
from lite root mix, to put, place, whence £. de. £. drea-m, 
A. S. dr/a-m, meaning ( i ) noise, rejoicing, (i) joy, (3) vision, 
Teut. DR-itt-MA (Pick, iii. igj), proh. allied to Gk. Opiet. 
noise, tumulL £. falh-^m, A. S. /nd-m, the space reached 
by ouutreiched arms, from ibe root pat, to extend. £. 
//■«», A.S. V'**> ''"')' found in the dimin. form fi!m-m, 
racmbiBiic, allied lo Kyi-//, skin", %,/oa-m, A.S. /dm, 
aeut., p(ob. allied to Lat. tfv-ma, SkL phe-na, foam. £. 

• f 

■ The » to tliii Gnxl -em wu formerly not written ; cf. A.8. Uim, 
Itfm./ttm. And, in ficl, the fiiml -n ii hcie localic. 

twi. filih,' The mcBsing of the curl it uuoeruin. la liic ume, col. 446, 
ihe geo. pl.yE/MflM oocnn. 



glta'tn, K.%.gltt'm, s[em^/<:j-Mit=CLAi-HA, TTom a base cu. 
lo shine, as seen in gii'«l, gti-mnur, gli-Uer, gli-sttr. E. 
gloe-m, A. S. gl6-m. a faint light, from gU-mm, to glo*. 
E. hatd-m, bal-m, A.S. hfai-m, Teui. hal-Ma (Kick. iii. 70), 
allied to I-at. mi-mu't, Gk. nXit-pii (sk above). E. M-m, 
a bclmci, A. S, /te/-m, that which covers or protects, a betmei, 
Goih. hi!-m-s (sicm hil-ma). Tcut. kel-ka (t'ick, iii. 6*i), 
from the root of A.S. ktl-an, to cover. £. M-m, an iild 
in * river, A. S. Jiot-m, orig. ' a cnound,' i>Uic<l to Ijil. ml-mem, 
a mountain-top, and to *o/-/«, a hill. E. foa-m. A. S. id-m, 
Tcui. j„*i-MA, closely allied to E. li'-mt, A.S. //■■», TeW. 
ti-MA (Pick, iii. 368). In fad, linu and toaii only iMCa in 
their vowel-gradation (cf. A. S. dr\f-an. 10 driw, pt. l rf/-^'^; 
and aic allied to Lat. li-neri, to linear, daub. £. ^unl-n, A. S. 
etvtal-m (for *cwal-m) < n rttw/ (=*fKni/), pt. L of eioti-am, 
to die. E. tM-jR, A. S. t/a-m, G. .¥a»-iR, Tcut sau-ma, rrosi 
the root sO, to sew (Lai. sa-fre). E, s/i'-nu. A. S. stt-m, allied 
lo Russ. j/i'-xii, saliva, Liihuan. j<t/>f, spittle, O. Irish taUt, 
saliva, and I^t. tal-i-ua. £. tiea-m, A. S. j//it-m, Tcut. STAti* 
Ha. E. Uor-m, A. S, slor-m, Teut. stob-iu (Pick, iii 346). 
E. tirm-m, A. S, ilr4a-m, allied 10 G. Siro-m, Teuu nxAt?- 
HA, from the Tcut. streu, to l!ow= Aryan root strzv, saw;, Id 
flow, whence also Gk. Xrpi-iua; tlic Siryinon, a TJfer-name, 
pti-lta, flovr, flood, Lilhuan. sro-we, a .ttream, O. Irish trii- 
aim, a xucani. E. swar-m, A.S. suvar-m, Tcul. svak-Ma, 
orig. 'a buxzing,' from Aryan root swar, to hum, bou. 
£. tea-m, a row of horses, A. S, J/a-m, a family, a line, 
cognate with G. Zau-m, a bridle, TcuL TAt;-iU, a set, linr. 
row, bridle, pul for 'tauh-ica, derived from TcuL tcb, 
to lead, Goih. Iikh-tin (Lai. duc-eref. To these we may 
add E, roo'in, though the A.S. rtf-m was otig. an adj, 
meaning large, spacious ; cf. Goth, rums, adj., spacioos, alfo 
r«Mr, s., room; Tcut. kC-va (i) spaciotts, (a) spac«; allied 
to Lat. ru-s, open country. The word ^i>e<m also belongs 
• So KlD|[e ; HA* U Ultn (bu to wniin:! il witli iW vcib la torn. 




hefc, but is mere Dutch, fmm Du. iootn, a tnt, a boom, 
coj^ale with E. itan (of timber), gi^'cn abo»"c ; cf, E. Aorrt- 
ham as the name of a tree. Id iroom. harm, the m is not 
a suffix, but radical. 

{ ai5. ArrftD -MI, al!i?d to -MO. The examples arc but 
few. \\V may cite : V~ arm {of the body), A. S. tar-m, stem 
AJt-HO; but cf. Gotb. arm-t, sen. ar-mi-s, stem ak-mi ; allied 
to Lat. ar-mu-s, itbouldcr, Gk. Ap-iU-t, joint, from the root ar, 
to fit. E. ke-nt, A. S. h4-m, Golh. hai-m-s, gen. hai-mi-t ', 
perhaps cognate wiib Gk, *i>-ii'}, a sillage, Lithuan. tl-ma-i, 
a vUbge., A. S. itjvr-m(=*tt'Kr-«i/), Teut. wus-iu; 
aec Worm in my Eljm. Diet. 

f aie. Aryan -MON (-MEN). This suffix (occurring 
in Latin as -mStt; -mtn, -ruin-) is seen in the boirowcd words 
oMe-PKii, am-mtity albu-mea, iitu-nun, o-ntat, rtgi'mtn, 
spfti-mtn. It occurs in A. S. weak sbs., as follows : E. iar-m, 
yeast, A. S. Ator-ma, gen. heoT-man, probably cognate with 
LaL. /tr-mtn-lum, whence E. /rrmtnt. E. bts-om, A. S. 
bfS-ma, gen. bis-man, cognate with O. II. G, bes-a-mo, G. 
Bti-t-u, Du, bii-4-Bt. E. i>loo-m, a Scand. word, iccl. tli-m, 
Goth. Mo-ma, stem Bi,d-itAK, from t)ie verb Hi-wan, to 
blow (as a flower) ; allied to Lat.^o^, a flower. E. ita-me, 
A. S. iia-ma, gen. na-man, Goib. na-ino, stem xa-man, 
cognate witli Lai. vv-men, .Ski. nd-man, a name. £. li-me, 
A.S. a-iiM, gta. /i-man, Tcut. tI-haN (Pick, iii. 114), allied 
to E. rtW/, A.S. a-J, Tern. t1-di. Here also belongs E, 
iUtt-om, A.S. Mii'ina, gen. ti6sl-man; but ihc sulbx is 
really triple, tlie stem being bl6-s-t-«can, from bl6-w<m, 
to blow, flourish ; cf. hia-t-t, from bid-wan, 10 blow (as wind) ; 
and s«c M>e>-« abo%«. Such a conjunction of suffixes is 
conunon Id the Aryan languuges. 

§ 817. AryuL -RO. Some hai-c supposed thai the primi- 
tive Aiyan language contaiiie<l no /, and that / was merely 
developed out of r ; but this view i.t hardly tenable. I shall 
' But the Golh. pi. U alio kaim-es ^nen kai-m^ 



Tfiiii ■ 

here consider the suflixcs -ro njid -lo scparalely, and iihal 
lake -Ro first. It may, however, be remarked here thai the 
letters r and / arc frequeiii]/ interchanged in ^-ahous Arjin 

Aryan -so; Goth. -ra. It mmc be obsen'cd thai ^ 
letter r easily allows a vowel 10 slip in before Li, the vowd 
tliu3 introduced being unoriginal. Thus the Gk. «Jr-pM 
is cenainly cognate with the Lat. tap-tr, a goat. In tad, 
fap-er is merely the peculiar fonn of the nominatjire; ibe 
stem is tapro-, as seen in the old ace. sing, eapro-m, Agllfi, 
the word whicli we now spell atrt is the A. S. ac'ir. 
In all such words the true suffix is -ra, and we must not 
look upon ll)e v- in the A.S. nominative lat-r, a fieU 
(Goth, ak-r-s, stem ax-ka), or the -€- in Lat. og-t-r (stem 
AG<Ko), a« being an original vowel. It will be found, fw 
instance, that the ^tr in Itv-t-r, a pari of the body, is of 
totally dilTerent origin from iliat of tlie -er in ttv-rr, one who 
lives. The former word belongs here ; the latter does not. 
<Scc 5 339.) 

Examples, [a) Masculine. £. ae-rt, A.S. <K'tr, Gotb. 
ak'r-s, stem ak-ra, cognate with \aX. ag-er, Skt. aj-ra; fron 
■/ao, to drive (cattle) '. So also beav^tr, A. S. it/-er, TetiL 
HKD-KA (Fick, iii. 3ii). £. fi>tg-*r, A.S. fing-tr, Goth. 
Peg'!-', Teut. riNC-RA. E. fioor, A. S. /tf.r, Teut. flA-ka 
(Fick, iii. iSo). K. iamm-^r, A. S. bam-or. C otf-^, A. S. 
ot-tr, Teut. ut-ra (I-'ick, iii. 33), allied to Gk, CS-jm, whence 
E. fyd-ra. E. j/«-r (bull), A. S. sl/o-r, Goth, ttiu-r-t, TeuL 
STEU-RA (F. iii. 343). £■ lumm-ff, A. S. ttm-cr (id. 316). 
E. Au-r, A. S. Ua-r, also /^H>r (Grein), Goth. A^r, il, 
Teut. TAA-RA, allied to Gk. tdK-pv. E. thmt'd-rr, A. S. ptm-^, 
Teut. TitoN-KA (F. iii. 130), allied to LaL im-t-tru. To 
these may be added ang-er, of Scand. origin; from IccL 
»lf-r, 6iem AMG-RA (F. iii. is), (i) Feminine. Y^fiaik-^, 
A. S. /tS-tr, from v^pkt, to fly. E. In^tr, 


rom VPJiT, to fly. 
Tb« lyinbol (^ d|[ulic« ' Aijaa net.* 


I lift.] 



Teot LiB-RA {F. iii. 171). E. AW-*r, A.S. lynd-*r, Tein. 
TOKD-RA, from (he Teut. base tand, to kindle (id, 117). 
(<■) Neuier. E. touz-tr, A.S. Mr. E. /oi'.r, A.S. £«--»-, 
Go<h. lig'r-t, a couch, stem lio-ka ; cf. A. S. iicg-an, to lie. 
E. Uaa-rr, A. S. kS-tr, Teut. i,kth-ra {F. iii. 278). E. 
Hm'h-H-, A.S. /im-6-/r (Golh. Hm-r-jan, to build), Teut 
TKu-KA (ill. ti7). E. u^4i-fr, A.S. &/-«■, Teut. Cd-ra 
(id. 33). E. VMt-tr, A. S. wtrl-tr, Teut. wat-ka {id- 284) ; 
cf- Gk. A-vd-pot, watericsB. E, wond-er, A. S. vmtsdor, Teut. 
woNix-tA (306). Wc may add jto'-r, A. S. tl<ig-er (of nn- 
ccrtain gender) < .. m/rf^ (i/^fji), i>l t. of slSg-an, lo climb. 
We also find the form -rc ; as in E, hung-rr, A. S. kuttg-tr, 
in., Goth, h&k-ru-s (for *Aun4-/v-x). E. and A. S. winltr, 
in., Goih. trtnt-mt. 

$ 218. SuSix -LO. This suiBx is well marked in modeni 
En^Lib, being ffcqucntly represented by final -h or tl, or, 
in a few words, by -i; all of which are ahke pronounced 
with a vocalic /. Some are of obvious vert>al origin, 
as bttl-U, a heavy mallet, A. S. bfl-tl, a beater < ,. b/at-an, 
to beat. So also hmd-lt < ;i bimd-fti, pp. of iind-an, to 
bind; cripp'U, fonueily erec{>-U, from (rttp; gird-U, from 
gird; lad-U, from fade; priik-le, from firiti; sadd-it, titl-lt, 
both allied (ojiV; thm-tl <.s^'t; shull-U <shool; spin-d-U, 
A.S. tfini < tpin; spilt-le < tpil; Uatnl < leatt. 

Other examples arc : ang-lt ', %,, A. S. ang-tl, a fuh-hook, 
whence o>^-lf. v., lo fish ; afp-lt, bram-b-k, brid-b, britl-U, 
gird-lt. hat^-U, hat-tl, hurd-U, itk-U (A. S. ts-gie-et), ttafi-le, 
tktp-k, ili<k-U, a spine (as in slukle-iafk), swtV'^l, litti-U, 
watl'lt, wrink-U. The following are now monoiyllabic : 
\/tw-l, A.S._fiig-fl; hai-it A-S. hag-4l; nai-4, A.S, nag-ti; 
rai-i, a. bar, Low G. rtg-ti, ool found in A. S. ; rat'-J, a otgbt> 
drcn (obsolete), A. S. hrag'l; sai-l, A. S. ieg-4h, mai'l, A.S. 

' 'With paticDI aagUwAU the finny deep" J Gddsmllh, Tr«¥iU«, 
187. Tbe A.S '(/- GotlL-i-Ai, witbi piccetlini; -/a. 




smr^-l; soul, A.S. frfow/; tli-lt, A.S. i/ig--c/ < |/J!^-ai; 
pp. of ittg-an. 10 climb ; Aw-/, A. S. A*y-/ (cf. E. la^ H<« 
bclonR E. //(k)-/, A. S. j/^/ ; E. whi-h. A. S. kui-L 

This Mitfix has been already mentioned as having bet* 
used 10 fotm dimiiiuitveH : see $ 203. Here also bdo^ 
tick-ie, A. St j(V-o/, borrowed from Lai. su-u-la. fTom sn-an, 
to cut ; and A-/r, A. S, li'g-tl, borrowed from Lai. /•jr-* A 
from leg-err, [o cover. Matg'Jf, s., a macliinc for cnioot^- 
ing linen, is borrowed (through ibc Dutch) from Low \je. 
manganuni. Latinised from C>k. lutyyniw, axis of « pullej ; ihe 
familiar suffix -tr being substituted for tlic uiifamiliir -«■. 

§ 219. Teutcmio sofllxes -ra-na, •ax-na. These appnr 
in at least two words, vii. atom, iron. Ac-w-n is a later spcU- 
ing (by confusion with earn, as if it were oak-torn, whtch i» 
impossible) of A. S. at-tr-n, an acorn, corresponding exactlj 
to Goth, ak-ra-n. fniit (stem akra-na-, as in the compoood 
akrana-laus,U^i\'Cit»%, unfruitful); Uaxaak-ra-, sxm o( ai-r-t, 
a field, E. acre. The original .icnst: v-u ' fmic of tlie na- 
enclosed land,' or 'natural fruits of the fore*!,' such u 
acorns, mast, &c. ; aftcnN'ards used in a more restriclcd sense, 
/rm, A. S. fr-fii, older form h-tn. Is aUo found in ibe fliDcr 
form seen jn A. S. U-tr-u. Goih. ot-ar-n. It woold seem 10 
be closely connected with A, S, (/, ice ; perhaps tnm its 
glancing bard black surface. But this still remains an ojko 

S 230. Teutonic siifflx -lak, E. het-J (of ihc fool). A, S. 
i/-/a,; ntll-U,, gen.lic/-*-/tt«; i&r9ti4t^ 
A. S, prail-lt, gen. ^rcsl-lan. Rut fidJ-lt, A. S. fiS-t-U, 
merely borroivcd from Lai. wl-H-la, a viol. Sliiclly speaUnd' 
ihe dimin. nav-tt, already nic^nlioned in § 303, cxhibils llu* 
•affix ; A. S. naff-la, gen. naf-t-lan. 

.Ventonio suffix -ii-sa. This rcmsikable fonn oocws 
in hiri-al, M. !■'. bun'-tl, iiri-t/, iin'-ei-s, A.S. fyrg-el-i. 
a lomb; and ridd-U, an enigma, M.F.. red-<l'S, A.S. rdd- 
fi-te, from rtid-an, 10 read, explain. Sec ftmher in { >3t. 




lln ihe lalicr case, the gen. rrfrf-</-«rif really exhibits the 
longer suOlx -il-sak. So sI^o ihull-ie; sec $ 331 below. 
E. ank-)t appears to have been Ukcn f(Om Norae ; the A. S. 
nnc-l-/ow U dillkuli of explanaiioti, though '/ow .ippeats as 
A foraijttvc suffix in Idr-fi^', a teacher. 

5 Zat Aryan -NO (answering to Golh. -no). An un- 
orifcinal vowel is often inserted Iwfore the suffix ; lienoe it often 
appcvT in Mixl. E. as vw (-t-ti) or •*>» (-.»■»») ; Iml in some 
words as -« only. Examples are: hatt-m, A.S. hfat-en, 
TeuL BAVK-NA (Fict:, ili. 197V Ovtn, A.S. ^-vt, of'ti, 
Goth, auh-n-s (jtlcm aiti-aa), Teut. ni-XA? (id.3a), Rav-m 

I (bird), A.S. krir/-n. Tout, hsab-xa (83), Tok-tn, A.S. 

Hx£»if, Teut. TAtx-NA (114). If/iT^n, A.S. VJ^tn, Goth. 

Vse^iM. i>I., Teut- w£p-»A (188). The following words are 

Wtwyn monosyllabic: bair-», A.S. bear-n, Teut. Bak-Na (jo>). 
Blai-tt, A.S. hl/g-tn. Srtti-H, A.S. irag-en. Cor^K, A.S. 
i-nr-Jt. cognate wilh ImiI- gra-num (for 'gar-num). Hitr-n, 
A. S. Aiw-it. Teut, HOR-NA (67) ; cf. Lai. lor-nit. Zoa-n, A. S. 
if-» (for *l<lJi-n) < n /OA, pt. I. of /lA-<iii, to lend. Jiai'^i, 
A.S. rff-M. S/tf-wr, A.S. s/J-i. Goth. ilai-n~t, stem stai-»a. 
7ii<i'nr, A. S. J'tg-tn. Wai~», A. S. wirg-n. Var-n, A. S. 
gtar-n. In a few words the siiflix hns duappeared alto- 
gether, as in gamt, A. S. gam-m. and in the Scand. word 
rot (of a fish), Iccl. Ariy-ft (G. Reg-rrif. 

PSufBx -NT, The Goth, stem of token is taiic-ki, but 
I'tck g»"es TAIK-KA as the common Teut. fonn. I know of 
no sure exampks except the law-term ioken, A.S. iotib, 
answering to Golh. sok-ns (siem siK-sO; and the interesting 
M.E. tr-n, an eagle, A.S. lar-n. allied to Icel. or-w (pi. 
aT-ni-r\ stem Ak-xi, and to Gk. Sp-«-(, a bird 
H SufBx -NU. Examples are: E. qutr-n (hand-mill), A.S. 

* MtT'tt, A.S. mtrf-ai, dotl). moMtf-iii-s <«era maurg-iita\tml. 
MORfilKA (Vick, til. Hi> wumi to ohttdl ihe »ofrw -ika, Vix-m, 
A.S. *fyxfH < . .yhr, M. H.C. vuki-in-iu, bu > Igiii. tuffix -Ittt. 



evMor-n, Gotli. Jtwair-na-j. £. tiha, A. S, lu-nu, allied (o 
Skt. jtf-w, E. /,4iw-«. A, S. Mr-n, is given by Fick under 
TKOK*!iA, lliough the Goititc lias /haur-nws. 

§ 222. Tout. -SAS ; A. S. -nan. This occurs in some 
weak substantives, Examples: hav-tn, A.S. iir/-f-Ht, gai. 
haf-cnan. E. tun, A. S. lun-ne, fem., gen. SMH-nan. E. 
/irni (vexation), A. S. l/o-na, gen. Uo-itan. 

The word glad-ot, a kind of iris, A. S. glaJ-t'iu, (gen. 
gladfium) is merely borrowed Trom Lau ghdMia. So iho 
kHeh-m, A. S. (yt-e-nt (gen. €ye-<-rum) is borrowed from Lu. 
(oguirni, Willi mutation of o to. 

} 333. Ar^n suiBx -TO. Tbis highly iiDportam suffii. 
usually, the mark of tbe [>adt partkiple passive, as in 
E, itrtt-l, borrowed from the Lai. ttrala (i.e. sirala uia, 
paved way), appears under various forms in the Teutonic 
languages. We may e»|iecially note it in the suffix -A-a 
(»tem -TtrA) of the participles of Gothic weak wrb», as 
m lag-i-th-t. E. lai-d, pp. oHag-j-an, to lay. 

tt is remarkable that Home Tooke, in his celebrated 
derivation of Irut/t (uym trmvilh (as bring ' thvt which a man 
trowcth ') should have overlooked the Gothic pp. fonn in 
-Ih-s. Derivation from ibe third person singular of tbe 
present lentic is cxtiL-mcly clumsy. In the suffixes oT E. 
sb«. )[ occurs in three forms, vii, -th, -i, and •<f. These 
will be considered separately. 

(a) S. gaJUx -li. Some words are of verbal origin, as : — 
hir-lh* from tear; bro-lh from brmi (A. S. briaw^n, pp. 
braw-{it) ; <ar-th from ear, to till (obeokte) ; grete-lk ; 
tieal-A- h1-A; trehlA* fttm Inw. Jtu-lh, allied to tbe 
verb rue, is k Scand. form ; Iccl. hrygg-?. Mm'th is (rofn 
the sb. mooH. Weal-tk is a mere csteniiioD from M. £. itvA-. 

* VtmSij ^iyrd'vi A.S. TW form te«r^ it catraneljr nre, but v« 
find, * IWrfrrium. bpc-beoril' : Wiigbt'* Voc*I>., rf. Wdlckcr, eoL 5»9, 
L 7, »ltete4>>'»f'lMT, and A|m4iiwfl— bo^bittb,clil]<l4iUtb. 

* Some (rK*id Irv-th ■< m mcvr variul of Irvti, from frMr, S^f- 
But Kc trwK/t ia Uk OriMilsm. L 1^50. 




nW. Vi1i«n ihe mffis is added to adjectives, wc find 
bat an r-muution of the preceding vowel lakes place; 
U because it anBWcr§ 10 the stem -i-tha of tlic Gothic 
participles of tlie cauial verlis in -fan ; cf. lag'ilk't, pp. 

lag-J-an, to lay. ciied above. Hence wc can explain the 
Qvel-changes in the following forms, some of which arc, how- 

T, ttol of eaily formation. Examplett : bread-th < irwtdi 

tli <. /otti ; fual'lh < tz'hole; Img-tA < i(«ig; mir-th < 

r-y ; Urmg-th < tirmg. By analogy with these, wc have 

fm-lk from itanw. without mutation ; slo-th < tlirw ; Iru-lh 

. Irtu; >o aiKO md-ih from tvidt, dtar-lh from dtar, dtft-lh 

: ittf>; with an iDcvitablc shortening of the vowel. Ki-lb, 

k. S. t^-93i < .. A. S. tH-if, known, which is for 'atn-f, 

p. of twin-a». lo know, with vowel -shortening. In the word 

v-Ht. the suffix a different origin ; it is discussed below, 

p. 251- 

(£)B. sufflz ■/. Tlicsuflfix ap[icarsa»-/ after/; ^^, IT, r,*; 
Dcrcly hfc^Mf€//.sA/. «/, rt. si arc easier final sounds than^<(, 
\Mlk, nth, rlh. sth. This ts best seen in the wotds drotigh-l, 
icrly M. E. drotthlht, A. S. drug-o-Sr. drought, from drifg- 
n, 10 he dry ; htigh-t, formerly high-Ik ; th(f-t, from lhe/-lh. 
\.S.pSt/-3t< .,J>/e/,i thief. In KOme in.tlances the original 
an -TO remains as •/, aHcr/. gh, n, r, or s. Examples 
uv/-l, Tcni. wer-TA (Fidt, iii. J89), from A. S. wtf-an, 
I weave ; togetlier with such fonnalion.t as dri/-l from ifrrt* 
JA- S. drff-an, pp. dri/-tn) \ skrif-l, from jj^rriv ; r(/'-A a word 
' Scand. origin, loel. rip-l, from j-hv (lecL rif-a, pp. rif-itni\, 
, tigk-/, *., lalies the mutated vowel' of the verb l^hl-an, lo 
c= 'UM-ian ; from the sb. //nA-/, which corresponds to 
>ili. iitiA-atA, oeui. (stem uitk-a-tka), from the TeuL base 
ra = Ar>an root REUQ, to shine. In the E. intgA-/, A.S. 
nJi-/, ihc -/ is ccnainly a sufiGx. hut the word is of obscure 
origin ; the most hkely suppMiiion is thai it is a derivative of 

' Itst ■ Tnr limpIcT lolntion in (o drtiv* It, not from die A.S. feai^, 
Ihi (rcrm the O. MeKian /Mr (t H)- 
VOL. I. K 


r-I, BUKB 

A. S. o^, kin. with an adj. sufBn ■»»/', as seen in A. S. tUa- 
ihl, Ktony ; if so. then em'hl (for *^y)f-t!A/), U allied to ^a, 
just as the Gk. yv-q<nnt, tt^itimatc. is to ytr-ot, kiit. 

Craf-t. A, S. fro/-/, orig. ' power,' is from ibe TeuL base 
KBAP, to force tofrelhcr (Fick. iiL 49I, whence also E. era-m-f. 
Ha/-t, A. S. haf-t, the liandlc by which a thing is scixed ot 
liel<t, from A. S. hah-baK ( = 'ha/-{an\ to haw, l>o!d. Shi^. 
A.S. uta/-t, a smoothed pole or rod, ffom sta/-an, pp. 
stafen, (o shave, B(mgh-I, s., in the special sense of a (old 
(niKO spelt h>ul\, \% o( Scand. ori^^n ; Dan. h^g-t, TceL f«r^< 
3 bend, coil ; from the verb to ioai (Goth, iu^'an). Of tUi 
iig'A'f is a mere variant, answering in form to A. S. iyi^ 
{=*bug-ti). from th- same root 7%»igA-l. A- S /oi-/, allied 
to Icel. ^/-/i. fiit-tr (i. c. '^M-ii. 'Pih-tr), thought, is 
from Penc-an, to think, pp. ^A-/, ge-^h-t. 

Similarly we have Jraugh-I (also dra/-l, a phonedc S] 
from Jraw, A.S. drag-an; wftgi-/, from nvjig'it; Ar/"-/, » 
Ijeavin^, from heave; and several others, for which see sectkn* 
314, 33,';. Bruit-/ it rather an obicure word, but b of ScaniL 
origin, and ^licd to Dan. iryn-dt, heat, passion; the •/ is 
a suftix, and the original verb is seen in Goth. &rinn-m. to 
burn (pp. brunn-ans). 

E. har-t. A. S, htor-o-t, is cognate with O. H. G. hir^ 
Tcut. HER-tT-TA (Kick, iii, 67). This form stands for 
wo-TA, where mek-wo- is cognate with Lat. ttrnu-t, a 
stag. Thus the suffix is realty a dtwMr one, and tite sense 
is the ' horned ' animal ; cf. Gk, tip'O-ot, hon*ed, iei,fm, » 
bom. and E. Aat-h. Of similar formation, but more obscme, 
are E. ganitt-l, A. S. gan-e-t. cognate with O. H. G. gan-a-t», 
a gandfT, allied lo gan-i/er and goatt; and E. kom-t-l, A.Sb 
hyrnct, cognate with O. H. G. korn-i'S. kcrn-u-s, named 
from its humming noise, I'hc dimin. snf&x -*l is usoaBf 
French, being tare in native Engli&tt. E. JTa/./, A. S. iat-l, 
the cast, was evolved from the Teut. adv. aus- 

* A lAnA/r Mffix, \[t.'ih4; <S. Lat taa-tt-tta, melw, I 

w. ID 





ihc east ; sec Fick, iiL 9, and etien in Klugc. Tliu» -/ is b 
suflix, and tbe btae avs- is (be same as In Lat. aur-ora < 
'aut-Ma, davn ; cf. SIel utA-at, duwn ; from Aryan y US, to 
shine, bum. E. /rot-l, A. S, /nw-/ (usually spelt /orsf) < II 
L S. '/roi-tn, orig, fonti ot/rcr-tn, 'p^.oX/rias-mt, 10 frcMC. 

(f) B. suffix -d. The Aryan suffix -ta often apjieiinas 
-d in EDglish, vhiht ihc Gothic has -Ih^. Thus E. ^0/-^ 
■nswen to Gotli. gul-th ; and E, bloa-d to Goih, i/o-/A, The 
same remark applies lo the Aryan >.u(rixn -Ti and -tu, 
discusied below. Examples arc : E. (iia-4t, A. S. ila'd (with 
short cr), cognate with Iccl. Ha-3, G. Bla-ll; see Fick, UL 
«I9, and jPAiW in Klugc. E. i/^erf, A. S. rfAI-rf(Goih. i/o-rt), 
front M-wan, to blow, flourish ; ^^^ being taken as the 
symbol of blooming or flourishing life. £. tran-d, A. Sl 
bran-<{, lit. a burning, hence (i) a fire-brand, (3) a bright 
sword, from the Tcut. stem brakn. 10 bum. E. hrea-d, A. S. 
^/a-J, cognate with Icel. brau-d, br»d, lit. that which Is 
brewed or fcnncnlcd, from .'V. S. tr/mo-ati, pi. t. tr/a-w. U> 
brew. E. gei-d, A. S, ^ii/-rf(Goib. gul-lli), from the same root 
Sksjti/-MB and gio-w, viz. Aryan CHAR, to shine. £. hca-4, 
M.E. ktutd \= haxd)^ A.S. h/a/-e-4, Golh. kaub-i-lk. E. 
mo»-d, A. S. otW, Golh. mods (stem wn-i/fl), Tcut, mS-oa 
(Fide, iii. 14s), probably connected with Gk. fun'-o^at, I seek 
after. E. thrta-d. A. S. pra-d, cognate with Iccl. prS-Sr, G. 
&rak-t, O. H. G. rfri*-/, from the same base as A. S. }>r6-w-an, 
to throw, also 10 twist (Lat. Icrgu-ire) ; so lliat Ihna-d is that 
which is twisted. Similarly we may explain K. broo-J, A. S. 
hri-d, from a Tent, base brS, to heat ; cf G.brUh-en. M.H.G. 
irH-tn, to scald. E. wm-d, A. 5. ntit-d, (i) a swimming, 
power to swim, (») s strait of the sea ; probably for *sw»m-da 
(Fick, iii. 36a) < (I 'swoM-A-sA, pp. from the base swem, lo 
swim. H'ar-d, A. S. wear-d, a guard ; from i/ WAR, to 

$ 324. Aryna -TI. This enfSx only appears in English 
■ Cr. Vomer'* Law; wof 119. 
R 3 



a$ -Ot, •/, and -i; bui -Ik is exceptionaL 
Gnni. 5 3^9- Compare § 3*3, 

(a) E. anfflx -ih. As to the word Ur-tk, the osoal A.& 
(oiia ifige-iyr -it = 'ge-ior-9i < ..Igt-iar'^.ytp. of itr-a», to 
bear; but wc p. 240, note t. O. Knesic has both JrrOr 
and irrde. Crousth is of Scand. origin, ^m tccL grSJi; 
but the tiuc stem of this word b cbA-thak, so that the snftx 

is 'THA-N. 

{i) E. Buffls -/. E. Jf^h-t, A.S. jfi^/ {= 'AA-ft), 
allied lo G. Fluch-i < . . [i/tug-en, pi. t. pi, of/Ks^-^w, to B«, 
fly. <?»/-/. A. S. fi/-/, Iccl. #»/-/. T«ul. C8F-T1 (Ficlt. 
ui. 100), ffom gief'&n, lo give, pt t. gt^ (for '|i^ 
Outs-I, A.S. j/j-/, jr<y*-/, Goth- gas-hs (stem CAsn). » 
stranger, hence a guest; cognate wrilb Lat. hot-ti-t, an 
enemy, a stranger. Migh-t, A. S^ mihi, nuif, also mwoA/, CodL 
mah'l'i (stem hakti), from the verb seen In K. otii>', Goth. 
mag-an. Nigh-i, A. S. iwl*/, n<hl, Goth, n^h-l-t (stent kakti), 
cognate with LaL we.v (stem notti) ; cf. Skt. nai-la, night ; all 
from (he Aryan • NEK, to fail, disappear; from ihc failure of 
light. Pligh-l\ obligation, A. S. /)/;*-/, danger, risk, connected 
with the strong verb ph'oH, pt. t pieah, to risk. Shi/'-t. Si^| 
a change, i-t from the Iccl. skip-li{i.e. 'skif-lt), a division, k^' 
change; ihcA.S.hasonIy (hcverb^r^-jliiit.lodivide; cf.IoeL 
sb/-a, to divide, ski/-a, s.. a slice, prov. E, shtve. a slice. S^h^, 
A.S. «*-/, gi-sih-t, more commonly gt-iih-9, ge-mA-i; d. 
ttg-m. pp. of i(^, to sec [Here the V in J<f<ffl produced 
"^*-JrA-if, whence gt-sifh-S by ihc breaking of * bcfoM i\ 
and hence again gfsihd, ttie change from » to f bniifl 
due to ' palatal ' mutation ; tec this explained in 
O. E. Cram. $ 101.] SUigk-l, cunning, is of 
origin ; from IccL slag-3, cunning, a sb. formed Gnhd 

' Only in ccitila »nne*, and Morlf otaolcte fti • ib.j tke ikiit«i 
verb la fiig^' » uonimoa. Plight, contlilian. U ■ Idtijljr dillcrail wed, 
anil ihnolil W ipdl fUlft " In M- ^, bc'ug tdlty of K. 1 
lM.flUi/11, tern. pp. lAflk-art, (o fold. 

I »»5.J 



adj. tltrg-r, whence E. dy. Thirt-t, A. S. Pjirs-i ( = '/turt-ti) j 
cf. Gotb. paurt-am, pp. nf pain-an, to be dry. HO^it-/, 

^a creature, mui, doublet of u^-/, a ihing, bolh froiQ A. S. 

^knW, a wight, also a whit, Gotb. waih-t-s (xtcm waiii-ti), 
TeuL wni-Ti {Pick, liL 282). Wrigh-I, a workman, A.S. 
uyrk-t-a, is a. dcrivjiivc of xtyrh-l, gt-ivyrh-t, a deed ; this 
tO}r4-' = Tctit. woRH-Ti, a deed (Fick, iJi. 393); cf. Goih. 
/ra'teaurh'i-s (stvm rRA-wAi-Kii-Ti), evil-doing; from the 
same root u E. jvori. 

K (t) B. gafflx -d. Dti-d, A.S. dd-d, Gotb. d<-d-s (sl«m 
dtdi=z*dAdi}, Tcut. da-di (Fick, iii. 151); Ihc verb being 
A. S. rfi*-», E. do. CU-de, a glowing coal, A. S, f //-rf, formed 
with (■mutaiion from gli-w-an, to glow. Min-d, A. S. 
gt'tnyn-d, formed with /-muution from mitri-an, to think, 
ge-mun-an, to remember; cf. Lat. wit;-* {stem mtn-li). 

HJV'w-^, a. S. >r/-rf, Ji/i-i/, Goth, nau-lhs (stem watr-ZAt) ; cf. 

^ O- H. G. »ii»-Kwn, nH-an, to Ciu^h. 6«-«/, A.S. jrf-i/, Icel. 
x<z-3i; cf. Goth. mtma-j^M-f (stem mana-se-oi), the seed or 
race of nun, the world; Tcut. sa-di (Fick, iit. 313); the 

tverb is A. S. Ut-UHsn, E, sew. Spte-d, A. S, ^-rf, success, 
baste; tf^-d^ 'sfi-di, from tp6-wan. 10 i^uccecd. 5/m-^ a 
place, A. S. *;lr-rff, Goih. fia-lk-s (stem sta-thi), a place, lit. 
'ataiuSng,' from V STA, to stand, Stu-d, A. S. j/*-^/, ortg. 
a herd of horses, Teut. stA-di (Fick, liL 341); from Teut. 
base St6. slrcngthcncd form of v'STA, lo stand. Slte-d, 
A. S. lU-i-at a Hud-horse, is derived from A. S. itdd Iqr 
muUtioii; i.e. tUda = *st6d-ja, with suflix y'n = -lif. 
f 236. Aryan -TU. (a) There iis one clear example of 
the suffix -ih in English, from Teui. -thu. This is E. dta-A, 
A. S. d/a-4, Goili. dau-thu-s, death (stem i£itt-/Atf); from the 
Teut base cau, to die {Hck, iii. 143). 

(£) E. aulILz •/. /.o/-/ is of Scand. origin ; from loeL 
iq^(s= V^/), ibcair; Goih. A/-A«-* ; root unknown. Lxa-t, 
lA-S. Au-/, plcaitire; Gotb. iut-iu-s, pleasure; root un- 
[ certain; cf. Skt. lath, 10 desire^ lat, to sport. 



(e) E-aufittx-c/. Floa-J,K.S.fiS^: Goth. j«>-A-f ; ftm 
Jti'to-an. 10 flow. Shiel-J, \.S.tcil-d,s<tt-d; Gaih. sh'l-da-t; 
root uDccrtain. Wol-d, jvtal-d, A. 5. wva/-J, O. Sax. wai-i, 
a wood; cf. Ic«L vO/Jr (= *k«/-Aj), a fwld. The o ia At 
form uwii/ is due lo the influence of the preceding w; the 
M. E. fonns ate both uiold and wa/J. 

$ S28. The Aryan suffixes -ta, -n, dUcusscd above, can 
be followed liy other suHlxes ; thus E~/t>o-d, A. S.y9-db{t(cat 
f^da-n) had originally a sufiixcd -» ; d. Coib. /o-4ii^-i 
{%itm /o-iiti-m'), food, feeding; fiom ibe Arj-an -^/PA, lo 
feed. K. mai-d-ra, A. S. imrg-d-tn, cognate with O. II. G. 
mag-a-il-n. answers to a Goih. 'uu^-a-dti-n, it dimin. fonn 
from Goth, mag-a-lfi-t, feco. (&tem siag-a-thi), a maidea, 
allied to Goth. fflajf->u (xlcm mag-u), a hoy; the sense of 
mag-vi is 'growing lad,' from the verb appearing in E. maj. 
The Mod. E. maid is merely a contracted form of nuadia; 
the M. E. short form for ' maiden ' it may, A. S. m^ ; wtiftK 
the A. S. form answering to Goth. magatAt is mag9 or 
magtS; all from ihc name root. On the other hand, the sulfa 
•TO occurs in combination with, and follou-ing, the suffix -(i)s- 
This double suffix -(i)s-TO appears as E. -tf ; and b diacuarf 
below; sec } 333, p. 154. 

$ 227. Aryan -TER (-TOR). This suffix is found is 
such words as LaL fra-kr, Skt. bhrS-tar. brother ; and 
answers to Gothic -Ousr, ^ar, and -lor. Of ibcsc three 
Gothic forms, the change to 'dar is due to Vcmci's Law ; 
whiUt the preservation of the form -far is due to d>e oc- 
currence of a foregoing h or s. 

{a] Golh. -l^r. Bro'ther, A. S. M-$or, Goth, tn-tlm. 
Teut. BRfi-THAR (Fick, iij. 104) ; usually referred lo Aryan 
V BH£R, to bear, as meaning one who bears, i. e. ' 
aids, or supports the younger children. 

(i) Golh, -dar. h'a-lhtr, M. E./a-dfr, A. S./z-<ftr, I 
fs-dar, as if from a VPA. but the sense is doubtful Mo-4hir^ 
ALE. m^tr, A.S. m6-dor, Teui. m6>imx (Fick, Ui. 141) 

I "8.1 




as if from an Arjan -/MA. ; but here again the origiQal 
Beose is unccnain. 

(r) Daugh'Ur, A. S. dSh-tor, Goib. damh-far, co^ate with 
Gk. tvy^-ntsi, S)"< duh-i-lar ; usually explained as ' milker ' 
of the cow-s; cf. Skt. duh (for "dhi^h), to milk. But this is 
a tnere guess. The word sis-Ur (really n's-l-er) is excep- 
tional ; it is a Scand. fonn, from IccL syt-l-ir, allied to A. S. 
netM-t-or, Goih. twis-i-ar ; the '1 cut. form is swp3-t-ak 
(V. ill 360), but the / is a TeuL insertion, due to form- 
assodaiioR, as ti does not appear in SkL tzat't, nor in Lii. 
sor-or-=. 'iot'or. 

% 338. Aryan -TRO. Upon this suRix, which usually 
denotes an agent or iinpleineni, Sievecs has wriiien an 
excellent article in Paul und Brniuie's Bctlriljjc zur Ge- 
schichtc dcr deutscbcn Sprachc und Litcraiur, voL t. p. £19. 
By Grimm's Law, the Atj-an T is represented in Teuionic 
by Tii. Hence Sinvn discusses the following Teutonic 
equi)-al«nt slcm*HuIlixcs, vii. (1) •tiiko-; (a) 'Thlo-, where 
/ is substituted for r. Each of these may be further sub- 
dirided. Thus -ihbo- either remains (a) as -pro- (with 
p=A in lAtn); or (J) becomes -3ro- (with 3=lh in ihiiu, 
in consequence of Vcrner's Law) ; or (c) appears as -//»-, 
when it follows such letters t&/, fi, s; or {d) appears as 
-A-o- when the suffix -*- (Aryan -Ks-f) precedes it Again, 
i-TMio- appears {t) as -^o- ; or (/) as -Sh- ; or ((p) as -Ho- 
ftficry or j; Of (A) especially in An^lo-Saxon, a«»umrK the 
uaniiposcd form -id. We have iIiun cigiit cases lo considn, 
which vrill be taken separately. 

(«) The fonn -pro-. The mod. E. ntddtr is M. E. roder, 
more oommonly rotAtr, A. S. ri-Sir, orig. a iisddlc, an instru- 
mcDt 10 row with ; from ri-w^n, to row. La-thtr anhweis 
lo A. S. k'a-Sor, lather, soap *, cognate with Icel. lau-Sr, Coam , 
soap; from Tcut. base lav, to wash; cf. Lai. lau-are, to 
Wksh. Alur-dfr, also written tattr-tkir, A. S. mer-Sor, Goth. 

' • NliiBtn, «*#■• 1 Wright'* Voc. cd. Wuickei, eoL 456, L 14. 




maur-Sfir (stem nMur-lhm), Tcu!. voK-Timo (Sleveta) ; (wm 
v'MAK, to grind, IciU, die. Here also probably belongs 
lett-thfT, A. S. U-^tr, G. le-der, Teut. ls-thua (Kick, uL a78); 
tnit the rooi is unknown, so Uui th« riglit division ma; be 


(j) The form -^r^. After an (originally) unacoenud 
syllable ending in a vowel or /, this becomes Goth, -dr; 
A.S. -rfr-. E. i/^rf*r answers to A.S. Mtt-dre (Wriglii'* 
Voc. ed. Wulckcr, col. aoi, 1- 43, co!. 160, I. 3), allied v> 
Icel. bla-'ira ; TroiQ the root of A. S. bid-man, lo blow, i.e. U 
puff out. Adder, M. E. nadder, AS. tur-Jrt, Goth, lud^ 
(stem na-dra), TeiiL ka-dka (Ficb, lii. 156). Foddrr, A.S. 
/S-dor, Tcut. rd-nuA, may similarly be deri»"cd directly from 
VPA, to feed ; but was ralhcr perhaps formed with suilix 
-RA from the Teutonic root vod (=ro-TK) appcarin:i '"^l 
Goth, fodjan, to feed; MC Ostliolf, Fortchungen, I 146;" 
it makes little ultimate dificrcncc. Laddtr, M.E. hJin, 
from A.S. Iili-dtr; cf. G. Itt'-trr; lit, 'that which leans'; 
from Tcut. base iili, to, Arj'an V'KI.I, to kan, whoDoe 
also Gk. Ai-»>ai, a ladder (Klugc). Wta-thfr, A. S.. aw-Ar, 
Tcut. WE-DRA (Fick, iii. 307) ; prob. fiom */ w£, 10 blow; 
cf. Gblh. wai'OH, to l>low. Whether ihouldtr lictongs here 
is doubtful ; wondfr n probably to be divided as woitd-<r, tad 
hu accordingly a dilTcrcnt suffii. Sec % 117. 

(<■) The form -Iro'. Hal-Ur (for 'half-kr), A. S. k^ttf-tn, ^ 
cognate with G. iial/-Ur, O. H.G. half-Ira; whidi Klt^tflj 
rightly connects with E. Mvt, A. S. hiilf, a handle. Lan^k^^ 

ler, A.S, hlth-lor, hltah-lor\ from the veib to lai^h, A.S. 
hlthh-an. Staagh-l/r, a Scand. form, from Iccl. itd-tr, coi 
fused with A. S. sltah-l, with the same sense ; tijc taiier 
T'' tierivcd from the ba« shh- of the contracted verb sMln, 

slay. Fot-lfT, verb, A. S./isln'an. is from the A S. ih./is-itT. 
nourishment; the »ufBx is really a double oti)i,»t /^s-ltr= 
fi-t-ltr; from V'PA, to feed. Blui-kr, prob. of Scand. 
origin ; cf. Iccl. ht&t^r, a blast of wind, from Uds-a, to blov. 






In the word Eat-ttTf A. S. ^•/•or, Sicvers regards tbc / as 
intcTtcd; ct Liihuan. ausi-ra, dawn. In any cue, it is 
closeljr related 10 eas-l. A.S. /at-l. 

(d) Double «u£ax -jJru-. Whether wc should regard 
tiw -s- as due to the Afpn -es-, or rather coosider It, with 
Stc^'CT^'jafi an inserted letter, 1 cannot nay. Examples arc: — 
M'S-ier, A.S. M-t-ltr, cognate with G. p9l-s-(€T; ftnd 
hol-s-trr, borrowed from Du. hol-a-ltr, a pistol-case, cognate 
with A. S. Afcf-t-tor, a biding- pi ac c ; cf. Goth. kali-S'tr, a 
veil, from hulj-an, to cover. Sec } 238. 

if) The form -pl^. Ntt-<Hi is from A. S. nd-Ji, cognate 
with Goih. ne-Ma: Tern. ttk-rm.A (F. iii. 156), from the 
•/ N£, to bind, sew; cf. Lat. lu-rt, G. nShtH, to sew. This 
seems to be the sole example. 

{/) Tho form -ilo-. SpillU is a word which has been 
in form, owing to a connection with the xecoixtar/ 
laie verb ^V. Tiic M.E. form w.ns spo-lil, answering, 
exactly 10 A.S, j/rf-// {=*spai-3lo-), from spC-w-an, pL t. 
spd-u\ to spil, mod. E. spew. Tlic secondary verh spd-t-an 
became M. E. spttrn, tfttiat, and was confuted with spitUn, 
which b a Mercian form, appearing as spi/tan in Matt. xitviL 

30- {§ 33 ) 

{g) Tho form •th: Of this there is no certain example 
in English ; kriit-U is from A. S. iynt, a bristle. Throi-l-U 
a thrush, haa an inserted /, which wc do not sound; the 
A.S. forms ate both /tm-jV aml/j-oi-/-/^; the relation of the 
foimci to ihruih. A. S. Jn-ys-et {='ProS'C'ia) is obvious. 

(A) Tho A. 8. traiuposod form -Id {tar -dl). This 
transposition 'n ptcciscl)' liki; ilat ^cen in the Shakespearian 
form nt<U for itttdle, a form which also occurs in P. Plow- 
man, C XX. 56. An c<]U4l!}' clear case is seen in the A. S. 
apJUd, sptttk (}-llcne, 1, 300) ; iistiallj' xpclt tp4ll. Hence A. S. 
i^U.a, building, stands for ii^ii'/(='^S'i>-); from the Arj'aa 
V^BHC, to dwell, hvc, be. This sb. i» obsolete, but we still 
■ lie rcCcn to Oftboff, in Kiibn's Zcitscbtin. i«l. umi. |x ji j. 


eooagb, Ibe A.S. alM has b^tt^ a dwdinft, a house, vMA 
Skiers reganbas a 'banSescd' Ibnnaf A*^; henoc, prab- 
ablj, j^MHSb to CnmbCTUnd and LaBoriiiR. awl BtBk FHi 
in Wafwickdnic Anotner gimiple, ttxxsnut^ to Skmjk 
n ikTttk~f>-td, «iiicb be refers to a form' /r «f t » Ji, 
irtKoce A.S. irat-«-U, led. >rai-«-Ai&- ; aod br ngaiAaB 
die oUmt lormi, sdcIi u A. S, dracwM, nod. IceL /no^ 
j6tdr,JrrrptifOidr,a»Aattutfopi^iMXfXjm(ikfiff. CI 0-H.G. 
a>>f(--w-/f, a ihrcsbold (Sdode). SiencnaddsUiat UieE.a^fr' 
lertl i% ttom ihc rare A. S. Lr/tS^, o-en, far *l^i-4l»; aSed 
to Goifa. <t^. the palm or ihc hand. Boi it may taibcr tx 
French ; fbr «« have jei to bnd an example of &L £. ia4 
nsed as aa adjective. The sb. ftw/ it ceruinljr Frcncb, as! 
of Latin origin. 

{ 339. Aryan aufflx -ONT (-ENT, -NT). This b tbe 
miEia so common in present participles, as in ibc Gfc. ace 
Tvmrtnr-^, and in the Lat. apt-ant-. mm-tni-, rtg-*nt; mi-*" 
ml-, from am-art, to love, wtoit^re, to advise, reg-trf, lo nfc> 
auJ-ire, to hear, The Gothic usiuUy hu hm^-, as in kar- 
and't, bearing (stem iair-imJ-a); also -m^- {=ajf-iuid-\ u 
in/f'ty-Mid'-j, loving ; infin./V^iiti ; cr.}a63. Hence ibeA.S. 
•tfid-e, as in bind-<n<t'e, binding ; Nottbcm M. £. ^md, MN^ 
land M. E. -#it</-r. Southern M. F. -mJ-/, afterwards comipiri 
(about A.D. 1300) into -ing-<, mod. E. -r)^. Thus, in ^.Y~ 
we get Nonh.^>i>/.iJu/, Mi<U3i>d^i'i(/-<->uA', ^jW-nt>/, Sonlheia 
tittd-iikie, bitid-ingt, imd-u^. In A. S. «c have several ste- 
in -end, -nd, which were ofiginally present partidplea. Onlj 
a few arc now in nse, vir., trrand,fitnd, /riatd, tiditrgt, wad', 
to which u-c may add s^oth, altcad)- explained in f 168 ; taA 
perhaps y<>uih. JCrr-cad, M. E. er-end-*, A. S. ar-end-f, « 
er-tnd't, a message (stem *irtnd-ja\ orlg. perhaps '• 

* prtH9iJ (not fxriitid. ox mu|iriattd ia injr rSclioouy} ii ibe fcrs 
h Dent. *L 9; in EioiL xU. u, it, \.t. /trrtM. Wnchi't 
Vocabalaiia etvr ilis farm* ftrtnMld, f€ruieald, fntxioaiJ, /rcrm M . 



l! but the lool is uncertain '. Fi<nd, M. E. find, A. S. 
/, an enemy, oris. '^^ pr«- 1*"^- "f 'lie contracted verb 
yiw», lo hale; Goih._^'-iiW-j, an enemy, pies. part. oifi-J-an, 
J lo hate ; from Aryan •/ PI, lo bale. Fritnd, M. E. /rend, 
\.S./rimd, a friend, orig. prei, part, <£ fr/on, to lore; 
Qo^. frij-end't, orig. pres. part. aX fri-j-on, lo love; from 
Aryan ypRI, to love. Tul-mg-s, a pi. fotm due to M.E. 
(Southern) lid-md-t, (IMiilhnd) lilh-md-e; a Scand. form, 
from led. HS-ind'i, ncut. pi., tidings, pres, pan, of *nd-a, to 
I happen, cognate with A. S. nd-an, to happen ; from the sb, 
H-wbicb appears in Icel. if?, A.S. lid, £. Hd*. Windj A.Sl 
m-nd, oognaie with Lat. ut-iU-ut, wind ; orig. sense ' blow- 
ing*; from Aryan v' WE, to blow; cf. Ski. v4, to blow, 
Goth, wai-an, to blow, and Liiltuan. wl-jat, wind. To these 

»Koch adds, perhaps rightly, the word you-th, A.S.gt9-gu9, J.iSiJ ■ 
originally j>/t!j-^ with two suppressed «'s, and therefore for VA^;'»f*-^ 
'gM^-wrff, cognate with O. H. G. jug-uitd, Jung-und, G. 
Jt^-atd (stem 'jung-und-u, as Khige has it). Koch also 
adds the sb, evtn or n-*, in the sense of ' evening,' on the 
Mrenglh of tlie G. cognate form A6-md; but the etymolo^^y 

tof the word is t'ery doubtful. 
It is perhaps worth while to note here that the stiflix m 
tnom-ing, rvm-ing, has notliing to do with the present par- 
ticiple of mod, £. verbs, but is discussed below, in | 341. 
§ 330. Aryan -OS, -ES. This appears in Ski. af-as, 
woik, Lat. op-US (^*op-as), gen. op-fr-is (^'vpts-is); Gk. 
ytr-ot, gen. ytr-ttir)-!)*. In Teutonic it is somciimr* joined 
with some other suffix ; thus, with added -a, it produces -es-A. 
weakened to -is-a, as in hat-it {stem hat-is-a), hale. In 
English it sometimes (a) disappears, or {&) appears as -j, or 


* Utt^Oy wrlittt JavnJt, with lone ir ; so Sicrtn uid Grein ; tEcync 
gl*M the D. !>*K. itundi, O. II. ('•. drtmti. But Fick md Scbade cod- 
■McT tbe bnt tvni u ifaorl. The Icelauilk Ibnut >rc rrt-di, trtuJi, 



(a) It disappears. I'hus Halt, g. M. lu hat-e (dissj'BiUe), 
keeps the vowel of the A. S. vcib hal-i-an ; the A. S, iIil b 
Ael-^, wilb i'- mulaiion of a, originally 'Aa/-ii (Sicvera, O.E. 
Gram. { 363, note 4), Goih. Am-it (stem hat-is-a). Awi b 
of Scand. origio ; from Iccl. ^g-i, cognate n-ith A. S. 9^ 
orif^inally 'ag-is (Sievers, as above), Golb. t^-u (ttem 
ag-is-a). The simple suffix bccsme -at in the Tcut. una- 
az, and was lost in ihc A.S. lami.y^hni; see Sicvera,O.E. 
Gr. { 290. Here belong also, according to Sievera, xhc vonb 
irfai/, calf, tkart (in pleugk-ikari). 

(i) II appears as s, -se, -x. Ad-st, M. E, arf-w, aJ- 
A. S. ad-ts-n ; origin unknown. Ax, badly spelt axt, A. 
*f^, rax, Nortliumbrian ae-ts-a, Gotli. aho-ts-i, allied 10 Gk. 
i£-i-int, an axe, 6i-it, sharp; ori^n unccruin. ^/m, A.& 
f^tT-j, M</-f, and. by assimilation, M't-t; from jj!9, M^ 
bliibc ; ito dial ^ui is ' bliihcncss.' A. S. M0-t is cognaie 
wiih O. Sax. bUd-i-ea {=■' ItSd-f-jd), and is therefore to br 
classed with -j/l- stems, the suffix being double (Sinen, 
O.E. Gr. § 358). £.'<ive-s, A.S. t/^es, fem. (gco. f/^ft^ 
corresponds to Gotli. ui-ia-uxi, a porch, hall, orig. a project* 
ing shelter, from the Tcut. prep, vr (Ooih. u/^, allied ta 
K. uf); d. G. ob-dadt, a shelter, »b-<n, abotv, K. {<U)-ftti 
ibe Miflix being double. 

(f) It n]>pcars as -r in E. *a-r (of com) ; G. ah-re, Golk 
ahs, Lat. ac-KJ, gen. ac-er-it. Also in rild-r-u, pL of A S. 
did; cf. mod. E. ehild-r-en; sec Sievers, O. E. Gr. ^ 189, >9» 

§ 231. We have thiu already bad examples of die doiJilt 
suflixcs -rs-o, -yi^-xi,, -es<wo. We also find the suKxes -It 
and -LO in combination, producing both 'ts-ut, weakened D 
Teut. -s-LA, and -lo-s, weakened to Tcut. ^l-s. 

(a) -«-i.A. Hou-sti, A. S. h£-s^ (for 'hun-t-t), Goih. -bit- 
4-1 (stem iii.'n-5-i.a), a sacrifice, holy rile. Owsel, A. S. i-rJi 
(for 'aw-i-//), cognate with G. Am-st-l. O. II. G. aat-ta-k: 
root uncertain. Koch also refers hilber E. ax-le (= *ae~tit), 
btit the J may be an extension of the root. 



< IJ1 1 



»l (*) -L-S. The rfmarkablc Vfords burial, riddle, ihuUU 
(tM { ti^), have lost a final s; (bey are, Tespectivdy, cor- 
raptions of hirtttt, riddltt, xhullUi; it is obvious thai the 
* was misutcR for the ftlural sufiix, and was accordingly 
purposely dropped. Burial, M. E. hiriti, buritl, huritU, A. S. 

»fyi^-<l-s, a burying-pliicc, froni iyrg-an, to bury. Riddlt. 
M, E. rtd-il-t, A. S, rdd-tl-te, rtfd-tl-t, an ambiguous speech ; 
fioni r&d-an, to explain; we still say 'to rc<t(/ a riddit! 
Shuttle. M. E. uhiUl, A. S. nyl-tl-s < .. d «i>/-fw, pp. of 
u/al'oa, to shooL Of this word siif/k is a mere variaDt, 
being a fkand. form; but ihc final -r does not appear ui 
jyan. jijJUl, a shuillc, Iccl. skulill. an implement shoe forth, 
harpoon, bolL Koch adds three more examples, viz. Iridle. 

(girdU, tlickU (a spine, a.« in slickU-latk') ; but, as a fact, all 
of these have double forms in A. S., vik. A.S. bnd-itvs, well 
as hrid-tt-t, gyrd-tl as well i.% gy-rd-tl-s, and J/(V-^/ as well 
as ttit-tl'i; ilicre is therefore no need to consider them 
here, and they have already been mentioned in § 1 1 7. 

§ 333. E. suiSx -ttfss. This is not a simple suffix, like 
^-hotd, -lAip, bill a compound, to be divided as -«■«■*, The 
^kf originally belonged to a subsLantlval stem, so that the 
true suffix is rather -fs-s, Gothic -as-stt-, supposed to stand 
for -Es-Tv, by assimilation; cf.j 835. In the Lord's prayer, 
petition 'Thy kingdom come' is, in Gothic — twimat 
U'wustu Ihdns. Here the word Ihtudinassus. kingdom, 
lis formed with the suffix -as-iu-s from the stem thiudin^ 
nkitid-^n-, i.e. king; cf. Ihiudan-s, a king, thiudan-cn, to rule. 
tUiudoH-gardf, kingdom. So also hiiin-asiuj, healing, Idiia- 
'*», to heal; driu/iliti-ajsus, warfare, draufitin-on, to war. 
We find no traee of n in ufar-assut, superlluity, tifar- 
att-Jaa, to abound; from u/ar, over. aliOTe. The Goth. 
■n-atsut, -aitut, is masctilinc; but the corresponding A.S. 
-n-ii (ako -n-yt, -nts, -«-r«) is feminine. It is mostly used 
for forming abstract subKttntives, exjirc-sitive of quality. fr<Jm 
adjectives ; as k^ig-nit, holi-DCSs. from h^ig, holy. Hence 

E. giad-Mftt, mad-netj, tad-nest, and a large number of 
timilar sobstanlives. Ii can be added to aJjectivea of French 
and Ladn origin with equal rcadinettsj lience rigiJ-mtn, 
urdid-nas, etc. The whole number of dcrivaU\"c» coooin- 
{ng litis suflix considerably' exceeds n thousand *. 

5 333. Aryaa -(i)s-TO. This is common in E. i»ord* of 
Gk. origin, as in t(fh-isf. F. tafii-is/e. LaL safiA-it-ta. Gt 
iTo$-i«-rv((»tem*0s$-i(r-ra),allicd tO<ra^-A, wise; m»d hence, 
in the form ->>/, il can be uKcd generally, as in Jcnl-ut, 
fi&r-ist, from the Lat. stems denl-, fior-. It appears as -at 
in the iiadvc word harv-al, A. S. htcr/tst, from V KARP, ID 
pluck ; cf. Lat. earp-trt. So alxo tamtii, orig. a sb., as in 
the phrase ' in earnest '; A. S. Krn-osI, tom-*st, cognate with 
G. Em-it; from a base akn, extended from ihe ■>/ AR, la 
raise, excite. 

Hence, probably, we may explain some words with the 
suffix -it (= -t-f), as, e. g. twi-tt. 7in'-tf, A. S. AuW, s 
rope ; from la»-, double, as in fu}i-ftald, iwy-fohl, two>(bld, 
allied to twi, (wo ; cf. Skt. dvi. two. Tru-U. of Scaad 
origin; IceL Irau-tl, trust; cf. Goth. Irau-an, to befieve; 
allied to true, lrcti<. Try-t/, trist, allied to trutli 
probably due to the mutated form in Iccl. irffsia, v. 
(= 'Iraiut-fa), to rely upon, from Irawit, trust. In some 
Other words, the origin of the i may be different ; thus Fick 
(iii. S7) refers E. lat-t, a burden, load, as in 'a last of 
herrings,' A. S. Mrt-t. ncuL (stem A/<u-/>i) to the hue 
KUTB, to lade, whence A. S. hlad-an, Goih. hlaih-am; ■ 
which case A. S. hlas'l siands for *hiir3-l, as being caaer 10 
pronounce. Cf. A. S. htiti, bB3t, as forms of Mist. Similartr, 
we may explain wris-t, A. S. turit-t, fcm. («cm ttrji-jSrf), at 
put for *wri3-t; from the base tcrit-, as seen iu uri9-ai, 
pjv. of wTl3-an, to writhe. So also rus-l, A. S. rm-l (step 
rut-ta)\ put for *rud-l< urud-oit, pL pi of rfyd-an, to be 

I Conpatt the utkk on di« inffix -mil In W«igsiiiri £17111. Gcnau 
DiclioiMi;; aodice Kl«g^>.v. ^<i'niKK. 


» »37-l 




led; cf. E. rtidd-y, A.S. i'ivi/-«, s., redness; and sec G. 

Roil Id Kluge. Qrit-t, A. S. grSs-l, corn lo be ground, is 

dearly connected wiih grmd'aa, lo grind, and may stand 


§ 234. Teatonio -s-ti. Here we may place fill, litt'tn). 

tFi-il is A. S./V'-// (= 'f£sli). allied to G. Fau-it, which Kick 
lefers to Tcut. iWfSTi. and connects with Ross. piaiU, fat. 
Old Slavonic ^itf. &tl, where the vovel i denotes that n 
has been lost ; sec Schmidt. Vocalisicus, i. 167, where It is 
•hewn (■) thai this b correct, and (a) that it is an ar^mcnt 
against connecting ;ffj/ wilh Im. pu^tua, at is uxually done'. 
The wrb to litUn. M. E. /utl-ti-fn. is derived from M. E. 
histtti, A. S. Uytl-an, to listen, by the insertion of -n- (cf. 
Goth. yii//-»r-tf», 10 become full). This i-crb htyst-an is from 
the sb. hlysl, hearing (= 'hlu-s-ti). Tcut, HurSTi, hearing 
(Pick, iii. 90) ; which af^aiii is from Teui. kleu = Aryan 

^V'KU'.U. lohear. 

f § 336. Tentonio -s-tu. Thi< appeare in E. mi-tl, vapour, 

' A. S, mi-sl, Rioom, fog ; cognate wiili G. Mi-sl. Goth, 
maih-s-lu-t, dung; from Aryan v'MKIGH, to sprinkle, 
whence Lai. ming-ert. Sec also { 33a, 

i SM. Tent, eufllx -s-t-man. This appears In "E-htottcm, 

^^A-S. iiS-t-i-ma{ittcm Mis-l-maa),* bloMom; from &t4-W'<iii, 

Hto blow. Without the -t^, we have IccL Al^m, Goth, ^/ff-mi 

B!(siero Mman), a bloom : { 1 1 1 . 

W § M7- Tout -WA. This appears in lu-sk. AS. lu-tc, 
or, by metathesis, Itix. This A. S. lu-se is almost ceilainly, 
«s EtUnUller says, put for '/wise, and meant originally 
double looth, molar tooth, from .\, S. A^i-, douMe^ Cf. A S. 
gt'hvi-t-an. twins, Genesis xxxiiii. 17 ; O. H. G. zwi-i, twice, 
xwi-ti, nci-sti, double. I would also refer hither £. 
kit-ik, M. E. hu-sJte, an it has almont certainly lost an /. and 
■Unds for ' hul-tk ; cf. A. S. A»Aw. a busk, prov. E. huU, % 

* nil wooM leqnire > Teut. fvum I'uil-vil ; wo Klitgr, who likei 
the oppoaHe view, cuinecling il with /<^n<, but not with Kuu./uu//. 



husk or shell ; G. Hal-ti, O. II. G. hd-ta. M. H. G. (A3e- 
■mxKav^ hul-iHlu, a husk {Sclt&de); and cf. E. kall-^ai<.\ 
A- S. hol-en, pp. of htl-an, to lude, cover. 

5 aae. a. S. -es-ttus ; cf. j aaa (rf). This appears 
A. S. -ti'lrt, a common fcin. suffix, as tn hac-tftrt (Men 
iat-et-tran), a. female baker, M. E. hak-i-ttr, prcsenml in 
the name Baxter ; vxhi-es-lrt, H. E. ittbs-Ur, pfcsemd in 
the name IK-ij/i-r. Only one of ihesc words, vit sfim't-kr, 
sllll retains the seiue of the feminine gender; Uk rcslrictiao 
of tht- suflix to Ihc feminine via.% cailjr lost, so that tmtg-iPr, 
for example, has now the precise sense of ting-tr. But ifce 
A. S. ioag'trt, a singer, was masctiliiu; ; ubilst tang-a 
a wngster, wat fcniinine. Tlicre nie numerous examples i 
Wright's Vocabularies, ed. Wfllckcr. coll, 308-3 1», ThOB 
we fmd: 'Cantor, sangere: Cantrix, sangjwre: FiJirtn, 
fiJelere [fiddler]; Fididna. fi|w!eKlrc [fiddlesler] ; Sarkr, 
s^amerc : Sarlrix. s^amcstre ' : etc. Ucncc our stmjakr cr 
teamtier ia A.S. s^am-^t-ln, from Uam, a seam, a immng. 
The fern, senvc U now %o far lo»t that the P. fcm. stiSz -ea 
has been added to iwgsUr and stamstfr or ttmpsler, pro- 
ducing the fonns soitg-str-ess, ttam-i/r-m, semp-itr-^tt. Is 
M. E, .i.'«- was freelyadded to boxes not found in A.S.; benct 
huk-tler. properly ihc f*m. of kutk-tr {now spelt haxia) ; 
sec Hutisi/r in ray Etym, Diet, In Tudor -Englbh ibe 
suffix was rather widely used; hence tiam-ittr, tap-iler. and 
obsolete words such as drug-iter, mall'Ster, wAtfi-tfyr, etc 
In some words it expressed something of conlcmpt. posably 
owing to ihc influence of ihc Lai. pexlatter; hence jf3-*Ar, 
gam^-sltr, fttn-i/tr, rhymftter, truk^iltr; see Morris, Hat 
Oullincs of E. Accidence, p. 90 '. 

§ 230. E. sofBx -cr. 1'his very common sui&x, as m 
fth-tr, usually expresses the agent, and la much used in 

' TTic nuflix -ul-tr, ■» Id tk»r-Ut-*r, b <A (lilTncnl aciKtti ; (or bse tW 
•«r lisdililiuiial. Cotfiimve explain* F. (JarMft bf 'aCborid, ■ 
man ia a Qaeer.' C£ f 9j). 




hM V 



''Substantives derived rrom ^■eIb5. The A.S. farm ft •o--^, as 

in bSc-tr-*, a scribe, lit. * book-ct ' ; the coiresponding Gothic 

^word is kok-ar-ti-s { = *Uk-ar-ji-s, stem hi-or-Ja); xe St. 

latk in Gothic, ed. Skeat, Iniroil. $ i6. TbnK the Goth. 

^suflix \* -ar-ja, but ihc A. S- suffix may hive been slightly 

fercnt. Such is the view taken by Ten Brink (Anglia, 

r. i) ; he argues thai the A. S, form «-as -/r-e (with long t), 

Mwering to TiMit. -dr-jn {with lon^ a); and I think his 

' vguincnls must be adnniiicd. TL -tr has also been cx)>binc(l 

by sapposing that -ar is here a shortened Torm or -tak (see 

Kodi. E, Gram. ^■ol. iii. p. 76); which dm-s not seem at all 

likely. It is n«c<llcss to give examples of the use of this suITix. 

$ 840. AiTWCi -KO. Thia is. very conunon in (Ik. in the 

ainaiivc form -nut, and in Latin a« -cus ; as in Aa>i-(ot, 

^whence E, legi'-t ; fuiu-tus, cognate with li../m.\ 

In Gothic it uaaally appears as -ha or -ga, but always after 
fa vowe! ; ibc \oyic\ is cxMnmonty due to (he stem of ihc sb., 
< IS in Jtaina-ha-, stem of ilaina-fi-s, stony, from alatna-, stem 
of ilain-t, a slonc : handn-ga-, .item of handu-j^-i, handy, 

t clever, wrJse. These arc fttljeclivcs (see § 356); in substan- 
tives, the simple suffix is rare, but occurs perhaps in ilir-k, 
ilready discussed in \ 103 above. 
Other examples are the fotlowing : — 
I E. tr. -if ; A. S. -^, -*. Bcd-y. A. S. hod-ig : cf. 0. H. G. 
pol-ah. H«n-fy. A. S. hun-in : cf. Ice!, hun-an-g. Iv-y, 
A, S. i/-ig. Sall-y, Sall-ew. a n-illon-tree, A. S. stat-h, stem 
'sal-gs; cf. Lat. Mt'i-x, gen. sat-i-th\ Here also belongs 
Ihc diminaiival suffix -y, as in Bril-y ; and the -it in itus-u. 

We also find examples of a Tcul. sulTix -ka, as already 
noteil ill 5 S03. Snch are the following :— 

E, -* ; A. S. ■<. I-W-i, A. S. /oi-e. Teut. fol-ka (F. iii. 
t&9); cf. Lilhuan. ^t-Jta-t, a crowd, Rus^fo/-i\ an army; 

* An E. -MD uBOvn to A-S. nom. -A in/arr-vpi, from A.S. fiarA, i 
i; /mrr-tvr, A.S. /wA; marT-«m, A.S. iwvA. Bat in thtw thiw 
dt tbc A.S. -A b radical, not a niffix. 

tOL. L S 




root uncertain. Haxo-k. A. S. ha/-oe ; cf. Ic«I. 
O.Yl.G. hah-uh; lit. 'ibc seiner'; fromv'KAP, to 
hold. Wfl-i, Wil-i, a »hell-rBl), dsuatly misspelt wA/*, , 
wil-ee, later wil-oc ; named from its spiral shell ; from ■»/ 1 
to turn, wind. Voi-k, Fti-t, A. S gr^-*t-a, the j-ellow 
froin^<«/-», yellow, Stl-i, .VS, *«>/-<■, is merely a 
wor<l, obuined from Slavonic traders ; it b the SUvouk fan 
of the Lai. Seri-eum, the material obtained from the .Sera; 
bul the <!uffix i* the Arjraii -ko. 

§ 341. The Teut. suffix -ga is common in comhiuin 
with a preceding tm-. or more osualtjr -m-, or -hn-, of 
doubtful origin. Of -an-ga there is bul on<- eiample, 
viz. in the Goth, iah-ag-ga (=^Jt-an-ga), a cioubtful *ord 
in Mark ix. 43 ; but the suiBica -in-gti and -un-ga (ongia- 
all)' •in-g6, -tm-g6 In the case cX /tmniuu substantives) Vt 
very common in A. S. in the forms -1^. -mtg, 

(d). A. 8. stifBx -inic. This was In common ttaic to fam 
patronymic*, of whJdi a striking cumple occurs m Ik 
Northumbrian version of Luke iii. 34-38, where ' the son rf 
Jwlah ' is expressed by ioth-ing, ' the son of Zorobsbd ' If 
jorolaitl-iag, etc. Hence v-cre formed a large ntmber of 
tribal names, such as ScyMmgM, the Scyldings, •S'rrjfV^ 
Uie Scj'Ifmgs, both mentioned in the ]>oero of BtemlC 
Hence aUo axe derived many place>namcs, as, e.g. Bart 
tn Essex, from the iribc of Barkings, A.S. Bt^rc 
Bitckiiigham, from the A. S. Buttinga-kiin, lc, lioroe of 'dm- 
Ituckingi. whero -a Is the suflix of the (piniliie plural ; SS^ 
tngkam, from tbe A. S. Stiolinga-kdm, I.e. home of tbe Sooi- 
infjs or sons of Snot, the 'wise' man ; cf. A. S. snol-or. Colli. 
tnuhr-i, wise. In composition with -A, it appears u ' 
i|]rca<ly discu»cd as being a diminutiva] snIBx in § 203. 
out the -l; it has a dlminotival or depreciatory force in 
ing, lit. a little lord, ^'arlh-ing, \.S./tfr3-ing,fir}-ing, 
found a.i /torS'i-ing, means a fowrth part of a peimy ; from 
/terfi-a, on^. /fyr^, founh, from f^vtr, four, Har-aif, 


- of 4^ 

! Sool- 
. Colli. 

Aimio-sAxoy sufj-ix -vng. 


LS. iar-ing, the fish ihn: comes in shoals or annics, from 
' (stem har-ja). an army, ho&t. JC-iag, shori for iin-ing, 
5. efn-ing, KomelimcM «xnlaine<l iut ihc 'son of the tribe," 
Elwecn of the tribe, whcrwisc 'the man or high rank' 
in either csue. the derivation of tyn-ir^ from A. S. 
«, lribl^, race, viocl;, \t)u:nce also eyi'f, royat, is indubitable. 
"tnn-y, A. S, >«-«■, fuller form fieit-ii^ ; oldest A. S. fonn 
'•w^; formed bjr r'-mulation Uovapaitd-, ihc same as Du. 
hJ, G. P/ani. a pledge. Rid-ing. a* the naaie of one of 
ihc three divisions of Yorkshire, is for 'Ihrid-ing (!.<■, Norlh- 
riding for Ti'ifl/i-lhnding); ofScand. origin ; from \<xLpridj- 
tifg-r, the tltird part; from/ri'A', third Sii/i-ii^, A.S.teiJf- 
sng; cf. Goth, liill-'gg-s (=^ sti//-iag-s). Whil-iug, 3. fish 
Darned from Ihc whiteness of the flesh. We may add die obso- 
lete votA <rfliel-t>ig,h.S.aP<l-ing, a prince; from itPtU, noble- 
(A) A . 8. suffix -usg. Thi.H is extremely common in ttbs. 
derived from verbs, as id dins-ung. a ctcans-ing, from eliim- 
iait, to deanse ; gtorn-ung, a yearn-ing, from gtorn-iiiii, to 
yearn. "Wvt auflix -uMg Mmjily takes llie jilaue of the infiiiiitve 
suffix -tfJt or -fill. K>-cD in A. S. ihis ^ulBx frequently appears 
a» -ti^ ; as in kam-ing, learo-ing, also spelt Uorn-mtg ; fytg- 
ing, a folkiw-ing, from fytg-aa, to follow. In mod. E. the 
speltiog -w(g for this suffix is universal, and estrcmcly com- 
mon. Unfortunately, it bas^ been confused with the ending 
of the pment participle. k> that many sentences are now 
diBicult 10 parse. Thus the phrase ' he is gone bunliDg ' 
viwf. formerly ' he is gone a-huniing,' where a reprctenis the 
A. S. prep. DM, and htnU-ing is for the A. S. kuHt-ungr. dat. of 
htmlung, a substantive of verbal origin. In .£lfric's Colloquy, 
we ltat<c the krri fui it venaliom ; above ihia is ihe K. S. 
gloss — gyrtioH dag te xoat <m hunlunge, ' yesterday 1 was 8- 
huatlng'.' These words in -ing are now used with an elliptis 
of a folhivring ^ which gives the sb. all the appearance of 

' Or otbuaUo 'U Bin tn AmtaSt. Thtte was ■ ib, AtnwMrl, witb 
ibc mmt KnM aad font m AmauHg. 

s J 




being; pan of the veib itsetT. Tfans ' br was seen Idliiiie 
fties ' b (o lie expLuned bjr compansoQ with ' be axaiaed 
hiinseir by killing Bies,' Lc. hy At killing ^ ftk« ; to 
rcalljr sttnds for 'be was seen m (ke {att ^) kiDin; ^i 
That b ftD btnruciive tentence m Bxcon'a third 
which should be paniculu'lj' considered. 'Concerning the 
Meanes of procuring Uniiy ; Hen must bcvare, lim In ik 
Procoring, or ^tuniting, of Rcligioiis Unitr. thejr doe nei 
Disralve and Deface ihe Ijtwes of Chiritj, and of hnrnm 
Socictj.* Here it is clear that 'the Meanes of 
Unity' b prvciKlf the tame thing ta 'ttie Mcaneti of /Jr | 
curing o/ Religious Unity.' ConscqueDlly, proc^^ing is ja 
M roach a substantive as the word promratiini, which nii^'' 
be SBbttiluted (or it, in the fiillcr fomi of the phrase, withoa 
making any diffcrrncc. In fact, these words in •mg lad pre- 
cisely the force of Lai. words in 'Oh'o, when farmed from Tctk 
Nowadays, the )>hrase * he was punished Tor the bveaUng of i 
windov* ■ has bcconie "... for Ivcaking a window ' ; whence li' 
the sabsiitmioQ of an active past participle for the nr/t^Mn/ai n> c 
liresent panictple, has arisen the eiiraordinary phrase ' be wu 
punished for Atfrri^irditmawindow.' This phrase ix now an ac- 
cepted one, so that ihe grammarians, in desinir, have inreWcJ 
for wordH thun use*) tlie lerTagtmnJ, niKler Ibe impression thu 
to give a thing a %-nguc name is the same thing as clearly be- 
plaining ii '. This icrm, however, shoaM only be etnploy«l (or 
convenience, with the express uodcrsUnding ibat il refers to » 
modem usage vhlcb has arisen from a succession of hhimJefs 
II is unnecessary to gi^c further examples of tins comnon 
sufilx. wliich can be added, in modem English, to any verii 

' Tbut I lead In a iccnit book, tli*i ' Ibc gennd i« -ine niutt bt ib 
tlngdifaed from tlic verbal noon in -ing' &-c. The fact b. that (W 
diffewncc U purely ow «J nuxlein otagc ; elj'niotogicalli'. it nakts w 
diffproict wh«in«. Morcoro, the M^ealkd 'verbal Doon' ia odj 
■vttbitl'iD \he *ant othiia^dirtvtil/r»m a 9tri\ jtAtt b tbt cacnf 
Ittalth tKoa Mai. 




f MS. Tbc easiest adjectival suffixes are iho»e which can 

' be traced as having been iodependeiii wordx. These arc 

-/ail, -/otd, -fal, -UtSf -Ukt or -fy, -scmf, -ward, -wart, --vw. 

-ftot, A.S./ert/, llic same w /mi when used indcpen- 

dendj. It occurs only in shamf/nsl, M. E. xcham-fail, A. S. 

uram-/<rtl, now torni|)led into thamt-fiUtd; and in tltad- 

/oil, lUd-fatt, M. E. akdi-fasl. A, S. iUdffusl-t. lirni or fast 

I in its stead ot place. 
-fold, A. S. -/toM; as in two-fold, ihrtf/old, mani-fbld. 
-fol. A, S. -/ill, i. c. full ; a» in dread-fui, hrid-ful, nftd-ful, 
etc. 1i is freely added to sbe. of F. orif^io, as gratt-fal, 
graU-fui, ttc. 
I -19SS, M. £■ -ttit, A. S. -Wat ; this, the commonest of all 
adjectival suffixes, can be added to almost every sb. in the 
language; as tap-ltsi, fuU-las, (oal-Ust, v<^-lai. The A. S. 
Uoj properly means ' loose ' or ' free from ' ; ii is merely 
aiKithei form of loftr, which is the Scand. form, being bor- 
TOweai from Icel. laun, loose. Thiii Icel. word is liltewise in 
yt,ry common a« as a suffix ; as in Icel. vi/-tauti, wit-less. 
Tbc suffix -Itis has no connection whatever wiih itic com- 
|»rative adjective litt. 

•Jika or -ly. Tlie form -A'ie only occurs in words of 
modem ronualioo, as eourt-likt, sainl-likt, which may also 
be eourt-fy, laint^y. In all older forms, it appears aa 



•fy, a shortene<i form of -liit, A.S. -/£-, formerly -*f: » 
in jtffA/ii-, glicwi-ly, torfi-iu, carth-ly. Qhatl-ly, M.E.Ci;^ 
^, i. e. terrible, Lt formed from A. S. gdsf-aa, to terrify 

-eome. M. E. -Mm, -iam, A. S. -akm ; cognate with Ud 
-samr. G. -jam, and orig. ihc same wortl as E. laiHe. Sti 
Wdgand's Etjm. Genn. Did., b.v. -urm. Hence mk-umt, 
A.S. t^w-MM, detigbtful, from wyn, joy; Its-sinti, shon fir 
lilkt-some. etc. Added to shs. of F. origin in mtliU-timt, 
tuuioau, quarrel-tome, loH-some. In tbc word bux-om, i\.t- 
iuh-ium, from A. S. big-an, to bow, bcitd, wc ha^'e the saiBC 
suiiix : the orig. Ecn§c was yicldiog, pliant, obedient, a taat 
whicti occurs as bte as in Mition. who twice spcaka oT'tk 
^joni air * i P. L. ii. i*4 1, v. 3 70. 

-wartL A.S. -vnard. i.e. turned towards, inclined; n- 
prcsaive of ilie direction in which a thing tendx to go. Tbc 
Gothic form is -ieairl&s, as in and-wairth'S, present; fnu 
wairlh-an, to be turned to, to become'. The A. S. iam * 
parallel to the pi. i. utar0 of the corresponding A. S. vol 
U)twd-an. Thus lo-ward is ' turned to' ; /ro-ward is ' nmid 
from': uuy-uuri/ is short for (ntu>--nian/,t.c. 'turned uwit': 
/er'Ward, i.e. 'turned to the fore'; iach-ward, * turned lo 
the back." Axifk'ward jg ■ turned aside,' hence per^-etsc, 
clumsy ; from M. E. auk, iTamwrsc, Bttange, a form om* 
tractcd from Icel. a/ug-r, «/ug-r, gotng the vrronj; my; 
ju«l as hmi'k is formed from A. S. kafot. 

-wort. Only in ilal-warf. a corrupt form of i/aZ-tivrA 
The KUlTix is A.S. weorS, worth, worthy; sec Staluvri in mf 
Etj-m. Diet. 

-wise, A.S. tEtt. Occurs m uvolker-wise, i.e. kiraving 
OS to the weather. yi.V..»Si<ihaArighl-u,it,wr«Hg-U'*t. fV 
latter is obsolete ; the former (A. S. rihl-wU, lit. knowing at 
to right) is now corruplc*! lo righttous. 

\ 848. Other adjectival suffixes agree more or le» wnli 

' Cogutc wttb Lat. mrt-tn, 10 toni, mtrl-i, t« be liumcil, lu h 
So alto Xm. Hin-Ki, lovudk. It allied lo E. -wrj. 

ARYAh' SUFflX -to. 


I nitatanih'^ suflixes explained in the last Chapter. Such 
! ili« foltowlng. 

AiTan -O. V^ commoD, but lost in nod. E. Thus 

. Uiitd, A. S. htmd, answers 10 (lOlh. Hinds, stent blixd-A. 

ch insuuictK l/ack, bliak, iUnJ, broaJ. not, dark, dra/, 

t, dumb, full, glad, good, great, grim, high, hoar, kol, lit/, 

trt, rtd, rewgA, therl, siek, stiff, tohile, wholt, witt, tmrth, 

aiul some others. Here belongs loott, from Ice). 

w, stem LAUS-A. Sec Sicvcra, O.K. Gram, f 193. Ftvi, 

■Ieii\ do not belong here; net $ 348. 

$ 244. Attoq •!. Exttmptcs are scarce. We rcay refer 

biihtr the following. Mmn, in the of common or vile,^-e', cognate with,G.Y\, 

Gotti. ga-main-t (stem qa-uain-i). Whether this i* related 

lo Lat fow-mim-w, common, is still diti|>uicd ; but the re- 

lation^ip is probably real. 

^ $ 24fi. Arymn -U. The chief example* are quitk, A. S. 

^mvie-u, rtvit ; and hard, A. S. h^ard, cognate with Goth. 

'kard-u-i. and allied to Gk. tpar-i-t, strong. 

{ 246. Aryan -10. Cf. Gk. Jyu-f, holy. LuvL in mod. 
V.., but sometimes appears as .« in A. S. and e%'cn in M.E. 
This suflix sometimes causes /-mutation of the preceding 
vowel- Without ciuiaiiou ate llie following. Dear, A. S. 
dAf'e; ef. O. H. G. tiur-i, whence G. tietur ; Tcul. dki/U'Va 
(Hck, iii. 1(6). Fret, K.S. /rio, /ric \ Goth, _/>-«-i (stem 
/ri-Ja) ; originally ■ at hberiy,' ' acting at pleasure,' and allied 
to Skt./ri-fu, beloved, agreeable ; from v'PRI, to bve. Mid, 
A.S. mid. Goxh. iHidJis \ Tcut. mki>-ta. Ntw, A. S. nim-t, 
Goth. Hiu-ji-t (stem niu-ja) ; derived from Goth, hu, A. S. nS, 
E, MOW. Wild, A.S. wild, Goih. wiili-ei-s (stein wiUh'/a\ 
The following exhibit mntiilion. Keen, A.Sl e/a-t (=:VAt- 
/»-). cognate with G. kshn, O. H. G, (huat-i^, TcuL kSh-ta 
(Kick, iii. 41); peihapa allied to (an. Steal, A.S. sw^l^ 

I Hence O. H. G. Ckutn-rH, Kutn-rit, keen (id) ovoiimI 1 ap|>eariiig 



{='sw$t-J6-); T«ui. sw6T-rA (RcIe. hL 361); this appon 
to 1)e a bier rormiiion from an older sw<!iTU, coj^nalc 
Lat. tuHuu (for •jmW-km), Gk. (8-^*, Stt. si-^-u, tweet; 
so that i: was originally a M-Etciu. Cf. Goth, hard-jo'-a u 
the ace. vaanc. OS hard^u-r, hard. 

§ 247. Toutonic -I-ka. This, ansn-crs to Goth, tt-na, u 
in iHubr-fi-na-, stem of silubr-d-a-s, silvi-r-n, from ahtr, 
^Iver; and to A. Sl -m, E. -«, -n. This suffix somrtiiDo 
causcti f-mutation of ihc preceding vowel, as seen bi Uaht^ 
A. S. i/c-en, from bSe, a bccch-trcc; and in A. S. g/id-a, 
golden, from goid, gold. The latter has been displaced I7 
gold-tn ; and the HutVix in much commoner in Early Engbb 
than in A. S. tience wc commoiilj' find no tntitaiion of die 
vowel. Examples are: «A-«», made of ash; hirtk-m; 
hrastM, made of brass ; flax-<n ; gcld-m ; hemp-en ; l^d-m ; 
oat-m ; oat-m ; lilk-m ; wax-rn ; vfkeai-en; wood-en; wool-Jt*- 
So also /talier-n, sUver-rt, the latter of wltich is almost ob- 
solete. Asp-en (pro|>erl)* an adjective, as wbcn wc speak di 
'the aspen 'tree ') is now practially used as a &b. ; thir old 
sb. irsp or afis, an 'asp.' from which it is dcrivetl, being now 
almost forgotten. Lhs-eti was also originally an at^roh 
Old)-, from A.S. tin, flax; not a native word, but mertl! 
borrowed from lin-urn. Tri-in or Ireen vra.t once 
as an adj. from tret, chiefly with ihc tense of 'woodvn 
Glat-en. made of ghn, has long been out of use. Etm-n, 
from elm, is siill in u.->e in our dialects. TIk words 
he«lh-en, do not belong here; see \ 353. With lfaj» sulGit 
Lat. -t'wu, as in eaM-inut, K. ean-itu, 

§ 848. Aryan -WO. In $ at> wo have seen that -vt 
aoBweis 10 E. -au) in mead-mo, sAad-^u/. Similarly we caa 
explain eai/-mi, A. S. ea/-u (stem ea/'W»-); /aU-em, A.^fl 
/ea/-u {Slcm /eal-wa- < ykl-tco-); neli-ow, with / for r, 0^ 
Mercian mer-uv, tender , Matt, xxiv, 3a ; narr-ow, A. S. 
itfor-u; saJi-cw, A.S. ta!-ii ; jKil-tm, A.S. ge«i-». Se« Sieves. 
' S|N;ntcr hoi ' tf«£a iDOtdd,*ie.i^iwof treei; F. Q. 1. 7. 116. 





I *s»-l 

^K YAH Sm-F/X -SO. 


)■ E. Gmm. $ 300. Hiw ulno tKlong ilic rollowing. Ftw, 
. S. p\.yik-wt. Nighy M. E. wh, A. S. itM, nriiA, allied to 
FGatb. neh-wa, adv, nigh. Raw, A.S, Ar/mv, pi. Ar/a-ttv. 
jy«w, A. S. tl6w, \A. slA-ttM. True, A. S. Iri^vx, Teut. TKs- 
vji (F. tii. 114). Yart, mdy, used by Shakespeare, A. S. 
ar-« (stem gmr-too- < gar-UMh) ; whence probably llic sb. 
rr-«tf, tniiroil, with the »en»c of ' dreaing ' for wounds, for 
rhkh it wax a famous remedy. Its Lat. name is AehilUa, 
au« Achilks healed with it tlic wound of Tclephos; 
Cockayue, A. S. Leechdonu, L 19^ 
^B $348. Aryma -MO. A clear example of tliis uccuni in 
He. twr-w, A.S. rwar-w, Tcui. war-»a (F, UL 29a)! prob- 
Bably from a root wak, 10 boil, and not allied to Gk. Ap-fuli. 
" Cr. ftuo. var-He, U> boil. The w is a suffix in A. S. rUm, 
spacious, whence E. roomy, 

{ 250. Toutonio -ua-k. Tlii.« is only found in old .>uper- 
latires, such 2.1 A.S. /or-ma (■Aem /or-mttn), litsi, the su- 
perlative frora /er-t. fore ; cognate with Lat. prt'-mu-j. first. 
To this superlaiivv -ma it wait not uncommon to add the 
additional nifEx -tit (Goth, -iil-s) ' ; this produced the isuflTix 
-m-^it, which was afterwards supposed to stand for moil, and 
was accordingly so re-spelt. This is the history of our fare 
m-^t, A. S, /tr-m-al, also more correctly /yr-m-isl, with 
I'-mutaiion of ■> 10^'. So also hind-m-ott, Goth. hindH-m-itt-ii 
in-m-oit, from A. S, intie-m-eil, most inward ; oiii-in-osl, from 
A.S. iti-m-<tt, roost outward. Wiih the sullix -*r for -tit, 
^hre get the curious word /or-m-tr, where the -w- marks 
^^a sttperlative, and the -w a comjiataiive form. 

% 251. AiTfta >RO and -LO. There are not many 
traces of the former. The clearest example is hitt-tr, M.E. 
iil-tr, A.S. bil-tr, bit-or < 'i.bil-tn, pp. of Ut-an, to bile; cf. 
Goth, bait-r-i (stem nAir-RA), hitter < || bail, pt.t. of Golb. 
•it-an, to bite, /ii/-r, K.% fttg-r. ftrg-^r; Goth./^-r-j 

I A«7«a nllU -Is-To. weakened fbnn of -vi)S'T<^ -voki-to, where 
I to the (A>]sn)ooin(ius[imnOU; Ck. •a--n-t. 





.. coo- 
rc is »^i 

(stem pac-ra), fit, sniuUc; from yPAK, to fiulen, fit. 
SKpp-tT-y is fonncd by xd<linf[ ^ lo A. S. liip-or, alippsy^ 
from the verb to slip. 

-LO. There was a rather numcroos class of A. S. acljc 
tive« in -vl, -tl, of whieli few iiurvive. Swm:(, in his &.! 
Reader, instances A'Ai*/, violent, from ^^-r, hate; and/<iw^ 
lliougliiful, from /^n<, thought. HriU-lt, W. K. fri>-*/, hrM-d, 
Irul-tl < II trot-en, pp. of A. S. hrt'eitm, to l»eal[. SpcB 
uses iritlt'le, F. Q. iv. lo. 39, with a like tense; (mat 
irtr-an, to break. AW/, A. S,_>/-^/; Goth, utr-i-t-t (» 
v^-i-la); root unknown. Fiek-U. A. S. j$r-0/, decdMt 
fnnn _;f(f, «„ fraud ; cf. /de-n, deceit /!/-/<■. A. S. Id-d, 
empty, vain ; cf. G. eil-d, rain. Lill-U, A. S. ^^-rf. coo- 
nccled with lyl, adv., little; liete 1^1= 'luh; snd there is t_ 
connection with Goth. JiwMt deceitful; Me Fick, iiL 
Miek-le, great, A. S. myf-il, mit-tl; Goth, mii-i-l-t, 
10 Gk, base ^yo-Xo-, great. But the most extraord 
word with tliix suffix ik the M. K. rattl, rash, wild, a vonl 
of Scand. origin, answeringr to Icct. rdk-alt, adj.. vagabond, 
from reik-a. to wander about- This word w:is straDgdf 
transrontied iuio rakt-heU in ttie i6lti oenturj- (m» Trench 
and Narcs), and has since been politcl)- shortened so as tg 
produce the mod. K. sb. a rakt, i.e. a dissohilc nun. The 
verb 10 ail, A. S. tg-l-au, to trouble, to )xiin, U <lenve(l &MI 
A.&. tg-lt, [Toublesomc, allied to Goth, ag-lu-t, difficnli, 
hard ; so that the (inai / is really an itdjectivjj suffix ; hn 
v'AGII, to choke, pain. So alw in the case of/iw-/, A.S^I 
/6-I ; from ^ PU, to stUiL ^ 

§ 202. Aryan -NO. £. trao-n, A. 5. hru-m; cofpiatr 
with G. tirau-n, Lithuanian iru-ita-i, brown; and allied lo 
^\a. i/a-bkru. lawny'; sec t"ick, iii. aiS. Kv-fit, K.S.*/-* 
Gotb. i^n-t (stem ib-xa) ; probably related to Goch. 
backwatdt. Fai-n, A. f». /ag-<n ; cf. led, /eg-imt. 

' Hm to be cuDDvcleil with the vnb Id itwH, u uiggmcd bi my 1 




joffiil. We may here notice thai ihe led. -inn is the usual 
suffix of the p^>. of strani; verbs, as tii gef-itm. K. nh'-nt, 
Golh. gii-ait-t (sicm gt^a~na-) ; so that the adj. suffii is 
here of the satne form as thai of the strong pp. The Tcul. 
forTO (A fain b fAK-i-NA (Fick, iit. 169}, as if it were a pp. 
from the Tc«I. base FAH, to fit. suit; /P.^K. to fit Ttie 
tunc pp. Buflijc occuTB in op-n, A. S. op-tn, lc«l. ep-iwi ; and in 
roUtn, borrowed from ihe Icel. rot-irm, llie jip. of a lost ^-erb. 
Cf. § 160. Htalh-m, orig. one who dwelt on a ktath, but ex- 
Icntted (like the LaL paganus, a villager, afterwards a pagan) 
to denote one who is uninitnicied in the CliiUtian rctision; 
A. S, Atiffn, from M9, a heath. Cf. Goth, bailh-m, a heathen 
woman ; haiih-i, heath. 

Grte-n, A. S. grt-n-t {^'grS-n-jo-"), cognate with Icel. 
grcrnn. G-grtin, answers to Teut. csd-K-VA (Fick. iii. iia); 
so that the »i9ix is really double. It is closely allied to the 
verb to gretti. L<a-n, wleodcr, A. S. hIJ-nt (= 'A/i-n-jo), 
slender, frail ; orig, ' leaning,' as if wanting support ; allied to 
hldnan, U> lean. Sltr-n, severe. A. S. s^r-ne {=^ slurn-Jo^. 

Wiih regard to the words tail-em, uvtl-em, nor/A-em, 
sMt/Atrit, we mu« compare the O. H, G. formii, xuch as 
nordii-riiM', north-cm. Fick (iii, 351) supposes that the 

10. H. G. suffix -rfni is a derivatiw from ranft, the and stem oi' 
G- rtmi-<n, Goth, rinit-^n (pt. t. rann), to ruD. If so, nerth- 
tm means 'running from the north.' i.e. coining from the 
north, said of the wind. Oilicrwise, we should have to 
pippose thai it is a compound suHix. This point MJU 
remains unsettled. 

S 36S. Aryan -TO. This is the usual suffix of the Lai. 

k, as in ttrA-lm, pp. of tUr'n-*rt, lo lay ; and, as already 

! in § 333, il occurs as -d in K. Uu-d, pp. of lay, and as 

}-th- in Goth. lag-i'tA't, laid, pp. of hg-J-an. lo lay. It is 

very liimiliar in the form hJ, uset! as the pp. suffix of 

numerous weak verbs, as lav-td, pp. of love; also as -/, at in 

ium-i, pp. of iufn. Il deserves to be pariicularly noticed 

• 10 w 


ibai the presence of the 't- in tJ{^-t-d) ui rtaUy due. Tor 
the most p>rt. to the causal tvrb-vuflix which appcan a 
Gothic as -J-, and occasionally in A. & as -f^; thus Z. idi, 
inf. = A. S. Aai-tan, Colli, kal-j-an; :im1 the pp. halt^= 
A. $. kal-o-d, Goth, hat-i-ih-t. Ii trill thus be wen that ifae 
pp. suflSx (when written -ei) is properijr -rfonlj' ; the preced- 
ing: -t beloti^a to the veibal ntcm, juHt like the •»' in tfe 
case of K. tae-i-l, borrowed frotn lat-i-tut, pp. of 

The \rysai -TO appears in E. as -ih, -I. and -d. 

{a). The tana -ih. Thia is rare, but occurs in »n 
orig. unknown, Mtran^ ; rioni A. S. €6-3, known, Goth. 
th't, pp. of kunit-itn, to know, ^-ih is a Scand. form, bvm 
i XW Iccl. bd-Sir, both; ihc jV.S, forr/drops the sulfis, appeAiint 
as M in the feminine and neu^r, but as ^^-m in the laoscu- 
line. Guthit; has both A»ydic Hhoricr form, and iaj-o-ii-i. 
the longer one; cf G. ir/df. AV-jA, A. S. n«r-f, mtj be 
allied to Gk. u'tt-rt-pat, lower, as suggcMcd by Klugc, "ha 
ako cites the Umbrian ner-trff, on the left hand. The ca» 
neclion, in ihc latter case at least, b [he more probable, 
becau.te llie Ski. daisHiaa means 'on ibe t^hl,' also 'on the 
south,' Co a man looking fiuhtwd. S<m-IJi, A. S. tH-i 
*suH'3) ; cf. O. H. G. atn-d, %outh ; allied to £. itm, as 
the sunny quarter. 

Tin: sttflix -f& also occurs In tnosl of ihe mod. E. 
numbers, as four-lh, fi/-lh, lix-th, sertn-lh, &c. ; but, six/a, where the -/is due to the preocdingy or 
X. Hence ihc Lowl. Sc.jS/l, fix/; cf. Lai- ux-bi-t. 

(i). The form -i. Wc may particularly note this in past 
paniciptes, chiefly when preceded by /, gi, l,n,p,t\ as 
(ie/'i (frorn deavr), rtf-t (from r/otv); boi^h-t, trtugt 
MUgh-l. laugk-t, vorevgk-t; /(■/■/, ifiil-t\ burn-l, mem-^ 
fat-t; ttp-i, sUp-l, notp-t, vxp-t; Utt-l, lot-t, itrit-t. Whes 
the verb ends in / or in d preceded by anolhcr coDSonaitt. 
the pp. is often contracted ; as in /«/, Aurt, catt, h 
buildcd), tati, HH/, spaU. In adjecti%'«s, it appears 



»i noun 


f >M.1 





I K 

gh, I (in «i/y)i /-.and t. Dtf-t. M.E. t/*/"-/. filling, brcom- 

ig. mild. 1^-/. innocent (wbente prov. E, <*j/^/, Toolisb): 
•liied 10 h.%. gfda/-*M,^^l. gf-d^-t, »i)t3t>Ic. GoUi. ^tf-dy-», 
ga-dai-t, Rning. ga-dab-tm, lo happen, befit. Le/-l, with 
reference to ibe liantl, .\. S. /y-/, as n. glow to Lat. inanit 
(Monc, Qudlen. i. 443) ; the same MS. has stnttf for lyiiu, 
«o that Iffi is for •ft/?(= Vi^/0- M'd- Du. A/-/, from the 
•/ RUP, to break, uhenw? aUo E. /^^ and Ai'. Se/I. A. S. 
*4''i'''. »dv,. softly : allied to G. taaf-t. soft, O. H. G. lamf-io, 
adv., softly. Stti/'/, A. S. fU'i/-/, orig, turning quickly, allied 
to E, nttru-ti. Brigh-l, A. S. Uorh-l. Goth, bairh-t-i (Tcul, 
mckk-ta), 111. lighted up: from v'BHARK. to shine. Ltgh-I. 
as opposed to heavy, O.Mercian /rA-/(see5 33). A. S, t/oh't; 
aitied to Gk. /-Xax-M, Skt. lagh-u, light. ^'^;i-/, A. S. rih-l, 
Gotli rat'A't'S (stem r(UA-/j-), Tcut. rkh-Ta (F. JU. 348); 
cognate mtli Lai. rrr-lu-t. S/igk-i, not found in A. S., but 
of Frisbii origin ; O. Fris. tiiueh-l. Mid. Du. slic/t-t. even, llnl, 
iitfh't. xHghl. simple, vile; Tcut. slkh-ta, which per- 
haps originally meant ' smilien,' from Si.ah, Io slay, smile 
(F. ill 358); but lhi.s i* doubtful. Slraigk-l, A.S. streh-t, 

re4cbe<t light, pp. of strtec-OH, lo stretch. T^k-t, prov. £. 
ihiu (more correctly), M. E. liyl. also Ihyh-l (more eorrecdy) ; 
of Scand, origin, from IckI. ////-/■ (= '^hi-r), water - lislit ; 
allied to G. dkh-l; perhaps al«> to Lat, Ue-tus, cwered. 
Sal-t, A. S. ttal-l, lit. salted ; cf. Lat. sat-su-t. salted, from sal. 
SwoT'l, A. S. «»iT/--/, black. Goth. »«'(»/■-/■/ (stem swar- 
Ta) ; orig. ' Iwiml ' ; from v' S WF-R. to glow. Tar-I, acrid, 
A-S. Avir-/; perhaps < Wlutr. pt, I. of ter-an. to tear. Eat'l, 

. S. /ai-t; cf, Lat. aur-ora ( = 'aut^td). Skt tah-iu, dawn, 
Wts-I, A S. «w-/; cf. Lat. mS'Ptr, evening. Sec also icvn-/ 
In my Dictionary. 

The wofd waste, A,S. wis-U {—*w6i-l-}tt), exhibits the 

' Tliit ctyinot<>f;y wm dbeovcred by Mt. Swm. who pabliihcd ft in 
t^Anglia. iii. isjfiSSo). 




double fufTix -T-TA ; it is related to Lat- uat'itu. *a«, ball 
not borrowed from It. 

(f). The forin*^. We have already noticed the -t-4 of 
the pp. A rcm-itkablc example appears in E. iaZ-J, of wtkh 
the M. K. fonn wa§ bail-td. Ih. ' marked witli a «hi!c patdi' 
(of. pit-bald, tktw^ld) ; the Welsh M nieans ' iuving i 
white streak on llic rorehml,' said of a hofse, and cf. Ci^ 
ipaX-aKpit, bald-headed, tpaX-apAi, having a »pot of whiial 
Sold, A.S. 6a/-d, iW-rf: cf. Golb. adv. bal-tita-ia. boWli 
Cel-d,0. Mercian MV-rf (5 33). A.S.«b/-</; tf. iM-gd-i-^, 
cold; the -d docs not appear in A.S. <'tf. E. t-<w/. /W^ 
M. E. oVf-rf, A.S. dAt-d: Ooib. dau-lft-j («em tuv-nuV » 
weak p)>. Torru due tu llie strong \ti\> dtw-an ((it. L dw), U 
die. (The verb dir is of Scand. origin, not A. S. ; rrooi lei. j 
dirv-j<t.) Lewd, .\. S. A/iS-(/ ; coignatc wiih Gk, «l»f-r»-f, r^ 
iiowiicd, fumed, Ski. (ru-la, heard, pp. off/^if, to hear. The 
word nak-fd »[ilt preserves ihe full pp. form ; A. S. niu-<d, U 
if from n verb 'nM-i/tH, lo make bare ; Goih. uaJtw-a^^t- 
naked; Ihc Icelandic has not only nak-l-r, naked, b« aboi 
fonn nai-iim, will) the cbaracteristic pp. SuRix ofa siroi^ verb; 
cf. Lai- nu-dut (=. 'ttug-dui). Ski. nag-ma, bare. 

$ 254. Aryan -TEU- This occurs in E. o-lhtr, A.!i ' 
i-Sa; Goth, an-l/iar, Lai. al-Ur, Ski. aa-lar-a. Il is a com- 
paraiive siitlJx, occurring alM) in wke-thrr, which of vn, 
Goih- ham-thar, Gk- ko-»»j»-i»«, «o-n,».ii*, Skt. ka-lar-a ; *»t 
in li> deri\'aiivcs f{-lk<r. n-ti-tktr, 

j 266. Aryan -OKT, -ENT. This suffix occars in A.S. 
present participles, lU already explained in j 329, which kx. 

\ 256. Aryan -KO. As alrcidy explained in { 340. ilro 
»jlTix occurs as Goib. -ha in tlaina-ha, stem of ttaina^t, 
stony, from tiaina-, xiem of stains, a. ttoae ; also as -^ is 
handu-ga-, stem of iwndu-g-s, wise, a woni of doubtful cir- 
mology. So also Gotb. maAiei-g-t, mighty, answering lo A S^ 
meaJHi-g, mighiy. In A. S. llie fuffix is practically =-I-KO, 
from Uk frequcm use of -KO with t-slems. Hence the 


I 'S7.1 



rnvariahk suf&x IS -tg. which b mvaiiabty reduced 10 -je >n 
nocl«rti Engtbh. TItut Goili. mana-g-s (wilh a-Ktcm} is A. S. 
ntru'^, E. man-y; Goih. moMa'-g-s (uiih I'-stem) is A.S. 
mtaht-ig, K. mighl-y ; and Goih. himdu-g-i (with w-sleni) 
signifies * wise.' but its connection wiih E. hani-y is doubt* 
fal. In modem K. these adjectives in -y arc vrrjr numerous ; 
in fact, lhi» sulTix can be added to a Urge number of 
subsianiivcs ; wc can say ' a lutrs-y K«f t,' or ' an ink-y 
sky.' Amongst A. S. adjectives of this class ve may enu- 
merate kyi'ig, bus-y; ertt/I-ig, craft-y (orig, experienced); 
dys-ig, dizz-y; dyh-t-tg, E. dcughi-y < .. ditg-ait. 10 avwl, be 
worth, mod. K. da (as St occura in the phrase ' thai u-Ill do') ; 
dyst-ig, Aaf\-y\ /dm-ig, foam-y; hf/-ig, E. Atav'y < AtiStin 
(= 'kaf-itin). to heave ; tf/r-ig, wear-y, &c. So also an-y, 
A.S. itn-ig. from dn^ one; cf. Lat. ttn-iaa. The word 
xiO-y, M. E. til-i, A S. uii-ig, has remarkably changed Its 
meaning ; it is derived from A. S. siii, season. an<l orig. 
cant timely; then lucky, happy, blessed, innocent; and 
Jy, fiiropte, fooliah. In the exprc^iion ' siUy sheep,' it fa 
used with a less contemptuous sense than when wc spe-.ik of 
'a tilly man.' 

S 367. Aryan -ISKO or -SKO. Tliis sulTix is used in 
Greek to form diminutive-K, as in mui-ltrm*, a young boy, 
from Boit (gen. *«A-e'i), a son. It occura with an adjectival 

Eln Lithuanian, SUv-onic, and Tcotonic Cf. I.iih. /Ooa-s, 
icr, whence OW-ittk-M, fatherly ; O. Slav. Swia, Ru$S./nHi, 
'Oman, whence O. Slav, itn-itku, K\i&». Jm-ik-n', womanly, 
Jnine. So also Gotli. matina, a nun, maHn-itk-s, human ; 
A. S. meuH-ite (with t-mutation), human, also used as a sb-^ 
meaning 'man'; G. Mrn-ich, orig. an adj,, but now always 
used a« a sb. This word is still prewrved in T.owl. Scmrwc, 
but the sense has still further changed to that of ' nunlincu,' 
and thence 10 good manners, propriety of bch3^'iour. ' Meat 
to good, bot mtnt< is better ' is a Scoilish proverb. The A. S. 
ine is the mod E. -iih, which can be very freely added to 




Mibauiuives, 10 denote dmilarity. Other examples occur b 
A. 5. htittti'tK, TL htitlhen-ish ; Ai-lend-iir, E. 9i^laa4-ak, 
Ac. It is panicnbHy used to si^ify relation lo a coontij or 
tribe; as in E. Engl-Uh. A.S. Engl-m. formed with r-nraa- 
lion from Angtl, i.e. Angela iii Denmark. Ailuaie in Ac 
cooiitry Iwlween Fkn^burg in Sleswig iml tlw EytJer- E- 
Dan-iiH, A. S. Dm-itf, from Dtn-t, pi., ihc Danes ; cf. tcd 
Dtut-skr, Danish, from IXxn-ir, pL ihe Danes. E. Frn^k. 
A.S. Frtne-iif, Frunk-isfa, frooi Fraiwan. pL, the Fntnki. 
E. Wcl-th, A.S. W<ri-he, from Wral-at. pU of tnw/l. % 
foreigner. The words Frmtk, Wthk have alroidy been i*- 
Hianced as cihihtting eX3niplo<> of concealed mutation: y^ 
193, aoi. .\dd to llicse Bnl-iih, A.S. BhU-iic, from BriH-^, 
nom. pi., the Britons ; cf. SrH-m, Briit-tn, Lat. BrilantiM, Hr 
iandofihcBriions. E. Scf/Msi, Stol-isH. Sioi-cA, Se«l-t{Uttii 
is wriltefl all four ways'), A. S. ScyU-iu, rormeil by ('•muiBliM 
from Sotttiu, nom. pi., Lai. Scoti, the Scots, orig. tbe Iriab. Of 
common adjectives ending in -uh it may snfBce to me&liaa 
tkurl-ith, A. S. ^rl-isc, cttr/-isc, formed by r-mulatkm {tfeo 
spelt etwi-isc, vjlhoui mutation) from ftvri, a husbiinibnaiL 
a churl, a freeman of the lovcit class. Some ioich adjccihc* 
are of quite modem ronoattoR, from substantives of FlOBh 
origin, as agu-ith, tncd-iik, prud-iik. roga-itk. We bait 
already seen that it is slwrlcned lo -eh in Frm-ck. Sfsl-*lii 
and to -»A in fVel-sA. To these we may add ihe following^ 
Y../re'sh, A-S./er-tc {= '/ar-isc), i.e. mminff, from^^-na. 
to go ; frtth water Iwing that whkh is kept from sts^miiao 
by constant modon. E. mar-th, s., A. S. mer'K {^='mtr-ii^ 
orig. an adj.; lit. 'mcre-i^'Le.adjoining amercor lake; frera 
mer-t. a lake. E. ra-ih, of Scand ori^rt; from Dan. and Snd. 
ratk, quick, hrisk, led. rSti-r, ripe, laatnrc. In this word.H 
Kiugc suggest.-), a lA may have been losi ; it woatd ihcD stand 
as it were, for 'katk-sx, i.e. quickly turning, from the Tea. 

■ Stttt 'nAotHotthv<MtiSaaiii,^SrMiii,Ukt/Hglii fat 
JM) I J. A. H. Mumy, in N. wd Q. t & li, 90. 





kAfn-A, a wheel, preserved iii G. Rod, a wheel ; cf. Lith. 
riiat, a wheel, Lat. r<^a, Ski. ralha^. Pcrlu^ it is hardly 
necessary to n<kl Uat this E. adjcciival suffix -ith is wholly 
distioct from the verbal suffix of Romance origin which 
appears in ficur-ith, peii-i'sft, punish. &c. 

AiTftn -IS-TO. for -YONS-TO. The superlative suffix 
-w/ answers to<jlL-t«-To-, and needs no illustration. See §150. 

Am-ERDiAL Suffixes. 

I SMw Some of the adverbial suffixes can be recognised 

tnin^ been independent words. Such are -ly, -meaJ, 
'Viard, -vMrds, -way, -vxiy-s, -vnsi. 

-ly. A. S, -lit-t, adverbial form from A. S. -lie, adj. suffix. 
See ) 341. It wax common in A.S. to form adverbs from 
adjectives by the addition of -t; a.i beorkt-t, brightly, from 
bforhi, brigfaL Cf. Gotb. sama-ltit-o, adv.. equally, froin 
sama-teii-T, adj., alike ; uhleig-e, seasonably, from uhUig-t, 
scaMOnaUe. Thus the corresponding Godi. »uflix is -Uil-t. 

-meoL Only now used in pttft-mtal, a hybrid compound. 
M. £. bad ai&o fioi-nul, by companies, pound-mtlt, by potmds 
at a lime, itund-mrif, hy houre, Ac. Of iiieieJtffJt-mrJ answers 
to A. S. ^of-anri-um. adv.. by companies, in Clocks ; where 
aufJ-uBi is the dal. or inslrumenial plural of mdl. a time, also 
a lime for food. mod. K. mt<2l. a rcijast. 

-ward, -ward-B. As in hithtr-ward, batk-ward. back-wcrdt. 
See -ward as an adjectival suffix in § 341. It is cootmon to 
find the eaine form of a word asrd both adjectivally and 
adverbially in modern English ; as ' a brigiil sun.' ' the sun 
shines bright' This is because the A. S. adverbial form was 
itorAZ-r. as explained aboi'e ; and the loss of the -e reduced 
the adverb to the same form as the adjccti»"c. The ■* in 
■d-t a an old genitive ; see further below, | 159. 

■way, -wfty-8. A.S.imi/-way,ai-ttay-t. j^Z-ony-jisagcni- 

Sdude lui a ray diSereal ulntion. He tBppota thu an Initial v 
I bea loH, cad cMuecct r*ti (for * orrtt/A) nith Golb, ga-airitimui, 
{iMdace ftslt, 10 bring (mil to peirceil«n {.Ixkt nlL 14} 
VOL. I. T 


(C«*r. IIT. 

tiva) form, in bwr use, doe <o form-aasodaiioD wiih a(h«it( 
in -t. Al'Vay i» an acca'ativc form, ai in A. S. taint totg (ate), 
lit. 'all way,' oflen used with the licnsc of rood. 1'.. aimayi. 

•Wise. As in no-uvln', liifwrn. Tlie suffix is llw uc 
case or the common E. sb. v>iit, manner ; A. S. a4t-t, Kc 
wit-an. Cr. A. S. m Smig-t uii-an ^acc.), on any wise ; mPi 
ykan u4s-ait (acc), in ihe rame way. The ace tdt-^M be~ 
came M. Iv un's-e, and finally iwVf. 

§ 269. Oihcr adverbial suffixes ue due lo case-ending 
as in -s, -St, ft, old genilit-es ; -^r, old daL fern, or accDSaiive ; 
-Mit, old (Jat. plural. To these wc may add (he compound «iiSrt 
•t-i't^, -l-ong. Sec Turthcr in Morris, Hist. Outlines, p. tg^. 

•B. -Be, -oe. The suffix -es is [he charBclemtic ending 
of the genitive case of A. S. strong masett/int and wMVr 
substantives ; and we find several insiances in which ihe 
g«iiitiv« case is used adverbially ; as in dag-rs, by diT. 
By association witli this usage we find the adverb itiH-ti, 
by night, chough niAi is Tcaily /em»mt, and its genitive ase 
is properly niAZ-e. Similarly we can explain K. tl-jt, A. S^ 
tl/-et, cognate with Goih. a/j'-it, genitive of a(/n, iXiw, 
another. The A.S. n/d, n^ need, ie feminine, and bu 
(he gen. n/ii-t, nyJ-t, whicli ix uaed ad\-erbially in Luke 
xxiii. 17. I]cnce the M. E. tiaf-t, also used adverbally; 
but the more common M. K form is tud-tt, prcserred in 
mod- E. ntfd'S. The A. S. in-tt, E. on-te, vras origituUf 
the gen. of tfn, one. By association with thi.i word, Iht 
A. S. Acrf'Ku was altered to M. £. twi-ts, E. twi-tt ; and the 
A.S./r/-H« to M.E. Ihri'ti, E. thri-u. The final -rt. to 
noticeable in these words, is intended lo shew that Uk final 
sound is thai of t, not of s, and is imitated from the Frencli; 
ti.prtUH-e<, vi»lm-t<. 

•«r. In E. tv-4r, A. S. df-rt, the -re is the suffix of lb: 

dat. or gen. fem., as in A. S. gid-rr. dat. (and grn.) (cut- 

of gSd, good. So also in mv-tr, A. S. nd/~rt. Bm in 

jntt-tr-^, the suffix is the ace. masculiiK, A.S. gtoil-roM-dag. 





P -om. In vAil-om, Ihc xufTu denotes llic <Iat. pi.; A.S. 
ka-il-ttm, at limes, once on a time, dat pi. of htiil, while, 
time. R. setd'om aiuML-ers lo A. S. stid-um, dat. pi., or uU-an, 
dat. sing. O'Wh =>"•■ f**;'') of «W, rare. 

-l-ias, -l-ong.' The gen. pi. of A.S. sbs. in -hh^ (later -ing) 
lid be used adt'crbially. as in-tatg-a, fy-ing-a, altogeiher, 
gen. pi. ni. in-uitg, iib. formed from Sn, one. So also ealt- 
uttg-a. later A>//-iJ^Nt, wholl}-, front «i//, all. Similitrly, M.K. 
adverbs vtn fonncd ending in -i-iig, as htd-l-tHg, hcad- 
(icHeiDOSt. afterwurds altered to htad-long, prolxibly by coo- 
fusion with Awjf. So also dark-ling. i.e. in the <Urk ; flailing 
txfi^-lmg, flat ; tide-ii-g or sid^-long, sideways. 
I 360.* 1'he only vecbal suflixcs which still appear in 
lodcrn EngliBb arc -m {-n), -k, -U (■/), -er, -st; cf. Morris, 
lift. Outlines, p. 331. 
-eOt -n- I'hii saflix is rem;irkable for its complete cliunge 
of incaniDg. It was formerly the mark of a reflexive or 
/■Mxtr.v sense, bat it now makes a verb acAW or causal. The 
Gothic /ull-j-ati, lo make rull. from /«//-/. full, was causal; 
but the tioth. y«//-v-iijii, from the same adj., meant to be 
filled, or to become fuU. 'I'hcrc is no doubt that the -m- here 
inserted is the same a.s the -n in bor-n, tor-n, i.e. ih the sign 
of the {>p. passive; so thM/a/i-n- is. in fact, 'Gilcd',' and 
fuli-n-nn means 'to be filled," bcnce, to become full. ITiis 
use is still common in the Scaiid. tongues. Thus Icel. tof-na 
is ' to fall asleep ' ; I<*1. vak-na, Dan. itaag-w, Swcd. vatk-na, 
^Bs 'to become itwakcV So also A. S. awat-»-ait was 

^^ ■ Tbe ->i- in ftiU-*- u, in fact, the Aryui niGx -ko (f 151) j of. Lu. 
fle-nm, Skt. pdr-na, full. 

' The pauiTC luc of llie Golh. soffii •nan U controrettnl In an 
ncdltM piper 1>7A. K. EkE', un 'Iiichiiatl*r 'irit-TcEUlnGoth.ii:, &c-.' 
in the American Joonul of Philology. »ii. iS, The snlhor uyi these 
retbi arc iinicalivt, and tie may l>c rigtic, practidlt;. But ll moke* 
no ilUferciice ta the dovtlopniciit uf ilic ftrmt. The auRin -no wai 
origiaally acUecti**!, and the derived vnb could caiil/ toko tiihet an 
iocheitiirc dv a panim! aeiue. 

T a 



[CW. XIT. 



tnlransitive, tfiougb it was nscd both wilh strong and wtik 
[}ui[en»e!t; but after 1500. it uras often used iiansitivcly.snd 
is so used still ; sec Axcatm in Mumy's DkUotutrr. Tht 
old causal verbs in -ion ceased to hare anjr distinctive mark; 
and this loss was supplied in x most curioas way, vis. bjr 
Dxing the old suffix -n- with a causal sense, as beiiic M 
frequently required. This usage, which is not earijr. b now 
iliorou^hly citabliahed ; so that va /atl-at is 'to nuke H\''. 
ta^/A-^M is ' to increase in length,' to ' make longer,' Ac 
Most of these are formed from adjectives, as:^U- 
en, hroad-tn, cheap-tn, dark-m, deaf-tn, deep-em, Jreslnm, 
gladd'tn, hard-tn. tas-<n. b'k-tn, madd-tn, moisl-tH, tfit*, 
^kk-tn, rtJd-fn, rip-en, rmtgh-en, Mdd-en, tharf*-en, tharl-en, 
siti-en, i/att-tn, lo/i-en, sliff-en, ttraigM-en, sweet-en, thiei- 
ligU-en, fough-en, weai-m, u'h'l-tn; some of which are 
indifTcicntly as iransitivc or )ntraR!^itive ; so that there is. 
all, no sure rule. Very few are formed from sha.; 
fr^h!-eit, htarl-en, heighl-m, ImglA-en, jireng/A-en. The nrasl 
important, philologically, are those which are found mori 
early; these are, I th\ak,/as/-en,g/tt/-eti, lik-en, lisl-en, op-t», 
wak-rn. PeTbapt ghtl-en, A. S. glit-n-ian, and Usl-en, a bia 
formation from A. S. hlyst-cm. arc the only ones which reahi 
the true sense, and can never be (correctly) used cxoep 
intransilix^iy. The word op-en is very remarkable. As a 
verb, it answers to A. S, opfn-ian, causal verb from op-tn. 
adjective; whilst the adj. op-en, cognate with Icel- ^-im. 
exhibits the characteristic ending of a strong pp. This 
pp. is probably formed from the prep. Mp ; so that ^-em a. 
as it were, 'upped,' i.e. lil^d, with reference 10 the liflmgof 
the lid of a box or the curtain forming the door of a IcoL 
Sbakes]ieare has dup (= do up) in the sense * to open.' 

-a. Tlie rame suffix appears as •» in dato-n, dr«t»^,/aa-*, 
lior-it. tup-n ; in some of which the true (ip. origin of tbe 
BUflix can be clcariy traced. E. diru>-n is M. F. daa>-n-<n, to 
become day, formed with inserted -w- from data-en. to be- 






conM <la)r, A.S. dag-iait; from dag (slcm pac-a), (laj. E. 
dro»^ vi K.%. drtme-n-um, wben« M.E. drtmc-n-itn.drunk' 
n-m, >nd (b)r ]os« of 4) drowntn, draw-n-t, drow-n. Ttic 
S. dnmc-it'iaM » 'to become dninkun,' lo b« drctKhed, 
A. S. drtPK-fM, pp. of drine-ttn, lo drink. E. /aw-n it 
A- S.y!i5-j»-i<iii', lo rejoice, be pleased, from the aA\./trg-n, 
E. yi/'-it, i.e. pleased; cf. \zc\ /eg-iiin, fain, wilh the Euffix 
•inn dutrzctcrisiic of a pp. of a strong verb. Iv Itar-n. A. S. 
leor-H-ioK. to leant, Lc. to be taught, to experience, answers 
to a Goih. form *//s-iti», forrae<l from *lii-an-t, p[>. of the 
(fe/cctivc vcfb appearing in the Goth. pt. t. lais, I have ex- 
perienced. E. <W-n. lo possess. A. S. dg-n-i'an. to possess ; 
fonned from 4f-nt, adj., one's own, oiig. pp. of the Ktrong 
verb ^P"""' 'o posKss, which produced the verb (Kit. in the 
same sense, as used by Shakespeare, 'rcnap, i. a. 407, Ac. 
Perhaps meur-n also belongs here; see my Elym. Diet. 
{ aOL -k. Thi< tnlGx, of obscure origin, appcam (o give 
verb a frcqticntativc force. The clearest example occurs in 
tar-k. htar-t-en. A.S, t^or-^-n-ian, her-c-n-ian, evidently allied 
(O i^rtm ( = *b/ar-ian, 'h^az-ian), Goth- haus-jan, to hear. K. 
fuT'k, of Scand. origin ; cf. Dan. lur-t, to listen, Lie in wail, 
G. htttr-n. E. ieitl-k, ihil-i, of Scand. orij^n ; Dan. siu/'t-t, 
to Bculk ; cf. loel. thrH-a. to sculk away. E. sotir-i, A. S. 
trntr-e-ioH, V> smile ; the shorter form appears in M. 11, G. 
t(haiir-*n, also tehmiti-fn, to smile, cognate with E. tmi'le, of 
Scand. origin. E. ilal-t, A. S. shal-c-ian ', allied 10 E. tbil-k, 
sb., A. S. tUal-t, adj., lofty, and to A. S. sttti, prov. K. tkk, a 
handle. £. val-k, A.S. uxal-e-iaif, orig. lo roll about, go from 
side to side; allied to Aryan V WAL, to roll, as in Russ. 
vat'iait, lo roll, Skt. lu/, to move to and fro; ct Fick,*iii. 198*. 

' It it (Mier to espUia tbe roml-iunzid fiom loA-fcg^a, iaUtad ol 
bamt A. S> ftfmiaM ; to tJii* Tcib nay be SnndiuTiin, tbeugh the ^dj. 
/aim U net *o. 

* In Ibe comiKmiid h-tltal/ian. in Swccl'* A. S. Prlnel, vl. 37. 

* E. M/i i> oflcn tcfemd tu bnt, aii'l compnircl with E. /f//. But I 
dodbl the ocameetiiM ; Me Tali at ay Ltym. Did. Md in the Sapp. to 




I aea. -le (4). -er. Tfacae *ic c q uw ml et aCiB. ife 
tcticn V and r bdn( inurcha^cafak. Tbef uc oed ki n- 
pms itcnlioa. >nd so to fonn feeqaeatiiirv vertift. Thir 
are especially noticeable in mrdi of ioiiative ongto, ndi m 
iai^U, nm^4e, uarS-le, caei-tt, tract-h, gi^t-it, g^g^ 
gfgg'U. ehuek-tt. ji>ig-U, jai^-it, lmt4e, rwtt^, wiu*^ 
ratt-if,pralt-U, tatt-U ; uid/iiM-ff-, gM tr, tkta-tr. tktt^r, 
pait-rr, tiU'tr. twilt-tr, $mitt-€T, nU^-tr. Similulj- 
to keep on dragging b ibe rrequenative <)[ ^«ig ; ifliii k, 
dast; OrtU-U, of dr^; kM-U. oT h«f ; ha-t-k, lo Ad^ 
hurt (F. hatrt-4r, O. F. imrt-tr, ta push) ; >in/-i^, >»/•&; 
Jmtf; Jqgg4e,olJtg; mOi-Je.ctK^; otMf-lf.atsat^l 
of Iramp; wadd-tt, of wadt; ta^gg-it^ oTaqf ; nv'VtAA; 
««-«/. Kmihrly, we have drat>4, IracD dram ; matrj, btm 
melt; kou-/ (u in taier-reaul) rinoi M.E. voamt-tm. lo cr^ 
like a cat'. So also glimm-fr xaay be consdefed as a fo- 
qucntativc of gUam ; fiua-tr, A. S, /hl-tr-iait, to flncluate. (^ 
A. S. fiei-ian, to jJ<w/ ; glia-tr, 'w from tbe base ^6Jf-, Kcn it 
Gotli. glil'mttn-Jan, to shine; wtU-4T, fotmcrljr veatHr, n 
wallow, roll about, from A. S. wtall-an, lo tuni abooL Bv 
in many cases tbe frequetttative mtrnt b not ap{itieiU. 
and the verb b sometimes intransitive, of cxpresse* cd» 
linnance. or else is causal ; as in crumh-lt, to redac* lo 
cmmba. from ertemi, sb. ; rurd-it, from ^urd, sb. ; tfari-h, 
from jfari, sb. Cf. hut-i, froni hiet. Or tbe SuSs 
eitcinU the word without making much difference, as 
him^U, with the same sense as A. S. himb-iaa, to tarn 
over head, to dance violently; dwitt'd-U, fonncd (with 
crescent d) from A. S. dttin-an, to pine avay. Verbs 
the suffix -It and -fr arc numerous, and it U needless to con- 
•idcT them further. We must remember, bowevvr, not U 

' The -tr in taZ-tr^wau-l is doc to the Sctad. fonn; eC IceL Uu^. 
a CM, gen. hue.^r; vb^oce the cowpomxls taltar-^mga, at'* rj*' 
(Mgd-Bic-iiol : iatttr-itinM, a eM-«kia. SiiniUily tbe M.ti. rw flT- 
MJIr (Chaucer) comajioaili lo IctL mMarlal. 

, »63.1 

VESBAi supp/x se. 



the veriai suflixe!i with mislartfh\tl ones; thus the 
' vert) legird'h b mcfeljp iluc to ilic »b. gird-U, Ooio gird; so 
thai gird'U is Jw/ a frcqocntatix-c of (he verb h gird. Siml- 
laiix. the vert) ^ fiU-tr is merely due lo the ),)x/ta-ir, A.S. 
/'/-or, allied to LaL ped-ita. And it may be taken as a 
general rule that, bcJbie any sound etymology of a pair of 
related subslamivcs and v«rbs can be attempted, we must 
ascenaiD, bistoricaUy, wbeihei ii U t]ie ab. that Is derived fiom 
the vcjb, or convewely the verb from the sb. 

§ SSS- -M. This sufiix is remarkably clear in tiie verb 
tUan-u, A- S. dihi-t-ian, lo caake clean, from ilie adj. cUaa, 
A. S. eiiin-«. Also in E, rin-st, borrowed from F. rin-tt-r, ■ • 
whtcJi Is borrowed, in iis turn, from Scandinavian; d. IceL iy.,a 
Arn'fta, to cleanw, from Ar^'u, clean; Dan. rm-se, from 
•tn ; Swed. ren-ia, from rtn. It also occurs in riatp, graip. 

It. reapcctiKly, for (laf-t, 'grap-t ; «-c actually find M.E. '^^/•t*' 
eiofis-ttt (Chaucer, C.T. *75). and 'grnfi-t can be inferred 
frooi comparison wJih grap-fU. Dr. MorriH itutiances lisp ; 

1 nothing b known of this verb beyond ihc fact that it la 

rived from ao adjective sgnifyins ' imperfect of utterance,' 

b spell indifferently t^jj^ and w/ijjp. Wefmd: 'balbua. 

',' aiMl ' bttlliutus, tlom-viiisp ' in the Corpus Glossary 

'.E. Tcils. p. 45); and 'balbus. wUpt' in Wright's GIob- 

,ri(5, ed. Wulcker, coL 191. 

As to the origin uf Uiis sulTix, ure find that the A. S. 'nan 
junswers to Goth, -iion or -ixm, as seen in wafw-iiaii, to 
wallow, hal-iiOH, to feel hale, 10 be angry. Hal-it-m is ob- 
viously fcemed from hat-is, hale (alem hal-is-ii) ; and -«w 
answers to A.S. -tirft, 3 causal f,atl^x which is to t>c compared 
with the Skt. -aya. as in Mh-aya, lo cause 10 know, inform, 
ftoni budh, 10 understand. Hence the £. -st corresponds lo 
a compound suflfix arising from these suflises used in lom- 
ilion. Cf- $ 130 [a), p. as*' 

DnrvATicn rx£x Rom 

{ afl4, Tlrt rw/t of a. ^ -^ir! n: iz;- Arn:L 

ti-.irnUi': aft/:r if.u wof-1 V^a bttr. s:.-^c«i c£ ■■■?— y^-r^ a 
1)1': ii^iur': 'ff pr':fix'» an'l form^ve *c^e9. Frr x icaol 
iVm.ii'.Wiit t/f r'lOts, I Jy^^ Icaxt to rder ;zi* :?&6s » 
Whitney 11 I.arjtfjat^'r ari'J tr^ S:u<!y of Li::?:;**^. z^ed. 
iJs6f(, p[i. 154 z;^. \Vh::r.-y "^k« i; case ;t :ie wori 
irm'/'i//,//; arid sli'^ws tha*. tV- '=/». r.o*.-. a::i rf-. i;x3, 
ar': jircfix'-s, whilM -ai/< 'l^i.-a-it-ii-i] is xa^ =p d'formk- 
liv: Miirixirs; so iliai the root of ihe word, in is Lam 
form. i'. vo£- or »(x--'. It is found that all ward} of Amo 
ofif^ifi -Alii'fi aflmit of a comrjlete analysis can he Tctkiced 
10 'Jtirria*'; riioiiosyllatjic '.-lemcnta of thi? character, and \ 
i.oiri(i:iri-,r<fi f,( iliiTcront languages enables us to deiernaat. 
at any r:it': :i|i|iroxiinat':ly, ihi; Aryan form of the tool All 
hU'-li ro'its arc ( illi':r of a vizThal or a pronominal chancier- 
§ 3fl5. 'I'll'- following fias^agt- from Whitney is t^^xdal 
inip'irUirj'.': : — ' K]em<:nts like i-oc, each composing a single 
h/llalil':, an'l containing no traceable sign of a fonnativc 
• kiiii iji, r<;sis(ing all our attempts at reduction to a simplef 
form, :iri' wlal we arrive at as the final results of our of tin: Indo-Kurojwan vocabulary; evei^- word,<]f 

' 1,-iiiii w',Ti\s arc )xtlcr ipelt with x than v, bccaase this mniodi the 
■liiiknt (Lat Lliv {Frnniinciatiun of ih: ci.nsouant was Dot like tbnt otOit 
E. t>. I>i^t rnlhir liLc the K. vi. 1'he Arya" ■'Oot i» WKQ (Gk. far). 




which this is made up— eavc those whose history is obscuiv, 
and cannot be read far back lua-aTd iiH beginning; — ie 
found to oonUin a inoT)osylL'Ll>ic root 3K its central !tign)> 
Gcani portion, along with certain other accessor)' portions, 
a>llabtes or remnanis of syllables, whose office it is lo^dcfine 
and direct the radical idea. Tlic rociLs arc nct-cc found in 
practical use in their naked form ; ihry are (or, a* ha« been 
repeatedly explained, have oiicc been) alirays clothed with 
■uffixes, or wlUi mlB^ics and prefixes ; yet lliey are no mere 
aUitraccionx, dissected oul by the grammarian'!) knife from 
the midst of organinna of which they were ullimaic and 
imefiTal portions; tliey are rather tlie nuclei of gradual 
accretion*, parl« about whicJi other parts gathered to com- 
pose orderly and mcmbcrcd wholes; genns, we may cali 
them, out of wl^h lias developed the intricate aintcture of 
later speech. And the recognition of (hem is an acknow- 
ledgment lliat Indo-Europcai) language, with all its fulness 
and itUIective suppleness, is descended from an original 
monos) Ilahtc tongue; that our ancestors uikcd \eiih one 
another in single syllables, indicative of the iilcas of prime 
imponaoce, bat wanting all designation of their rebtions; 
and that out of these, by processes not (Gflering in nature 
from those which arc still in operation in our own tongue, 
was elaborated (be roarvcilous and varied structure of all the 
Indo-European dialecis.' 

} S66. Analysb further leaches us that many prefiiccs and 
suffixes were likewise once indejwndent words, or made up 
of several uidi wotds compounded together ; and we cannot 
reaiit the condusioo that the same must be trac of ait such 
affixes. Hence we cortdudc that all alfixes arose from roots 
•ttnOar to the primary ones, though they are ofien so worn 
down that neither their original forms nor senses can be 
discovered. The Arjin polysyllabic word was simply com- 
pounded of various roots strung together. The oldest and 
commonest of these sank (irsl to the con<Etion of 'obsolete' 





roots, and secondly to tin; tondtlion of mere suffixes i 
oiliers retained EulUdent form and fcnsc to remain dtstindlf 
recognisable, and are siU] resided ss 'efficient' roots, pot- 
scs^ing a special interent Oom the lact that thdr vxlue ii 
known. The words 'efficient* and 'obsolete' are here 
used merely Tor convenience. By 'effidcot' I mean sudi 
as arc still used in the root'SyllaUe ; and by 'obsoleu' 
such as arc ttoui only used as an affix or as rorming pan 
of an affix. The form aod sense of ' efficient ' roots can \x 
determined by analysts; those of the *ob»oleti!' roots an 
quite uncertain. 

{ 267. A list or known Aryan roots is given in my 
Etymological Dictionary, with numerous examples ; aad In 
my Concise Dictionary, withoai examples. Tliia iat in- 
cludes nearly all that arc of importance to the Stodcw of 
English, Latin, and Greek. A few of ifac most oaefiil of 
these may be here mentioned. (It must, however, be btt 
explained that the roots, as cited in my CNctiooary fmi 
Vanitek and I'iek, are iherc gii'cn in the Sanskrit fonn. 
which is no lon^r, as formerly, supposed to be ahooft ibe 
(ddest. Thus the root signifying '*sxC is there pvcti v 
AD, but should rather be KD. The Sanskrit form, indeed, 
is ad, but it is not the f^nKra! form ; on lite contrV7> *< 
find Gk. n-Mf, td-trt, A. S. d-an, to eat, and llie 
Lithuan. Id-mi, 1 cat. The vowels E and O can no htnen 
be regarded, as formerly, as being onoriginal. I ibeRlbrt 
now xuhsliiute E and 0, where requisite, for the vowel ghen 
as A in my former list of Roots.) 

The following roots, then, arc common. AG convejed 
the idea of driving ; AN, breathing or blowing ; AR, ploo^ 
iog; ED, eating; ES. breathing (hence, being) ; EI, going » 
moving; EUS, burning; KAP. seiiing or holding; QER. 
making; KEL, covering; QI (rather than Kl}',lyingdown; 

' The fonn* thu noticed witbia a putntbeus •!« ihoie fWoi la -Mf 




KLI, leaning against; KLEU, hearing ; GwEM {rath«r than 
^A), goiog; 0£N (railier ituui GAN), producing; GER, 
ftindiog; GF.US (raihcr \hxa GUS), lasting, choosing; 
CHER, gfowiog, shining: GHEU (rather than GHU), 
pouring; TEN, sitclching ; TEU, swelling, growing «(ong; 
DO. gi«ng; DEK, taking; DKIK (ralhcr Han DIK), 
pointing out; Ollf^, putting, placing; DtiEIGH, gnicaring, 
aulding wiih the fingcra; DHU, shaking; PA, Feeding; 
Pet, flying; PED, walking; PLEU, flowing, floating; 
^HA, speaking ; BHER, carrying; BMEU, growing; MB, 
ca»uring ; MER, dying* ; MU. muiiciing ; YEUG, 
j<rining ; KUP, breaking, spoiling ; WEQ (raiher Uian 
»AK), calUng; WES, dwelling, Maying; WEID (rather 
■ton WID), observing, knowing; SED, sitting; SAR or 
BaI,, hurrying, iptinging: SERF, gliding; SEK, cutting; 
^KlD.deaving; ST A, .standing; STER, tiprvading; SREU, 
jr STREU, flowing. The number oS words that can be 
cd Frotn tlieBe fifty roots is vcrj* large, 
f ses. I Hball now take tlic case of a common English 
:>«!, an<l shew how the form of its root may be discovered, 
doing Uus, we shall often have to take into account 
jfimm's atxl Vcrncr'« I.awiF, and to use the hints concern- 
ing gradation, vowel- mutation and affixes, nliich have l>ccn 
B|tvm m preceding chapters. The word selected shall be the 
^erb te listm. We must begin by trticing it in Middle 
EngUsh and Anglo-Saxon. The Middle English luis the 
ft>niiB luiln-m, UslH-en, and the shorter forms luil-tn, /ist-tn, 
ma all of which llie final -ett is merely the infinitival suffix. 
^1 the forms lusl-n-m. Iis>-n-m. the -»• is plainly an in- 
sertion or addition, and has already been discaated above 
(I 360). We thus get a base lutl- or till-. The variation 
of the ^x}wel is due to the difficulty of representing the A. S. 
B (which bad ilie sound of G. ^. Hence the A. S. base 

' Sw ■ fiill daciUMOo of tbo root MAR, lo crind, In Htx Huller, 
Locuxei OD the Scicaoc of lAHgoogc, in>l Scrtn, Uct. vll. 




[Ciut. XV, 

may be expected to be iftt-. There i*. Iiowever, no such 
woxd ; ilic fact l>eing iliat there has been a los* of a prefixed 
k ; this we at once perceive by comparing the A. S, kfytt-itn, 
to list, listen, hearken to; a weak rerb formed from the^sb. 
hfytl, expresuive of the sense of hearing. But •*/ is'a sub- 
stantival suffix ; sc« % a34 ; so that we may divide the word 
as hly-sl. Moreover. _y is an unoriginal vowel, due lo r- 
mutiilion of u; so that kly-st presupposes « form 'kitt-il-f 
(§ 185). Wc now resort to comparison with Other lan^nutgea, 
and wc find led. hlu-il-a, to listen, from klutl, the ear ; and 
the shorter Torm (wiihom sf) in ibc Goih. hliu-ma, hearing, 
where •ma is a mere Ruffix ; see § 314. The Gothic form 
of ihc base is hliu-, answering to Teut. Mi.iru ; which again, 
by Cfrimm's Law, answers to an Aryan KI.EU, denoting 
the idea of ' hearing.' This root is clearly vouched for 
by the Skt. fru {with ( for i. and r for I), to hear; Gk, 
aXi-Hi-, O.Lai, (lutrt, 10 hear: Welsh du-tt, hearing, *c. 
Wc have thus traced the K Utien, by knoim proociwes, to 
ihe Aryan root KLEU or KLU. 

% 269. It is intcrcsiinfc to enqtiire what other Ei^Mt 
words can be derived from this root. It is evident that one 
tierirttivc is the Gk. nXi-riir, renowned, cogoaie with Skt. 
iru-ia. heard (§ 253 c). The idea of "renowned* comes 
from that of being much lieard of. or loudly spoken abouL 
By Vemer's Law, the Gk. ■X«-rJr, accented on the hl^ 
syllnble, answers ' to A. S. A/tf-rf (not hOi-f), meaning ' load ' 
(§ 119); and this A. 5. word become M.E. luJm hvd i,^ao- 
nounoed with ok as in loup), ar>d finally mod. E. loud, by ibc 
common change of A. S. & to mod. E, mi (j 46). Hence »e 
sec that E. /iW is anoilier derivative from ll>e above root. 
We may certainly abo refer hither, i>ot only the Goth. Mm- 
ma. hearing (as above}. b«t the Su-cd, dialectal word* /Jit-mm, 
a no4»e, Iju-mma, lo resound, iomTa, to resound (frequentative) ; 

' Exo«f4 ta ibc lenph at tbe vowtl Thit nrlallea («tlch b 
vonMon) IM7 pokap* b* doc to a diffcrcncr in tttrtM. 




see Kiclz. p. 4to. This Swed. dbl. lom-ra is evi<]cntljr Ihe E. 
hm-i-tr, in ihe sense of mAking a noise, as in 'The lumbtrikg 
ofihc whc«b' inCowpcr's 6 from the end; we 
Lim&tr (a) in my Dictionary. Moreover, iJic O. Lai. du-ert, 
to bear, had ihe jjies. pi. elu-ent, later form tli-tm, one who 
bear», one who obeys, a dependant; and from ihe ace. 
tti-fnl-tm came the F. <h-ml and E, <ii-mt, whidi is thus 
seen lo \x not a native word, but borrowed from I,alin 
through Uw French. Simiiarly. E. glory is borrowed from 
ibe O-^rit. Lat. glo-ria, whtcli is certainly a weakened 
fonn of an older 'tl^rta, allied to Gk. mXi-vi (for 'cXif-ot), 
glor}-, from the same root KLEU ; cf. Gk. aXv-r^f, renowned 
(above)'. A still more extraordinary remit ix diat die very 
root hu }-icldc<I Uic mod. E. ilavt, derived, throagh 

IF. ttclavt and G. sklau. M. H. G. slave, from the O- 
vea. Stev/ne, t)»e Slavonians : for the orjg. sense of tiavr 
was a captiK .9/<irr^. or one of the Slavonic ncc The 
literal sense of SievAu was 'the inicllip^blc * people; for, 
Ukc otb;r races, ibey regarded their neighbours as 'dumb,' 
or speaking unintelligibly ; so that Slovftt i.t a derivative 
from ibc Old Slavonic tl9-vo, a word; allied lo Old Slav. 
ilti-H, to be named, to be illu.<ttrious. This verb slu-fi, like 
(be Russ. slu-fh-aU, to hear, is from die same root KLEU 
aa before. The peculiatily by which the initial k ha» been 
changed into i is found not only in Slavonic, bill in the 
Skt. fru, to Iicar ; when: ilie *yinliol f denotes a sound that 
Is pronounced nearly as t. though eiyinologitally derived 
from an original k. In precisely the same way, the L*L 
ftiti-um, Welsh tanl (our hutsd- in hunJ-rtd) answers to Skt. 
(aia. Pers. sad. and kuss. tlo. 

$ 270. Summing up the results of the §5 i68, 169, we find 
that the Aryan root KLEU, to hear, is the root of the mod. E. 

■ * ■ Gltria vwnt d'lm uicloi tiitntuilif nentFe *il«eot, 'ihia, 'fift^ 
%Kl«i (pom *MXifm), tK. Cf. 1« npporl i!c £Taet/ii el dc mutm' S 
Bteil, Ok*. Kiyn. I.«iia. 




otuiK words titifi. iMid, and hmttr (to make s noee). 
with their derinttves, SCidi as littm-tr. If item img, hm/lf, 
toud-ntu. himitr-iag ; u wdl u of Uie borrownl *n>nb th^ 
gUr^, ilavt. wiifa their derivatives, sad) as c&otf-^, 
ghri'Oiu, giori-^ui-Ij, glori-cms-vta, m-glori-^ax, m-gbh- 
«m-/y, in-glcr-ious-mas, Tatm-gtory, sloB-ui, jlov-ui-^. 
thv-iii-neu- Wc tbos obnin two unponaat rcmbs. Th 
firat it, that the hiyvx roots can he excecdfaiglr (enSe. ncf 
rrom the single root KLEU we Iwk; obtained more tbni 
tcorcof tnotkra Eng&sb word^. without comUiDg the mniKfaa 
derivali^^es in other languages, such as >Xvfu>, iAt>-«^ A^^l 
in Greek, tli-tns, in-eli-ba, glo-ria in Latin, ftc. Tfc 
oibcr result, not Ic^s important, is that an analysts thus nji- 
larly condoctcd enables as to associate words which ai Ert 
S^ht arc so utterly diiaimitar as hud, iabn. glory, elimi, aoi 
ilav<. in which the H>le letter of the root that still renoiK 
common to all is l. A moment's reScction will shew htm 
utterly unlilce modem scieniiTic etj-molog)' is to the cU 
system of gueMwork, the effect of which was, on the tn 
hand, lo associate words which were in faa wholljr ttncoif 
nected, wbQsl, on the other, it wholly failed to perctnr 
innumerable real connections. 

§ 371. By way of further illu^iation, I will consider ibr 
interctilJQg root GH£U, to pour, which ahio appears in lar 
fuller form* OHKUD and GHEUS. This root appan 
in Gk. x'-" (for Ttif-f), tut. x'>'-w. pff- pws. n-xv^^ to 
pour, jtT^^oM, x"-^«»T inicc. From these shjt the words rlym 
and ef^'U have been imported into mod. English. Tbc suv 
root is roost likely the source of al-<he-»iy, oT which Di. 
Murray says, in the New E. Diet., that it is ' adopted from 
the O. Fr. aiqumit, alpumit, atttmit, an adaptation of Mid 
Latin aUiimia (Prov. aliimi'a. Span, aipu'mia, Ital. aleAvmit). 
adopted from the Arab, al-iimiS, Le. ai, the, ifnnt, a|^nr- 
enlly adopted (rom the Gk. jidfua, xi^'"h found (circa 300) it 
the Decree of Diocletian against " the old writings of tlM 

f »7'-l 



Egyptians, which treat of the x^^iJi (transmutation) of gold and 
silver"; benco Ihe word is explained by most aa "Egyptian 
art," and idcnlilicd with xn^'a, Gk. form (in Plutarch) of the 
natiw name of ICgypt {land of Khem or Khami, lucroglyphic 
Kbmi, " Wack earth," in contrast to the desert sand). If so, 
il was afteru-ardit etyniologi<:allir confuted with llie lilcc- 
sounding Gk. joV"* pouring, infusion, from x^'- perfect 
stem of x*'-*!*, to pour (cf. x"'l^> juice, sap), which seemed 
lo explain its meaning ; hence llie Renascence spelling 
aiehymia and fhymislry. Mahn (Etymol. Untemucliungen, 6()) 
bovcvcT concludes, aficr an elaborate investigation, that Gk. 
ifliuia vas probaMy the ort^pnal, being first applied lo pharma- 
cetitical chemistry, which was chiefly concenied with juices 
or infusions of plants; that the pursuits of the AJcxandrian 
akbcmists were a subsequent development of chemica] study, 
and that the noioticiy of these may have caused the name of 
tbc an to be popularly associated with the ancient name of 
Egypt', and spelt xTituia, xi/iU, as in Diocletian's decree. From 
(Ik Alexandri.ins the art and name were adopted by the Arabs, 
whence they returned to Europe by the way of Spain.' If 
Iben we asugn akhtmy to this root, we must of course also 
refer hilher the wordt aUhimisl, alehymisl, chtmisl, and chymisl. 
Id Ijuin wc have the exicmled root GHEUD in the verb 
/tM4tTt, to pour, pt t.ySrf-i'. ^•p./u-sum (for 'fwl-sum) ; hence 
numerous horrtiaHd E. words, such as fuse, (on-/usc, dif-fust, 
t/-Jmt, M'/ute, rt-fust, /ut-ion, su/-/us-ion, IranS'/ust (from 
the supine); €on-fotaid, re-fuftd {{tata the inliniiivc) ;yW-(7/, 
eoa-JuU, re-fulf (cf. the O. Lat. p[». fu-tm = 'fud-lw a.** well 
is/ii-tta) ; abo ftuil, in the sense of easily molten ; /oittm, 
plenty, O. F. /oison. abundance, from Lat. ace. /mionem, 
pouring out, profusion. See Concise EI)tii. Diet. p. 166, 

' I liave lilde donbl (hat Mithn b rigbt Medicrtil clymoloipcti 
dd)|[it[ed In ituillnif uid (ai-fctdicd suocUtiom, which had all Ih^ xa 
ol profOdad learafaig. Tbe dcrlvailiin liom Gk. wu too iluijik- cm |)Ii'i*c 
than : but the uaociati«a oT tlie wunl with K^pt wis jast wbal they 

•- ^ 'am- r. V-f. j^^r: C ^E "»»=* :^ — 

'.^. -j-j '.■~-'}'.Z i::!^--;-- ;: Tt^c I^ETT j^jfirsr » 
v-r: :xi;. "■-•:- V :.T 1:1; r^; asai ,Ti- ;c^ ::c iC: shb. jw- 

-R .ii" 1-,-. / .;.-E 1; ;iiir- ^— :i:r ct s ^^ Tp*g ."^ a 
■=r'. If.-'.: /^-- till E3 ».~ /^c- J-ras "lie Jltl K3t * 
JvT.rt;: -.^ .■:« lijii. -T-i-.-w -J ^csL i3 t: ^ =e '^S 
*v^. .^^-i -: .■- r-i; i.-ji =1; s:. r^--^ t rg-tri^ » la 
■■^rrv. •— .r; urt :rt -"-".3. a izrani tte IL=i. 'hsk ■« 
^.— s --, i-.jI y-.T— .-v*: 17 a .2 ie izca s^-f- s. i- 
Mn^ -.-, -j^ tij?: ua.' ;:rt .»_ ^. j^jr-m. a: 7cnr acSK 
W }- jf>n. :', -j-.i-- -.: '::at ^r^ni : ■^-■■-^■•" :ne sd. ■■ff-^t 
^ '.,rt" '. ' v.'V.w i[rt-i ^■T ~' L^' ^ "*- "" "T, ;■!. -ne^ ae 
.',. '■' Vt^/'rv--;;- i — -■ ' - ir-.c Uji =1=* r:«:c . Jm ao 
• ".■r- j'.;^ VI.! :-,'~r^-:i 'Zi". ; ;i=T-pi:::ii .v.Z -f-.^. -,t. 'sA- 
'v.',:*' i 1 ",'"1 'jr..- :^.:.Ti^; :^ lot ~ — t—- .- - f-m ?itn- 
•--..- v; .^-. 1. 1 [<£-, i:!.; *£-.e; :t l-Ir, ^ij 5:r at 
'.ir:.:-- -v.-tj A: ;_ r:; -.:' .^ *ii=irc Xr. Tjr "iM 
•t...} ■:.-.■■--.'. '..-j^ '.i^: V*:::. :-,''^;^- srZ r^r-T^-s = AHix' 
'.Ji.-*. ly.:.:;-. %■ z^-.: -z^. ^-■liLrr -si.;!^ fzc^iria •«« 
1.'.'..';.".: V ►^.■-i-.!.-:.*'!. Ir. :'-.i= :3.=ii ir 1* Lij r^icce 1, jad 
*- r.',V: i- t Sr-ai r*':^:. :hi: n-JLi^.r is iic-w ^ef: ba :tii 
i.'.'/.". v-,*t. I ',-' ■:.» roo; GKEL' :r;=; ^hi;^ we i=ir^ieii-,' If 
V. :.',- ',',:.•'.■ i,; ;r,^ r^^iilj, -^t i<^ ±i: ±c ro« GH£C 
;.*; (:>-•:;. ti^. L^.'ou^h :r.e O.-ttL -^-t word* .-*»:i«f. iri«>. lad 
pr'j'AMv ahfumy. chtmUt cr f'^w-v/. chemiit'y. acd ciamual: 
UaI the rr/.!*. GHEUD ri3.- giv.;:: us. through the Lana and 

' Oil tr.t Sicdj <rf Angio-Szioa, It W. W. Skot: in Mi^DiIba'i 
Ms-i;ui:.t, l-etj. 1^71^ p. 308, Stove derins BiCiUr from & Mr. Ai0- 
w/ar wi.'i r,ii-^ reii<le<l there. Il co:r.ei to the nine thiog. •> he bm 
Bintcl liom )iij tra-le; tttari. fitor, louuccr. 



FreDCh.yiuf with its dcrivatiws ; also found villi its deriva- 

t ; con/oumJ, rtftind, f utile, mt/uU, rtfult, fusil, fohon ; 

tliai the Teul. root GEUT has givien us Y..gui and iitgol, 

and e\'cn ibc -i'/-fr in Jiilliltr Lane; and thai ibe root 

. GHEUS has given us ihe Scand. words gtith and g^tir. 

^■M before, we should panictibrly notice the cxtraordinaiy 

^■variation in Tom] in the case of &iich «x>rds as thyfit, 

Wffuit. and jr«/. though ihe student who knows Grinun's 

Law can at once tee that \hey begin with equivalent 

letters. Cf. § 105, p. isj, 

} S7S. The above examples musi sufiice to exemplify 
the manner in which vordx can be traced back 10 rooisi, or 
derived from them. I «hall conclude this chapter «-ith some 
remarks on ibc prolific root SEK, 10 cui. as vcli as upon 
several other roots which seem 10 have a similar meaning 
via. tlte root* SKAD, SKID. SKAP, SKER. SHARP, 
SKALI'. SKUR. and SKRU. l-bc root SEK. to ctu. ia 
well seen in the LaL ucart, to cut, securii. an axe. tt<-ula, 
a sickk, itg-mtntiim tfca *sti-mttUam\ a segment, a piece cut 
off; perhaps also ttT'ra, a saw (if put for 'itt'tra), may be 
from (bis rooi- The following words of Latin origin, and 
containtng this root, tuvc been imported into English: wr-oii/, 
eo-tte-anl, itclar. ug->nenl, bi'-stfl, di's-tttt, m/tr-4M/, fri'ttet ; 
and, through the medium of French, in-utl. iti-<m (a cutting, 
slip of a ptsnt), uti-itm. The word utkte, though found in 
A. 5. as Jiir-0/, b merdf borrowed from the Lat la-ula; see 
Condse Etym. DicL, p. ^ai. The word itrraiti (from Lot, 
jrrra) may also belo<% here. Some explain sax-Mn(=*sat- 
jum) as a sharp stone (cf. A. S. teax, a knife); if so, we may 
^^d the words taxifrage, a FrciKh form, and sasi-afras, 
^^btch is Spanish. Tlie root SEK is not confined 10 Laiin ; 
It occurs also in Russ. siti-ira, an axe, Liih. lyi-it, a blow ; 
wfaibt in Teutonic it takes the form SEC. whence O- H. G. 
t^-aiua, M.H. G. tfg-*nsf, now contracted to G. Srmr, 3 
Bcythc; as vctl as the followiog (which are of especial inicrcBt)^ 
TOL. L ti 




vij!. A. S. sa^-u, E. taoi ; A. S, rf*. older fonu Hg-3t ', a tJUtc, 
nowab«ir(!ly»pdiifv/A(; and A.S.<«;f (=**i^yii),*swocA 
hwicc »T*oril- grass, E. tt^e. 

§ 278. The root SK AD. 10 cat, cleave, scauer(Tcul. SKAT) 
appears in Skt, tkhad (for 'ji«/). W cut, Gk.«inlC'*» (="ff»i*- 
^w>), to slit, cut open, or bnce a vein; «x*^. a slice, 
hence & tablet, whence was borrowed Lai. tthed'a, with Its 
dinin. sfhed-n/a, O. F. sfAfdutf, uAtU, E. uhtdah ; also LaL 
leand'itla {wlih Insencd »). a thin piece of wood, afterwards 
weakenc<l to sdndula, and borrowed by E. tn the corrupt 
form siit^if, meaning a wooden tile. The Tci)i. SKAT 
appears in tlie E. frcqucDiativc '■■x^rb teaH-tr, to disperse, widi 
its variant shatt-tr. 

S 274. Tlic rooi SKID, to cut, divide, occurs in the Gk. 
"Jt'C"* (= 'I'^Wj"'"). I-at- scind-fre; whence (from Greek) 
the borrowed words seAt'sm, uhtsl, ttsl (E. utt, taU = L«L 
seiiitui), ifin'U (Gk. a*lX\a, Lai. tafia, sqttxlla, F. sfuiUd); 
and (from I-atin) a^-icind, rt-tcmd, ai-tcma. In close COB- 
neciioo with these wc have the native K- words tked. thidt, 
ihtath, ihMlht. and the Scand. word thd; but it Is dilDcdt 
to tell wheUiet we are to refer lliese 10 an Aryan base 
SKIDH (Fick. i. 815) or to an Aryan SKIT, which my 
he regarded as a rariani of SKID (sec Kluge). Either 
from SKID or SKIDH wc have Lai t^-ert. to cut, with (on 
of initial /*; eat-ura, circutn-eite, aivd (through ll>e French) 
dt-cid€, fOH-cm, m-^isf, pre-cist, ex-as-ioH, and the sufiix -ridt 
in homi-<idf, parri-nde, &c.; also tAij-el and ifits-vrt (foe 
at-0rt, M. £. cs't-aurft), the last word being misspelt owing la 
a false etymology from LaU sct'in^rf. 

§ 376. The root SKAP. shortened in Gr«ck to KAP or 

' The form it/fit it vouched lot bj the Mill eulki iptIUii( «<pd(— 
tilOil, wliUh ii loiuid ia the ^jul Glos. <d. Svca, p. 9, col. 19, 
whrrc th« L^t. faUtt (nV) it )[l(»ied hj mmJtMl, ligdf, riflr, l.«. ■ 
wood-trill, icylhe. or lickle. 

* Laiio Bod Gmk ofien drop mi bltUl 1 ia inch cOBponnd* u jl 
and j^t, wbcieu Tculonk comniiMly rctalm it 



KOP, to CTii, stppcara in Gk. idnt-na, to cot, whence the 
Greek words apo-<opf, syn-eope, comma, awd (ihrough L&lin) 
atfi-«t. Also perhapa in A. S. ietap-an, trap-an, K. stapt, 
whicfa Mcms to lc«q> ilie Arjan p, if mich a result be poB- 
siWc. Also (with irregular weakening of P 10 Tent, b), 
E- shavi, ihaf-l, uah, shabt>-y. And lastly, petliaps (vrith 
loss of <), E. thop, ekap (10 split open), chip, and the 
Scan<l. eftump. 

i 376. The root SKER, to cut, shear, clip, appears 
in A, S. sctr-an (pi, I, star), E. shear, with the allied words 
thart, »4*M, thort, sAor-l, shir-l, shar-d, sha-'d, start, and 
the Scand. Xi'ords sear or staur. sktrry, sii'r-t. The phrase 
ihitr «g is borrowed from Dutch; cf. E, "cut away,' Our 
Kori/y (F. scarifier) is from llic Lai. searifiettre \ but ihis 
is only a loan-word froni Gk. ir«i(i-i^pu, I scarify, scratch. 
It is also possible thai tharaeter (from Gk. x"!^'""*^- to 
furrow, scratch) may be from lliis root: perhaps also r«ir-<iM, 
0- F. etu'raee, Low Lat. toratia, from LaL eor-ium (for 'deer- 
unn, cf. IJth. siur-i, hide, skin, leather); as well as scourge. 

f 877. The root SKER appears also as SKEL, to cleave, 
with the common change of x to t.; cf. Lith. sM-ls, 10 
desM, loch skit-ja, to divide. Hence the native E. words 
jKdlr, shell, the Scand. words scall, skull, skill, and the mod. 
E akalt. borrowed from G. Schale, a shell, husk, bcnce a 
thin straciun. 

% 378. The root SKARP also seems to tia^<e borne the 
sense of to cut, or pierce. Hence we may perhaps derive 
tbe Gk. vtapit-tor, a scorpion, stinging in.tect, whence F- 
storp-iott (through French and Latin) ; also the A. S. seearp, 
E. sharp. Scarp, (9iialer-Karp, and e-seatp-ment are F. 
words of Teutonic origin. From the same root arc E, 
sear/ and Scand. skarf; abo, with shifting of r, E. scrape, 
and the Scnnd. scrap, t small portion, and scrip, a wallet. 

The initial s is loot En Lat. carp-ere, to pluck, Dth. 
I ktrp^ I shear (infm. kirp^ \ hence E. tx-ccrp-i, and 





(dvoi^ ihe Freodi) t-ear-a. The root KARP (wUdi dn 
reaults ftoia the \om of «)appeAn as IIARF in Tcatook;^ 
wbence A. S. ktrrf-at, E. hanhtti, ibu wfaidl b oB 

i S7S. Ttw root SKARP also appcara u SKALP. witb 
change of K (o t, u in Lu. tt^-trt, to cat, whence the 
borrowed ! at. word ttalp-<l\ doady alBed b ifae LaL 
seuip-*rt, lo carve, cut owi, whence (throogfa Frepch) E. 
jfwj^Air^'. Moreover, Jusi as frocD the root SKFU in 
ibc *aac (o t&nilc, lo ^t, we faave Ibe words theO and 
tkutl, to from SKALf wc have ibc words teallaf and tntf. 
The spelliDg tealU^ is due to tbe O. F. euaiept. a F. atbpt- 
alion oi Middle Dil n-A^^, a shetL Tbe E. shtl/. a ihtn 
board, aho belongs here. 

{ S80. Another root with a Ukc sense appears io tbe 
form SKUR, as seen in Skt. kshw (for *slUir), to cut. Ck. 
«F«i p *» , duppings of Hione, (y^^. a tator; here peibsp* 
belongs L«i- (ur-lut (for 'rituT'/jw ?), cui shon, whence 
E. fwi-/. Wc also find a root wluch takes the boat 
SKRU, as in Lau ttnt-fmlut, a small sliarp Mooe, whence 
(tfaroagh tbe French) ibc K. sfm-ptt; abo in Lat. um-lt, 
pL, br^en pieces, whence urut-ari, to search nunutclj (» 
If amongst broken pieces), and E. ttru-tmy. The same root 
SKRU, to cut, has given us the F.. words shrou-d, orig. a 
strip, shred of cloth, ihrt-d, tere4-d; and finaUy, the won! 
KT9-II, signifying ' small ^cd,' a French diminutive from 
the Middle Dutch spelling of ihrtd. 

% SBl. A renew of the preceding seclionx (s73-a8o) wiB 
^w bow prolific in dcrivati^'cs has been tbe root SE 
to cut, with liu; somewhat simitar roots bearing a bite sg' 
niGcalion. Furtlier information cODceming such of the 
words as are not fuHy explained here is given in tny Et 
logical Dictionary. I bopc that safficicnt examples ha' 

' Tbt Gk. TAit^tir, M ent, i* gmtnlly mppcned to be copiaM ' 
Ui. Kulf-trt. lUnce E. Akr9^^lt-ii. 



been given to ilhjstraie the method of tradng modem E. 
wwds to ilieir roots. Tlie gcni:riil process ma)' be described 
SM foUovs : — Tcace the v-ord back to its oldest spelling; 
strip off the affixes, whether prefixed or suffixed; examine 
the vowct-souiKt and .tee whether il has been, or could be, 
alfected by mutation or gradation or botli ; compare the 
parallel Torms in other Teutonic languages, which ^ould 
abo be stripped of affixes. Hence the Teutonic base or 
root-form can usually be at once perceived, and by the 
asnstancc of Grimm's law (and of V'erncr's I^w, if nc- 
ccmary) the corresponding Ai)'ait rool-fonn can be inferred, 
and shoukt be compared with ihc known Aryan roots as 
gii-cn in the Supplement to my Dictionary, or by Pick, 
VanS£ek, and othcts; though il must be remembered that 
the vowcl-»ounds In theu lists are frequendy incorrectly 
giwn, and should be corrccied by comparison with such 
works as Brugmann's Grundriss der verglcichendcn Gtam- 
tnatik der indoj^rmanischen Sprachen, in which the latest 
results of a closer investigation of the vowel-sounds are 
accurately giwD. A complete list of the Roots and Verb- 
forms of the Saiitkrii Language, by Professor Whitney, has 
buely been published. 


MODEBN Emol-ish Sntt.U3(C. 

§ 383. The subject of modem Enj;Usb )i|>clling bas beta 
lo some extent cansi<teretl ii» I,<cL VIU. of ArcIibfaJiop 
Trench's well-known and. in the main, excellent work 
CDlillcd ' English Past and PrcMM.' But a pcnual of thu 
chapter will shew tluit il merely diacuiWS ceruin wpdUngs 
from a mpposcd * ei}*molog)cal ' point of view, and does nM 
at all attempt to deal widi the only question of real 
imponance, vix. what is the true Jiis/ery of our speUiag, 
and bow came wc to »pcll wordu ax wc do. I tnalce 
parUcuIar reference to thU chapter, bccaosc I believe Utat 
it has unfortiualely done more lutrm than good, as (l b 
altogether founded on a false principle, such as no scientific 
etymologist would endorse, b the present state of out 
knowledge. This false priudple Is, that otir spelling; oog^t 
to be such as lo guide tlie ordinary reader (o tlie etymdegf 
of ilic norti, bccauKc there is ' a multitude of persoiiB, neither 
accomplished scholars on the one ade, nor yet wholly with* 
out the knowledge of all languages save their own' on the 
other ; and it it of great value that these sliould luve atl 
belpji enabling them to recognise the words which thcjr are 
using, whence tfacy canw, to what words io other Uoguagn 
tbey arc nearly related, and what is tbcfr propercst and 

' But thii U )u<<i what EoGliihiDM conimoDlT do nM kfton ; ibej 
know llic oiigiti*! tomu of th« foreisn etcawolt of Ea^idi fir bttur 
dun tbey know tbow of (he nattre cote of it. 




:etit mauling.' This spedoui ugmnent bu imposed 
opon mnny, vtA will no doubi long continue lo do so; but 
if it be at all cartfulty examined, it wiU be found to umouiii 
lo DO more than ilii.t, ituti n-c ought lo tpcll woids derived 
from Latin %nd Greek as nearly as possible like the Latin 
and Greek words from which ibcy are borrowed; and it 
wW be found that moiti of the examples of the words 
discussed are taken from those bngvage». No doubt Latin 
and Greek form an imporiani clement in the iLDglisb 
language; but It may be rcj^ied thai iliese are commonly 
ihc words which are leaKt ;L][ere(I by pronunciation, and 
would be least AfTecicd by phonetic spelling. Iloweivr, the 
real point is this, that the most important elements of our 
language are neither Latin nor Greek, but English, Scandi- 
Davian, and French. The Rnglish and Scandinavian elements 
are «ry carefully kept out of sight by Trench, except in 
a very few insiances; and the French element is treated 
very brieOy an<I unsali.ifactorily ; indeed, a careful trcuiment 
of il would have lold the oihcr way. Now. if we 
are to spell modem English words so as to insinuate their 
derivation from Latin and Gn^ck, much moie ought we to 
«pell Ihem ho as to point out their descent from natit« 
English, Scandinavian, and Old l-'rcnch. Yet this is a matter 
quite ignored b) Ihc genera) public, for the simple reason 
that they are commonly vcr)- ignorant of Early Knglith, 
Icelandic, and Anglo-French, and so care absolutely nothing 
about the matter ao far as these Unguages are concerned. 
Even Latin and Greek ihcy knuw only by sigh!, not hy loitnd; 
luid there arc proliabiy many morthy people who IkUc** lliai 
le modern English pronunciation of Latin accurately repro- 
duces Ihc sounds used by Vergil and Horace. Yet if iho 
argument for ' etymological ' S{>clli[ig is to be used at all, 
it must apply «iih far greater force to the words which 
fono ihe backbone of the language than lo such aa have 
mciely been borrowed in order to augment its vocabulary. 


% 3SS. But the inith Is, (hat no one can possibly be in 
positiun to judge m lo lliv extent 10 which our fuelling otighl 
to be conformed (if at all) to that of Greek and tatin— for 
ilus is what the supporters of llie (so-caUed) cijmological * 
sjielling really mean — until )ie ha« fir^t made hiDisctT ac- 
quainted with [lie history of our spelling and of our language. 
Tiie plain question \i simply this — bow cane we to spell 
We do, and how is it that llie wiitten syml>ol so fieqiiei 
gives a totally fal.te imptession of the Injc sound of 
spolccn word P Until this question has been more or 
considered, it Is impossible to concede that a student can 
know what he is lalkiii;; Ahout, or ran Iiave any right to be 
heard. It is surely a national disgrace lo us, to lind that the 
wildest arguments concerning Englisli spelling and etymology 
are constantly lieing used even by wcll-c<luc.iied persons, 
whose ignorance of Early English pronunciation and of 
modern English phonetics is so complete, that they ba^v no 
suspicion whatever of the ainaxing worthlcnnesN of their 
ludicrous uucniiiccs. If a slight popular account, sucb as Is 
here offered, may tend to modify some of the common 
current erroni, this chapter will ser\-e a useful purpose. 1 
cannot lind that any writcn have handle<d this question 
generally, excepting Mr. Kills and Mr, Sweet'; and ex- 
cellent as llieir books are, ibey are intended rattier lor the 
more advanoeiJ student than for the beginner. For tbis 
reason, I here attempt to give a general idea of this difficult 
subject, though conscious iliat tlie details are so numerous 

' It ii icilly 1 erou mlinnmcT lo call tlut ipclllni; ' el]rBEiola||;teal ' 
whidi merely Imluin the *|icllin); uf a <le<td langai|,.a- Evtty ttsdcnl 
U<ot thould l>c) ■mrtthal Ihe cmlytrae 'elymologinr ipdlkigicaM 
wfaicb li pkgiMU. It K the Mund of the ipolccn wotd wUeb lui to be 
■iMOunlcd for; uid alt qmboU which diigaiK thbtoDDd itc dully and 
woilhleu, Ifoui old writenkftd not lued aphoiiellctyiteiB, wtttraoltl 
have nu imv ilata l« iga by. 

' On \ai\y Engliiji PnainuclBtloa, b]r A, J. Gllii : TnUioet and Co. 
The Hiiioiy <rf Kigliih .Sannds. bjr H. Swtet ; Traboer Bad Co. A 
Handbook of PhoDcdis, by Jl. Swecl ; Claiendoa Prew. 


lias I 





^Band imporiani that any mere sketch musi be more or less 

~ a failure. Ii will, however, be easy lo shew ibal, as a matter 

■ ofliiiitot}-, [l.c tioiion of ^o-calletl '«[ymolc^al' ipelling la 

^k purely medtrn one, a thing never dreamt of io the earticr 

H^riods. but the fond invention of meddling pedants who 

Vfrequenily made ludicrous iiiisukc« in their needless zeal. 

r § 284- To understand our modem tpeUing, we must begin 

at the very beginning, and shortly consider the history of (he 

sytHhals which liave been usi^d in English from time to time. 

The eharactcrt cmjiloye<l by the ancient nHion.t were those 

of the Roman alphabet. 'I'hcrc may hiivc been more than 

one school of "Tiling, and some at least of the British scribes 

roodiAed a few of the Roman characters in a way peculiarly 

^—tbeir own. These modilicd characiers ha%-econtinuc<l in use. 

^Bn writing and printing Irish, 10 the present day; such books 

^Ras O'Reilly'^! Irish Dictionary or any modern Irish Grammar 

W will »hew what tills modified alphabet is like- When the 

English conqticrors of Btil^n look to writing, they naturally 

adopted, in the main, liie same alphabet, which may be de- 

vcribml as a Roman al]ilal)et with certain Cellic and English 

modiJtcations. In the lime of Kllzabeth, an Anglo<Saxon 

Hsermon by ^Ifric was printed by Jotm Daye in 1 567, in types 

^Plnitating llie duracten used in Anglo-Saxon MS5., and I here 

give the modern Iri^li alplabcl and itic Anglo-Saxon alphabet 

as usually represented by such printed t)-pe£ ; they arc near 

enough lo the manuscript forms to give a sufficient notion of 

the manner in which the Roman a![>liabct watt treated. 

^m Irish PBDrm> alphabet-^A bC6e'p5^''^'"" 

^P^ p.RSCU-..*bebev5hi-l'mnop.|itcu.,, 

~ Anglo-Saxom alphabet.— (V B r. D t,' F n (J I K L CC N 

OP.RSTUX VZ(a/w)pDp.«l. abc^erxhiklm 

n O p . p f (aUo wriittn f) c u x y a (uAo) ): S p £. 

^K The only noticeable points in the Irish alphabet are : the 

^bbscnce of k, q, w, x, y, and 3; the pcctdiai forms of the 

cajMtals, especially G and T; ami the peculiar forms of the small 



letters J,/,g, and »peciall}' r, j, and /. The Ronun r u 
esagRcraicd. and the s much disguised'. Id ihc A. S, alphabet, 
the cupiuls C and G arc squared; and the peculiar Celde 
modificAtions of the tmaA tctlcre are cimly Ken. There 
are also three additional consonantal sjmbols, viz. p and D 
{]> and S), both used to denote lA; and P (p). tned to denote 
m*. The letter ]i, as »liewn bj- its tuder form 011 Runic 
monumcDta, u> mercly a Roman O with the straight side- 
stroke prolonged both upwards aiul downv&rda. It was 
fonnerty called Iharn, by association witli the initial sound of 
that word, and is still conveniently called ' Ihc thorn -letter.' 
The letter D (8), sometimes named «*, is merely 'a crossed D." 
i. e. a modiAcation of D made by addinji; a cross-stroke. The 
MSS. use these symhol.i for the sounds of M in Ihin otul tt in 
tkiite indifferently, though it would have been a considerable 
gain if they had been used regularly. The symbol M {x) 
was used in Anglo-Saxon to denote ilte peculiar sound of a 
as heard in Ihc mod. F. Ml, apple. It may be observed that 
■lie I was not dotted in cither alphabet ; but, on the other 
hand, a^ dot is commonly added over the A. S. j-. The 
numerous vowel->ounds in A. S. were provided for by the nw 
of accents for marking long vowels', and by combining vowel- 
sjmbols to represent (Uphthongs, In most modern editions 
of A.S. MSS., the old mot&ficd forms of the Roman leitcrs 
are very sensibly rejJaced by tlie Roman letters themselves, as 
re])ic9enicd by modem types ; we are thus eitabled to print 
Anglo>Saxon in the ordinary type, by merely adcfing u> 

* Nine addiUonil tymbiila In iheliiih alpliabct Me);>liud by pladug 
R del over taxii of the chnraclcn (oi t, i, il./.e. t,?, '. t, 

' I Idcndly ttiii letter, ai every one cin does, with the Rtuuc letter 
ciJled Wb, whli'Ji alw dcROIod n>. 1 farther idculiry It, as Mme 4a, 
wUJi ilic Golhic lelur (or ur. And I bellcre, at pcibapa do one dM 
don, thai it it meirljr > tana at the (jieck t (cipllal »). 

* Id A. Sl MK), the acoenli ue IJcely oai)llt>I wbnvvvr tba hnfth ol 
thevowdbohvlonitoapcnoii well tcqwuril«d with ihc Iu){nfic,wUdi 
«u the ouc with itiuto fix wboiD the «aily torlbci wiwe. The Ulcr 
M.SS. ioMit them mure frtiioenltj, to preicnl >Ribl£ulty. 






the alphabet the consonAnUl symbols ^ and 6*. Some 
edilors ret^n th« A. S. p in place vXv>, a practice altogether 
to be condciniKd. Il only makrN the words harder to (cad. 
uid tnlrodiiccs innumcniblc misprinU of p for ^ or />, and of 
|> for p or py wiiliout any advantage whatever. German 
editoni rcpliicc u> by f, a practice whidi no Englistunan 
can well approve. 

{ 366. "Wx values of the A. S. symbols may be briefly 
stated thus. Tlie consonant* b, d. A, *', /, m, n, p, t, w, x. 
had their present whiea, and are, in fact, the only really 
stable sj-mbols in English spelling, excepting such groups 
of 8>-mbols as i/, ir, cl, ct, tir, fi, fr. gl, gr, pi, pr, and the 
Hke, wbicli denote oombinatioii)t of xoundK »uch as caonoi 
easily alter. C was hard (like k) in all po«ition». but 
was liable to be followed by an intrusive short ^x)u-i:I, 
written e; hcnc« such fomas as era/ (for *ta/), stein {for 
S(4n), producing ihc mod. F. chaff, thoitt, in.-stead of *h3ff, 
'titrn. Ct Du. A»/. G. A'af, chaff; led, stfin. shone. 
Similarly, g was properlj' hard, bui was also liable lo be 
f<>llou«d by the name inlrusi^'c■ sound, likewise written t ; the 
resulting ff. at first sounded nearly as ^^ in the occasional 
old-lashianed London usage of gj<ardm for gardtn, soon 
passed into >; cf. A. &.srarJ, K.j-arJ; Icel. garSr, prov. 
V~garlA. In some wotds, at gite, a^ynlr, tbe;« seemj to have 
been sounded as y from ihc ver^- firsL F is assumed by 
Mr. Sweet (A, S. Reader, p. xxviii) to have been uniformly 
sounded as v*. This may have lieen true (as it siill is) of the 

' We also nquiie the long <roweIf, vii. J, /, i, i, tS, f, i. Many 
( pretend to be able (» pilot Angtu'Suon. bcMUM iliry 
Mdt» ln>ei ai the old-lailifunnt funna of r. i, t, &c. : but 
lliajr Uck tucli kiiilUpi'ii tabic Idlns u > and i, aad print f and ir 
uuUod, u il it iD«dc nu son of (liflctrDce T 

' ^ii not coniiaoD; yet it U foawl aeeaiionallyln HSS. oCvayeMl)' 
date Aftci 1 1 oo it ii commoa eoodgh In eoutu void*. Tlw touad U 
■Iwap hard, u ni>H. 
' At p. si( wc «« told 11 WM/bcrontbardcooKnant^ at ina^. 



WcMSex dialect comnuml)' called Anjilo-Suxoii, bui c: 
have been univctsally the case in Mercian and Anglian, as 
numeious luiglish words siill have the sound of/ especially 
initially; fet there can be no doubt tliat die sound 
was common in all Old English, and thai there was 
the one symbol y'to represent the sounds of bothy and 
F between two vowels waa probably sounded as v. even 
Mercian; cf.A.S. (and Mercian)/f^wtlhE. A/V, and A.S. daL 
en Ufr (lit. in life) with E. a-livt. The sound now denoted 
by-fu was wrillcn cw. as in rtdA, a queen. R diflcred wry 
greatly from the mod. K. r in being fully trilled, not only 
in such words as >uaru, \\. narntv ; /rom, E. /rom ; riit, 
E. rtgAt, where it is still trilled, but in all Other cases. In many 
words, such as 6ern. a bam, earm, an arm. the modem 
English hiui utterly lost the Etuc trilled wund; ihou^ 
strange to say, there are thousands who imagine that ibey 
pronounce this r when ihcy only give the sound of the oa in 
iaa to the preceding >-owel, whidi b a very dtlferent matter'. 
S is assumed by Mr. Sweet (A. S. Reader, p. xv) to haw had 
llie sound of «, except in words like slrattg. ^Uon^./att, fa»; 
here again 1 suppose that tbb statement refers only to tbc 
WcKscx dialect (in which it is b Still), and not to the ^Icrcian 
and Anglian dialects, in which initial t was one of ilic com- 
monest of sounds ; yet even in these it must often hai>e passed 
into the sound ofz between two vowels and finally; cf. A.S, 
fr/osan with tnod. Y^/rttat, and A. S. it with mod. K f'l (ai 
it is invariably pronounced). On the other hand, the Merdan 
(and A. S.) li is tlie mod. E. ta, and I find it diflrcult to 
believe that, in this word, the s was e\'er pronoonced like s 
even in the \\'cssex dialect. I suppose tltat ilie sound of i 
was common in all Old Englisii, although there was, pmc- 

SI, ^h0 


' An Knittblinufl MMdttei (he Mund of tarm with tha wrkua] 
■ppntmic* of tht word, aod calti it ' pianoanciiig Ibe r' when li* y 
aounce* the word like the Gcrmaa B^Jih. He tboaU aik ui Italian to 
ptonaunce the wad, if be wmu to hear \ht trill. 


licaJly, but one S)-inbol (i) (o denote both t and c'. This is Id 
torae mmiure the case Htill ; for, though wc fir»l ilut it (ai 
in twict) and r (u in city") are used to denote ihc true sound 
of ^, the sjinbol s is itacif still used wiih a double meaning 
(as in tin, rue). Unfortunately, tlie admission of s into our 
writing has been very grudgingly allowed ; no that whilst s 
is one of the commonest of totmds, the eye sees the symbol 
but seldom. Shakespeare was for once mistaken in calling 
t an ' utineen-tar)- ' letter ; for it might have been used very 
freely in our spelling with vcrj- great advantage. 

§ 389. The A. S. \x>wel-syslem »-as 6airly complete, the 
whole number of symbolB being eighteen, via. a, e, i, e, u,y 
(at first written it), d, /, t, S, ((./(at first wiiiten it), a. ta, to, 
d, /a, fy. Por a Full account of them, soc Sweet's A. S, 
Reader. We may say that the A.S. alphabet was, on the 
wbol^ nearly sulficient for refiresenttng all the words of ihc 
language l>y purely phonetic methods. There was a guttural 
sound like that of the G. th ; but this was suflicieiidy pro- 
vided for by using the symbol h with this power in every 
position except initially, wlierc, not being wanted for this 
purpow, it could be used for the initial aspirate. The chief 
defects of the alphabet were the double use of/ (for the 
sounds of/ and n), the double use of r (for the sounds of ^ 
and a); and the ambiguous use of )>, S for the wiunds of 
Ih in thin and Ih in Ihiiu. Even these defects were much 
lessened in practice by the position of the symbols in the 
words. Briefly, we may fairly cdl the A. S. s^-slem a purely 
phewlic jyMcm. and may assign to most of the symbols their 
usual Latit* values, so that the vowels a, f, i, o, u (alt of 
which were lengthened when accented) had the same «lties 
as in modem Italian ; whilst^ bad the sound of the Q. ii in 
SM, and to, to, ia, 4o were diphthongs whose component 
poTtB were pronounced as written. The most characteristic Uld 

' The A.S. >ym.Iiol i it rny i«i«, aiul wm prababtjr toundcd n A ; It 
aocon in imidm neh m Nati^ntk, 2W«iA»>, ftb 



EngBsb Bonnds are those of the dtpfalhoogs Jun mendooed ; 
of a infd/, wriuentr; the gutlunl A, u la n(/, mod. £. r^4/ 
(v-hcrc ihc guuurd is still preserved to tbe ejrr) : the *«rfing 
th, denoMd uikcenattily \sj }f and S ; atid tbe AuniiiaT nuxkra 
F- If'. One result of the A. S. phonetic spdUnj Is, that it i« 
not ODifonn, being roand to varjr from time to tine aoJ io 
different places, owing to varieties of proituociatioa ; bat k 
is dsuaily intcU^bk! and laithAil, and tn tbe IrtKA seiiac 
' etjmokigical,' precisely because it is phonclic When a word 
like fpiscoput was borrowed from Latin, and popalail^ pro- 
iM>unced as 6tit^, it was spcU as pronounced; there waa no 
llioagbl or turning it Into ^isto^ or tpiuap metel}' to insinaur 
that it was borrowed froin l^tin, and that ibc scribe knew it 
to be so borrowed. There was then no attempt on the pan 
of pcdanu to mark tlie supposed deHvatlon of a word b} 
conformli^ the spelling of a wortl to that of its preaiined 

{ 287. A.D. USO-1300. As lime wore on. some of tbe 
sounds slowl]^ cliangctl, but fortunately llie spelling changed 
with ihctn in many important particulars. Wc mayrvoiice the 
growing confudon, in tbe blest Anglo-Saxon, between the dk 
of the symbols i and y, so that the word him is often boMlly 
spell hym. whilst, on the other hand, we rrod eining for ^mtg. 
a king. The sounds denoted by those symbols were be- 
commg dilEculi to disiingui^ Sufficient examples of the 
ipclling of the period from 1 150 to i:too may be found in 
Morris'sSpecimcnsofEarlyEnglish.Part I.andcdition. Tbe 
alphabet is dscussed at p. xix of the Inuodoction. and the 
phonology at pp. xxv-xxxL As r^iards the alphabet, we 
may notice (i) the incrcasii^ use of k. cs]>ecially to dciMie 


' Tbii sound wucommeoiiitailjr Lstia.beiiiswnttaiH,uiai 
wbfncc V- ■aiim. Ihit ifac Lalla k-cmmoohii b«jd Klitndy became f 
bcfon the oulloi period of written Engllxh, sod bcncc tbe tx of t3w 
mac tfin Tor the kiuimI or «•. Sucb LmId woidi u omII, vtimt, arifi 
may luiT«U(n leant mi ibe oonHiwnt or fram ibe Brilom; the xrtlum , 
thoir u>iic|iut]t. St« Chiptn XXL 



the haid sound off before t and i', where there might other- 
wise be some doubi as to ilic sound, liecaiue ibe French 
scribes understood e before i and t to hai-e ihc louiid of »; 
(i) die uac of the s)-mbol ;' lo denote the sound of^ at the 
beginning of a 1l'ord(a^ iny=>'<-)or of the guttural >( (orjfA) 
ill the middle of a word (aa in iiil=- light)', (3) the u»e of 
gk for the A. S. k when guttural; and (4) the inlrodiiction 
of « as a eommanlal s}inbol to denote r, this w being diBtln- 
gnislied from ihe vovel u etiiefly by ils occurrence between 
two towel*, ihc htter of which is commoniy e. The converse 
use of t> for the vowel it (chiefly initially, as in r/t for uf>) U 
also found, but was silly and tieedkss*. By way of cxam- 
f^s, we may note (1) the spelling ktru, mod. E. ietfi, for 
A. S. f/ite, and kin for A. S. t^'ti ; (3) y, mod. ¥, for A. S. 
I g«, and /r)/ for A. S. />%/; (3) /rj^A/ as an alternative for /13/, 
for A. S. /d/, as before ; (4) n<<, ft^^^, mod. K. est, tver, for 
A. S. &fmi dfr<. We must also particularly notice that 
llie A.S. e and k now become th and jcA (new symbols), 
especially 1)efore t and /; and that the symbol y begins to 
be used for tlie consanflnt_y, though It is also a vowel. The 
A. S. hit f>H, hr, become merely I, n, r ; av is replaced by 
ku> and fu, the latter being a French »vml)ol which soon 
preTaikd over hii entirely; hw >» wrillcn wh ; () in preferred 
to C initially ; and the initial gt- (prefix) becomes 1'-. Exam* 
pies of these changes may be seen in ekrl, mod. E. ckurl, 
for A. S. {«^l, and ehi/d for A. S. aid; teAtdm. mod. K. tittf, 
for A.S. wArfttw, and uhinfji.V.. sh'ne.iot A.S. scfnan ; yoifgc. 
E. jwtng, for A, S, geotig ; lautrd, F.. lord, for A. .S. Mdford ; 
iMfe, £. mm/, for A. S. ^Au/|t rendm, E. rend, for \. S. Artndiw ; (i,^\Jr ^TSi 
iuMV, Utcr fiunt, £. fiff^w, lor A. S. ttn/n ; ivAr', E. tcAr, for 

' Thii trnibol ii mndy ■ pMnlUr form «t g, rery lUce the A. S. f. 
A a«w(Frciidi) form ol^vuiiicil Toif iuclf. 

* TbctTmbol p (A.S fr)^lMppcm>bout a.d. iito: ItoenrobAUt 
fiTc tlnrn tn Hnnlok llic Dane ll w» rrjil.icod *1 Tint bj (ur, boL 
sTlerMranU by >> (a Kicncli iymbi>)} as M piaect. Thii change in no 
w»y ccnoenied the pionnncuuiom. 



A. 5. ha^\ pah. K. Ihoi^h (with initial |>), vri9, Z.wtH (u-iih 
fiiulff); i'Scrfii.'^rrfi. Tbc voncl-scheine 
oflbisiteriotl in too complex lobediscuuMtDiere; bui we may 
pankuhrly note ihc disappcarancr of rr, the place of which 
was supplied by f or (i ; ihc dis8p;)»rancc, in ihc Umteeoth 
century, or fu and a>. whetlter long or »bori ; aiul the sudden 
disappearance o( 9c»nlual marks, so that it is not a]wa}-s easy 
to tell whether ihc voo'ct is long or short. Wc have also to 
Tcmeinber that vre have nou- to deal with /hra written dialects. 
This is also the pcrxxl when French wo«l» began (o be tn> 
troduccd, with the same ppcUii^ and pronunciation as that 
which they had in the Anglo-French MSS. of the same lime; 
and it inuKt be particularly noticed that tlie sound:! of (he 
French vowels did not then dilTcr materially from the sounds 
of the corresponding English vowels, so that the French 
words required no violent allcnilion to adapt them for KngUA 
use. I'hc spelling slit) remained fairly phonetic and therefore 
etymological ; it is occanonally atnbiguous, hut not so to any 
great or important extent. For a carefiil discussion of the 
pronunciation of two 'imjwrlant works of ihu period, viz, the 
Ancrcn Kiwlc and the Ormulum, &ec Sweet's First Middle 
English Primer. We roust particularly remember iluL in this 
lliirteenlh century and in the century succeeding it. the Englidi 
language was practically rt-spfU aiteriif^ to Iht Atglfi-Frmti 
mttM by scribes who were lamiliar with Anglo-Frendi. 
This is clearly shewn by the use of fu for fn\ as in qmmt 
(queen) for A,S. nvfn; <£< with the sound ofi before r anil 
i, as in (trUxin, eitt (city) ; of tt and y as consonants, as in 
niert {fttt^yt (yt); of or and 9- for ir/ and n occasionaUf, 
as in tf^ for dai, from A. S. dag, /iey or /ff for /i^', from 
Iccl, fifH', they ; of the sj'mbols v. w, and M ; of » with the 
sound ofy (as in (i»>. joy), ftc. These scribes also replaced the 
' Anglo-Saxon ' or Celtic forms of d,/, g, r, i, and / by letters 
of a continental type; but they retained f (at a fotm of 
t) together with t. One \-owcl-chan^ is too remarkable to 


( 188.1 



be passed over, vis. (he <Iisa]i)i«iranc<: of the A, S. 4, Le. 
long (1, owing 10 the change of soun<l from aa in baa to that 
of ca in broad, which was denoted bj* changing the A. S. 
Spelling brdd into Uie new »|)elling« broad*, brood. ConiUN 
quvnil)-, ax Mr. Sweet remirks. the Inic i (long a) ' ocoire 
only in French words, as in tfame, lady, dame, hlam-*it, 10 
blame ' ; which were of counc ])ronou»ce(I with the French 
sound of a. 

§ 238. Wc are now in a position to give some xccounl 
of the Sjmbols tn use at the end of the ihirteenlh century. 
Omitting the capiul letters, which are sufficiently familiar, 
the list of tym\)o\* is as foUows : abodefghM'k 
Imnopqura (alto f) tavwxys i'"^' rart) \ 
alio j»(=/A)' and j (= y initially.^A mcdutly and finally, 
and K>meiimes a finally). The two last characters ncre 
inherited from the older period : the refl of the leKcrs may 
be ton*idtred as Anglo-Krciich forms of the Koman letters, 
and ilic whole sjstcm of spelling had become French rather 
Enghsb. We shall noi, liowcwr, have the complete 
of sound-s}'mboU till »*:■ ;idd the compound symlwls 
following, six. oh (raicly written ho) og ph sob (also ah) th 
wb. Of these, th was pronounced asi now. i.e. a& cA In 
choMt, and mostly repreyenis an A. S. e (uiiually when fol- 
lowed by r or f or y). or cUc it represents an O. F. ^h as in 
fhaitge; ith is the modem sk in shall; Ih was coming into 
use as an alicmalivc for )i ; and wh replaced llie A. S. /no. 
There is no j. but the symbol »' represented boih »' and j. 
Wc must also consider the long vowels and diphthongs. 
The former were at first not distinguished to the eye from 
the short ones; the latter were ai (or ay) an (or aw) «a 

* Tbli ipclling dill lint Imi lone. )>■>' ■°'"> C*** "'T ^ ffvid; the 
modern trvaJ U du« lo a tubKc)utnt icviiat u( the djmbol m, which b 
AlntMI. pcriuipi quilt, unknown in the rourttrnlb lut fiAecnih ccnturiM. 

* An MplrMc iniiialfy : oilierwiK a cnltonl. laltr gh. 

■ Tbo tfinbcii B diMpptsn Kun a&ci ji.i>. u^ except pectiaia in 
nu« ioatsncM. 

VOL. I. X 

MonERff P.HGUSH SPELUNG. (thut . XVI. 

ei (or e?) «o io o« oi (nr vj) ou nl, for (be |iroDUodatloa 
of which ace Swcci, I-'irst Middle Kiig. Primer, jj. j. Some- 
limes we fitu! ea (or ew). ^^Ticn Uic hard e is doubted, 
ic is written kk; a double eh \* written frA'; a double i 
JB somctiiDcf written tr (as in bUiefd"), but llic lame S}-inbol, 
viz. tc, could be used for sk OT ewn for tk. 

§ 289. A. D. 1300-1400. PaMting on to ibe fourteenth 
century, the reader will find sufiicieni examples of the spell- 
ing in SpeeirociiB of Engltsli, ed. Morris and Skeat, Pan 11 ; 
or in the cxirnrts from Cluiicer publi.thed by die Clarendon 
Press*. I shall here describe the spelling found in my 
edition of the Man of Lawes Tale, wbidi, though occujon- 
ally itomiidi<!cd, iit strictly founded on thai of lite excellent 
Kllcsmcre MS., written about a.d. 1400. The consonanis 
are much the same as in die thirteenth cennji>-. The 
symbol ^ remains in occasional use, Inil th i« very commonly 
u»cd instead. A new symbnl gh, still in use, is employed 
for the guttural sound written A in A.S. But the vowei- 
symbols are somewhat altered; the old ra* <»*, disppcar, 
ui is rart, and the system of doubling the vowels, to indkalc 
length, begins to prc%'ail, giving us aa, «■. m ; and sonutiroes 
y for the long /. Eo is hardly ever used, except in f«9f^, 
more commonly pepti (people), or even /w/Zc. The reader 
is particularly referred to the description of ChaiKer's pro- 
nunciation by Mr. ICllis, reprinted (by his kiivd |>ermhtsion) 
in the Introduction to my edition of Chaucer'* Man of 1 
Talc, and ed., 1879, p. %, 

' An eiprcMin (]nitbii1 ; for th« loinid i» fcally that of a (iBil et 
imfltvivf vmod, followed b; the tnie ik or MfUrh* m^kI ; n ta 
Jir-iifH, to Iclch. 

' la MottU' ■ cdidon of the Prologue, ibc ^Tmbott v and j are intrte 
ductd with ihctr mod^m valun ; dio MK>. Inve only n (or p (aba r for 
•>)aad i, 

* £a N xonwlims wiittai in mi^, J^eaie, bnl at (or ttu\ ami fJtu 
•re comnioner. In the 6ftcerilh oreXaij ta KButncd jcaru, liul tn* 
•ftcTWkrdt iciittiL 

■ Oa qalie itiuj^pran, Irot WM i«Tiv«<I in Ibe lixtMitth oratni?. 

I *9i.l 



% 390. Tbc preocdint; account niay suffice lo give some 
idea of Uie eailier modes uT spelljit); ; Inil now ihiit wc Imvc 
reacbt-d tlie c!o»e of ihc fourtctnili ccniury, il U worth while 
to cxamiiK- the sjinbols carefully, because we arc fast 
approaching ihc period wbeo modem EnglisJi K|M'Uin)i n-as 
practical!}' formed and fixed. The $]wllinf; of the Man of 
I.awe« 1'alc does not mttttially differ from that of the 
present day, in spite of the vast eliariBes ihat ha\'e come 
over oiij pronuiMbtton. The princi]KiI iliiTereiice i.*, after all, 
due to t)ie low of iltc final r in the spoken word. Since the 
)-car 1400. the form of the worda to the eye has not grtulfy 
chaii(;c<I. iliouj-h tlie sounds intended are verj- liifTerenL 
This statement may sectn a link- xtarilin^ at fimt ', but n 
careful examination will shew thai much of the apparent 
strangeness of Chaucer's language is due to changes in 
grammar and vocabulary rather than to any luytptng dianges 
ill the xyxlem of ti)>vlling then in vogue. 1 shall now give 
a (owfiUtt list of all the symbols in use about A.O. 1400. 
A specimen of the spelliojt of this period will be found in 
the Ari-rsuix. Sec also p|>. 44, a<), 34, 37. 

{ 2dl- 'I'he vowels nre: a e i o a (also written t. 
initially) j (for i, especialiy when Ion™) w (for u. rare) 
Ml (rare) ee 00. Diphtlioiigs : ai, or ay au, or aw ea 
(very rare) oi, or ©y eo (ran?) eti, or ow ie 0© {wry rare) 
oi, Of oy on, or ow ao' tii, or uy. ConTOnanis: bed 
f g li 1 (or cafHioi I, for j) ' k 1 m n p qu r a (or f) t 
T (or u, for T) w X y (or )> s. Digraphs, Ac. : ch gh, 
or ) gu (in guerdon, i.e. g\e\ ng ph sch, Mitnciimis ab 
th, or |> wb. Doubled letters ; bb co dd fl* gg kk (for 

' ItncUilxnB) siv v> il'pniikiit iipmn iW li«k of a word te tkt tj/t. 
tbrtcven ■ tex ccn)|«iaTivrtf tUglit chiiigct in (jKllinj; fill tlirin wllk 
unai«eMa(. Ilowcvrr. u-e ma}- coticp the iTmbott ra and m in puti- 
cnlu. u btlon^lniE to Tudoi-En^luh, not to Chauecriaa ipdling. 

■ Mr. £111* oiatii tn ;ta In dVw); alio «>'. uj) (u in /riiii,/rti]rt). 

' AImi It ■' f<^loiir«>] tijr 1' kir i, \* UK<1 to ijtiiote/ ladMil, ohcn [h« 
KMU>d of/ cods ■ word, tl Unjn apiirar) a*gt- 

X 2 



et or ti) rarely ck 11 dud dd PP it as (or (h)- Hwl 
liirorm di]^phs. &c. : ooh (for ehek) mh (for jhth or! 
simple sh) J»(» (ith or even tth or thtb. combin- 
ations: bl br cl (or kl) or (or kr) dr dw fl fU (rare) 
fr gl gn gr kn pi pr pa so (or sk) si (abo u-riitcn 
sol) sm sa 8p squ st bw sor (or skr) sobr (or shr) apt 
spr Btr tr tw thr (r>t ))t) thw wl (mrc) wr. Final 
combinations ' : ot ds lb ft gn ght (or ^t) lb Id If Ik 
Im In Ip la It 1th lue (= It) mb mp nee nch nd 
ngs nglh nk ns nt nth ps pt pth rb ro roe rob rd 
rf rk rl rid rm rn rod rp ra nch rat rt rth riw 
(= rv) 8k Bp 8t ts xt. Also go (fory"); gge {^otjj); ago 
(for Nj); rgh. in t/mrgb, through; mpne, in sohmf-ru. solemo. 
§ 29SL The reader will ai onc« recognise, in tlie above 
list, a large number of r,uniliar syinboh wlitch arc still in use. 
The French influence is by ihis time par.imounl, as may be 
seen by comparing the spelling of Middle-English of the 
fourWcnth century wiili ihn of the Anj;l»-Frencli * of the 
same period, as exhibited in tiie I.ibcr Albus or the Liber 
Custumarum or the Statutes of the Realm. In order lo 
complete t)ie history of our written forrns, all that rrrRainx) 
is lo notice ihe principal alterations that bavc betrn made in 
the above list or s}inbols sioce a-o. iioo, and to account 
for omissions from or additions lo it. The first point to be I 
noticed i» ttie extraordinary lou (in pronunciation) of ihr 
final 'f, which in »o many cases dciwicd an inflexion of 
declension or of oonjugaiioD in the spoken language. TMsj 
loss took place early in ihe fifteenth century in the Mufland ; 

' Tbete KfimhInMion* clo*e » word of qrll»blf, u art{t\ att-iam. 
Hodem English hai ^i. in itsit, anil olhrr combinatioM not HBoi in 
1400. 1 omit in in Ab-mr, and the 1:]ce, wbeie ike tfint«la belong to 
dllTemn syllable. 

* Th« tetm ' Anglo-Frmeli" i* abwlalely necemuy; it denolei the 
UicT fotm of lh« Korman-Fwnch istrodnced >t ibe Cmqncnt : Ua ifcU 
dialect, u Bilapi(^ in tlngUnd, had ■ dilfercDt devcloprntnt tnm tJMt 
tA ibe Fitocb of Notinuidj. 




dnlcct, but had already lalcen place in ihr Nonhvm ilialcct 
in die fourtccnlli. The result «-as not a Mile remarkable, 
and is of supreme iinportanoc in explaining (be spelling 
of n>odern EngUsb. I will iheicforc endeatour 10 explain 
it carcrull/. 

§ 203. Let us examine, Tor example, the history of the 
words JMw, ilmt, t^nt \ the last of wluch is not of Engtisb, 
but of Greek urigin. The A. S. for bonr ij hdn (pronounced 
baan), an<l (or ttetu is tidn (pronounced Haan. with aa as in 
haa\. But these forms were only used in the nominative 
atKl accusalive singular ; the genitive* singular were b&n-it, 
ti^a-ii, and itic datiws tdii-f, sidn-i; all four forms being 
diflsylhtuc. The pi. nom. and ace. was tliu-as. In the 
tweliUi and litirieenth centuries ilie sound of d changed lo 
thai of ca in bread, denoted (iinjKrfeetly) by «>, thus giving 
the forms bo<m. sIooh (pron. bOHit, t/titeti). The gen. and 
dat. aing. sliould have been written toones, ihontt, boont, 
ilMne, but il was felt thai it wan sufTicienl to write but one 0, 
because the reader would unconsciously dwell upon ii, and 
mentally divide the words as Ao-nh, s/o-ih, ic-iti, Uo-tti (ail 
dtnyllabic), an<! would thus jireserve tlie Icngtii of ttie von-cl. 
Morcot-er. in si»:h familiar words, the tcribes did not fcruplc 
10 write ion. slon, with a single o, even in the nom. and aec.. 
trusting that ihcy would easily be recognised, and pronounced 
with a long vowel. Hence we find the following forms : 
Sing. nom. and ace. boon, ben, stoon, 3l(m ; gen. bonHs, ttcnis' ; 
dot. ioni, timl; PI. nom. and ace. hnti, licnfs, forms which 
were early extended to include the gen. .and dat. jJ. also. 
The same forms continued in use in the fourtccnih century, 
but there was a tendency to drop the ^ in the dat. sing. 
The dat. ung., be it remembered, was then of considerable 
importance, because it was almost invariably employed after 

* Tbe two dan over the r point out that -M«ad-/arediiilnct tyllablct. 
If Ibl* bv tar\gfMm, the whole of llic ueonnt t* relnad. Anj one 
accnilaiMid lo mod. Ccnmn will eitfjr icmenber ihi*. 



ceiiain prepositions, sudi (by), /or. from, in. of, «. 
to. A[n«ngsl ilicse, Uie prep, of was in very frequenl hsk.-, 
because it was used to translate the Freiich dt; whence 
(in addition to tlmti) a new form sprang up to translair tl: 
French A la pitrre. vut. ^ ike ttonit; and iha phrase 
possibly regardc<l even ihrn. sw it i« always regarded now^ 
as a form of ibc gtnUivt ca«c. though it is none the le 
griiinmaiicilly, a dcJive. It is now easy to see 
hajipcni-d. The noininatiies 6o<m, sfoon, or 6«n, tloti, vrm 
confused with (he datives i«ni, ilon/. often prononiKed iaa'^ 
sfon'. hy ihe loss of final e. and the scribes frequently wr 
ioiu, slont even where ihe final t was dropped. Thts tub 
was particularly common in the North of England 
Scotland, became the final i was there lost at a time « 
it was still iiounde<l in the Mi<Dan<l and Soutltern iKatecUJ 
and Northern scrilK-s were peculiarly liable to add an idle 
(and tliereforc an tgnorani) final c in places where the 
letter was wttilen in the Siiuih becaute it was really souixled'. 
Or even if the Nortlicrn scribe spelt correctly, the htidUnd 
or Southern scribe who wrolc out a piece comf^sed in ebe_ 
Northern dialect would be sure to insen a large nti 
of final Vs qnitc wrongly, simply because he was oscd to* 
them. Moreover, the spelling of English foUciveil Frtmk 
madtli, and the Old French aboun<led In words ending in ■ 
which was once always soundei), but afterwards became mott.^ 
Examples are ; it may sufUce to itoiice the spdlin;; 
iyjt for ^(nom.) in 1. 431 of ibe Northern poem by Ham- 
pote, called tlie Pricltc of Conscience, wriltm abnnt a.i>. 1340^ 
Kc p- 34. line as- Hcnoc arose, as a matter ol course 
by mere accident, without any prrmcditaiion, the modem 
English device of writing bone, ilinte, wllcrc liic final t H 
nssocUted with ihe notion that the preciedii^ vowel is toa; J 
«o that we now acttuUy regard this tun mram /or A* 

> The best MS. of Bnrbour'* llracc; wrintn nut by ■ S:u1ah»U Mj 
I487, ib»«n<U with extmplei □< thv cnute ftnai -e. 




dieah'Hg Iht Itngih <>f tkt frtttding reuv/ ' 1 The clumnncBS 
of this device niQSt have struck every one wl«) has ever 
tbougtit of it, aiul it certaitilr would never have been con- 
Kiously iti\>;nle(l by any sane being. Ii b the greatest 
Blumbting-block in the «-jy of reformed spelling. It is very 
remarkable, too, that a very similar, but not txatily equivalent, 
result Ikix come about in French, ^ Inngunge whicli abounds 
with words ending in -«- 1'he French final f vts formerly 
always pronounced, bui ia now silent. It was from French 
that u-e borrowed the word eont (for which see Cotgrave'x 
F. Dictionary) ; and. 6ndiTig thai its Epelling was exactly in 
accordance willi our omi system of spelling iiont and i/owc, 
Mre naturally adopted it as il was. The F. etnt (now e4iu) 
reprcscnii; an O. F. ton-t (dissyllabic), where the 6nal -t 
represents ihc -um in the Lat. ace. ctm-uu (nom. een-ui = Gfc. 
iMvat), just as (lie same Lat. MiiCx is re{>resented by -o In the 
Span, and Ital. tone. So also we write altmr, alone, loae, 
tone, crtrtu, Jroat, ftc. ; and we even still write ont, nont, 
gone (.\. S. ifn, ndn, gdn). iKcause the vowels in thooe words 
were cneriang, and they all once rimed with ione. 

5 894. The loss of the final -f as an inRexion was 
miivcrsal, and 100)1 jilace not only in substantives, but in 
adjectives and \vt\M also. Thus ibe A. S. infinilitc rid-on 
became M.E. rid-tn, or (by loss of -j») ni/-/, and is now ridf, 
Tlie A.S, ha.41 (while) was also used in Ihc dtfiniU* form 
kuH'O, whence the M. E. double fonn whyl and wfyt-i, the 
latter bdng preferred in the modern usA/4r. On the other 
hand, the A. S. infinitive l^/Jiin became M. E. ifU-fn, bli'l. 

' If the vowf] il ihott. 01 IT tho Iciiglh of the towcI b alhtmitt 
ohvioim. the t uuioily diwppnrs in mMltm ED(,'liih, hroiue In niter 
tufrlexncw ii theii sppfticat. We 6a(l, in ^hokeiptarr (Kint Futio) tech 
qclUtiKi ■* ittert, yo^t trilirn, t^ft, tvomr. knfi. mam. <«tim, 
uiji (Tamp. Act I. Sa i;. We alu> liiut tatt, <art,/id4, npt, *c, at 
• The Ji/iiilr fonu of the •iljedive ■«» ilvay* ased when lie detinile 
I article ot ■ pouoMvc iitDDouu preceded ii. 



bui in the firtccntli rcntury tilk (witli e mule) ; tilts mute t 
is now dropped, being complclcly utclos, bat the doubtc / 
reindns. ITie falc of the M.E. inilcxiona] suffix -ett was 
ttic lainc ax tliatorUie fmal -r,on account of the fjillinK away ^fl 
of the n in nt-aily alt cases. Tliere i» a Uticc of it still m a ^^ 
few words, viJ!. «x-in,in-(thtr-en,fiildr-fn, ii'-ne (with * added 
lo denote long ()'. 

f SOe. U is nccnxary to discuss soniewhttt Airther the 
spelliDg of words borrowed from French. The woni fpmt, 
nicniioned above, was not 1)orro«'ed at a very eatlj- time. 
Uul wc find in Ctiauccr such words as ngt, ehanet, charge, 
f louse, CHft, dame, grace, ntte, eume. place, laMe, Irmple. all of 
wliich were oil^nally diBsj-ilabic. These are stiD spelt the 
tame as ever, ihoujjii lliey '.ire now all monosyUitbk' except 
The two last. Indeed, it luts become a rvlc in modem 
I'^iiglish that the sound of (ioal J may not be denoied hjj, 
but must be wrillen gel Simtlarl;-, ee is now Uk moai 
nccepuble way of representing tbe sound of a final t ; w 
much so, indeed, that we have actually extended ihb FroKb 
fashion to pure Kn^lisli words, and now urite mite, tariet, 
where the scribes of the fouriccnth centur)- wrote mys, tagb 
(<ns8yi]abic) ; cf. j 197. Verbs such as the F, grant-tr, 
4ras-er, were conformed to E. grammar, and became ^<ti«r' 
fn,grmU-l, drets-t*t,dreu-lS; later^/-dn/r,(//'ruf (mono^ilabic); 
and finally ^riM/, drtu, as now. 

% 3S6. Tite M.F„pl. suffix -fx(A.S.-i») is also deserving 
of aiicnlion. In Chaucer it forms 3 scpanttc syllaMct so ihxl 
bon-is, stim-is, were diss) Uabic ; at the same time, ihc sufii 
had become less emphatic and distmci. so that the original I 
A. S. suflix 'ai (originally pronounced with j-) passed inU'^ 
M.E. -es (with dull e, and t as «). Tlic fomu hna, ttma,' 
were retained, even after the words bad become tnono- 



■ EnglithmcD liod 11 dllTicDlt to roUtc ItatI ibc old Ihcwk* ww 
kigbly inllciion*] ; yet il [touina id, proviacially, lo Ihit daj, u in lb 
Shroptliicc pbace— ' I lUt* My yo' gtUta iBore Ihau jv' dctsmn.* 


* ervMOLoctCAi.' sprlung. 



^Uablcs, because some mciliod had to be cmplo/cd for 
poiniing out the lenjjih of the voncls. So bIbo ivc now 
write carts, gaiiut, which are of Kngliiih origin, and luru, 
ft, emus, which arc French. So also oiru, airti are 
used in ibc third person 8in|Q:ular of the verb. The plurals 
ogts, chanett, chargu, elauset, grates, otmets, plattt, taMts, 
lempUt arc still diaiyllabic, and unaltered save tn llic vo«%U 
sounds. It is tcmarkablc in how many of such plurjtis a Itas 
the sound of t. Wc find [lie i-sound in mod. £. take, pi. 
takn; alxo in /«* (M.K. /o*). pL/<vix <M.F.. Jlokies), 
where ihc t has been purposely cut oui, lest ihc word should 
appear to be di&>}'Uabic. All the above cxainplca are 
characteristic of large cls^sscx of wordx. As to die lulBx •«/, 
little need be said ; it was long retained as a dlsdncl syllable 
in numerous cases wlterc the t ii now silent. 

§ 207. One cou*cqucncc of tlic uk of llic e in slants 
to denote the long vowel was to disturb the spelling of many 
Middle-English words in which a short vowel was followed 
by a single consonant and t, inicb as mantrt, mattrt, hittr, 
tetiftn, t^tr, goiert or guJtre. The simplest expedient for 
remedyinsthis defect was lo double Uic consonant, according 
10 the analogy of ntaitn-is, genitive of man. Hence the 
modern forms matmtr, mailer, tilltr, totltr, (sf^f, guittr. 
Sucb doubling was less necessary- when the vowel was not t; 
so that the old fonnH managt. matins^, iigol, metal \ eolcur, 
itttji, ttmtm, are still in utc. This new distinction caused 
much confusion, so that the rule was not consistcndy carried 
out. Thus die word tolerate (consistently with foily, Joily, 
for M. Y^folyt, ioly'\ was spell lelltraU by Sir Thomas More, 
Sir Thomas Elyol, and Udall (sec the examples in Richard- 
son's Dictionary) ; but when the mania for ' ctyinological ' 
getting set in, in Uw middle of the sixiecndi century, the 

' The tptlltni; maitini ii a coinpamtiTcly modern innuttttion, b; 
^ecarnnon «ntl> ife« lul. maifiac Hitforicnlly, the wonl in Fieach ; 
CMgrste bu : ' Aft/ini. Milint. Momtng Priia.* 

* Aciually tlm (pelt ntUlt, when u»c<l ka > meUipboiical letue. 



RpeUmgwas altered back iigain to toltralf. ksl readers BhooM 
be too dense to detect the connection of MItralt witti ibe 
Latin loltrare. And when onoc tlic allcmpi was ihuH made 
to supplant plionetic by 'etymological' spelling, all chance 
of conMMcDcy was at an end, and the phonetic system nas 
doomed, except iii m far as word* of obscure ctj-tnology were ^ 
allowed to be confonnecl to phonetic roles'. Wlnlst 
am speaking of doubled Iciiera, I may remark that modem' 
K[it;li»)i has a ridiculous prejudice against writiuj; J/ an<l rv, 
tlte reason for which I shall git'c pfescntly, Jj has beenj 
provided for by writing ^t (!), whiclt ^rose out of (be Bnal ' 
M. E. ggf (see end of § 191]; but we have uo ntuy of' 
tliewtng that Uver does not rime to ttrtr. As to isofieti 
doubled in modem English where it vas once single. Thus 
M. E. Marit is iiovr Mary, but M.E. mofirn is marry. 
M. E. mery is now mrrry, though we retain M. E. vtry. 
M. M. mirour is now mirror, and M.E. oiorwt is uMrrme. 
M. E. sorwe is svrrow; and, by confusion with ilil* wor<l 
the A.S. sdr-ii( is now sorry, though closely allied to the 
adj. sdfi sore, and therefore an altered form <£ tor-y. 

A final i is now doubled when it is desired to sitcw tliau il i 
Is not sounded as a; hem.'* M.K, glas^ biis,dr6s are i»ow 
glass, tiliit, dross, and all wonb that once ended in -ht and 
•lus now end in 'lest and -nest. Another cooinion device * 
for shewing that s is not sounded as a, is to write re, as fat < 
mirt, lOMie, &c., already alluded to. So also /oift for Kl. E. 
f«t. In fact, English abounds with sucji 'piKtnetic' devices; 
no one objects to tliem as toiiig as they are allowed to remain 
sporadic, irregular, and inroitasicnt. 

< Thi* i* wImI most people mean bjr ' Hrnologic*! * ipelUkg. ni. to 
ipcll a woni la a Latis oi'GitcL fuhlmi where ihc ttjtBtAanj ii cai; 
(nui^h, aad crciU no poiBtic); uut ; siiil lu uptti U *» It kipfKia 10 bt 
ip«lt in Tudor- (jielit^ where Uie etynokisj ia hard. 

' Yet 1 third (!) melhod b to write u, » In Aarft (U. E. iktrtl, 
gofit (U. K. xe»i), Amu/ (U. E. lUm). But neit it, lb« inc M. V. focmf^ 
tticnlwc the > In II nwaa* t. 



S 2RS. AD. 14O0-1800- Tlte most weighty points 
in (Ji« bifiorjr of i-pclling in ilie fiftccnih century were Uic 
total loss of the inflectional •< and the partial loss of -ra, 
the frequent (ciliiction of the inflectional -a to the simple 
souiu) of 1 (or s), and the occacion^I doubling of letters to 
denote the shonnesi of llie precc<ling vowel. We have now 
10 examine in <]ctail the change* tnaite in the lymMs em- 
|>lm-e<l, a list of wfiicli hag been ^wn in { S91. To Kmit 
llie ciKHiiry. I conl'me ray remarks chiefly to the spellings 
foand in a book of the hichcst importance for our purpose, 
viz. Caxton's translation of *Lc Kecucil ties IlintoireN de 
Tnjye,' a sufficient extract from which is given in my 
Spedmens of Rngli»h, Part III, pp. 89-95; or the readier 
may turn to the sample of ii given in the Appinoix to 
the present vohnne. The date is a-o. 1471. We may 
first of all remark the retention of the old intleclionat 
•* in pl.ices where it was required by the grammar of 
the preceding ccnturj-. though it w«s no longer sounded 
in the frfiernih. Examples aic : wmft, 3rd p. s. pi. t. ; 
fyfigf. dat. ; aiU, pi. ; etmt, gcnmd ; payt. intiniiive ; wAfk, 
(laL. Ac. On llie otlier haiid, we fiml taid. 3rd, 
(not uude); ikoid (not sMd*) ; gold, dat. {not goldt) ; and so 
on. Further confusion appears in the use of final -* in 
wholty impossihie placeti, a.i in rattne (1. 19) for ran ; /otilt 
(1- 33) fof yiw/; itH'. pp. (1. 4J> for sef, &c. This error is 
round at a still earlier date in Northern writings. Final -e 
is used to denote a long vonei, as in /ert, fear (L 19), dredt, 
dread (I. 19), better spelt ftfr, drtrd; also in ilamt (1. si), 
a French spelling of a t'rench word. We still lind f r as a 
plural ending, as in Grtks, wordet, &c. ; and such a spelling 
as mtrtuiyllii (marvcSs. 43) ^cws that this suflix still lingen.^ 
as a separate syllable; indeed we even lind 'wvmd-U wyde' 
In Spenser, KQ.i.g. 17, though iliis form was then archaic. 

§ 29S. Recurring to the symbols in $ 391, wc may re- 
mark the foJlowing prindpal variations. 




Voweli. The use of > for » has. at tfib due, become com- 
mon, an ill iyngf, tayd, counftyU, ca-lqyn, wylhtmt, &k. ; in 
many instances, mod. E. has retuined to the use of ». W 
{for If) {Iisa|}pear&, Aa, tt, oo remain ; u id maad, firtrtl,' 
out I (ho»t). 

Diphlhongs. We find said, sayd\/raw^e ("*)'t demauitdtd 
(64); /«»(s, but n» is rare); totmceill {t^). farceyut {j-^; 
ilnot (155. M. E. j/rw-O ; /oy^ (1 j8. M. E. i*J"-*> ; ftnit (33), 
y&a'/f (85); _><»««■ (73); tonduyU (171). The symbol « it 
rare, but is found evtn in Chaucer (C. T, Group B, 300) 
in the word ^tn. «hich has lasteil down to modem limes as 
ftra. Ttic modem /f/i/ \&/tld. both in Caxlon (93) and io 
Chaucer. The sjinbol /t> x% found in (lie fourteeiiih century 
in the word pcapte, which was aJso iometimcx written /Kv/A-, 
and wc needlessly retain the former spelling to this day. 
The original intention of the symbol was, probably, to 
express tlie F. tu in ptufdt, as the word was written p<cpU 
in Anglo-French*; but the M.E. form is commonly ptpl*. 
and the modem form ought to be peeflt. Caxion has 
piple (ay). Finally, the V. eu appears in furtur. fwy 


CmsmanU. We still findjvy written t^ or (>>y(ii8). 
But in the course of the fifteenth ccniuiy, the symbol / was 
invented, though it was not employed as at present till much 
later'. Il simply arose from the habii of writing a long 
duwn-stiokc to the last / in such numlKrt a» /i, in. vii, vai, 
which were commonly written ij. t'lj, vij, vi'rj, so thai the tail 
of the letter was at Gist a mere flourish. It was a bappj 
tlioughi to employ the new sj-mbol thus formed for an old 
sound thai had no special symbol allotted to it. Retuming 
to Caxion, wc proceed to note that v begins to be used as 

' The nnmberi ntcr to Itie linea in ibc ntracl rrosn CaxroB. 

* Stklmct of the Realm, L 197; Liber Ciiseiniittin, pp. 8l,S4,U7' 
We aUo find M.H. fiitfit, P. Vlowman, C- xiL 11. 

' It U Bol employed In Ihe ibjj edition □( Sbakeipcate. It 
iMo Me sbool 16^, and wai cxucieely caainciD ia t6to. 





nt pMwnl, not ontf iniiullf, u in Chaucer, bul even in 
the middtf of a word, as in i^ntrvt (Minerva, 38). prtrstrbt 
(1*0), rateyre (139), etyliys (141)- It is remarkable that 
the great adnntage of this plan was not more (juickl/ per- 
ccit'cd ; but the restriction of v lo the sound of [he con- 
sonant was much delayed by lh« habit of using v initially 
with the double value, as in vp (= up), vyct (= viety. The 
symbol 5 went out of use in ihc fifieenih century, because its 
forro had become indistinguishable from thai of i. Indeed, 
we Mill write eafertailtii for captreaity ( =t (ap<rtaifyt\ \ and 
the proper names Dalu'tt, Meitzits. for Ihtyd. Mfisy'/s*. 
The pbcc of j was supplied by_v initially, and by^A medially, 
ax in^^, ii'gX/, formerly y, tijt. 

Dtgrap/a- Gu (= gio) remains in gufrdon ; the gu in 
fWM, jfurt/, is of later date. Sch becomes sh m the South, 
though uh wax siili used in Scotland, and occurs in the 

' Citat avkwttnlnm wu caused by the ptnltlcnt itw or m lin the 
eon«MiAnl-K>und, bctimK tbc pnclicc wu atwajr* to tike care that Jl 
nu moi imautt ruo tminti, u in mil ot euii^evU) ; and, «i Ihe lalier 
of tlinc vowrii Willi iituallx "• <■. evrijf word lliat rnded wilh Ihe limple 
(onad of p WBt ipctt %•> ns to end wiih ihe coinpomid timbot n/. Evm 
Then V ccmc into regular uw for the lound of the conionuit, Ibe 6iib1 
(b; *» InUTiMly Mupid conterritliin; w» illtl wrlllen ev, a pnctltx 
whkh tiu lilted evtn 10 thlt dn; ; so ilial ihcre h ■ law In modeni 
Eogliih thnt tha ijrmbol s> mutt not end a wuid, ind we aU ha^e 
to write iavi, give, sent, ^cimtead o{ iav.giv, sen: which leave* m 
powerleu lo dUlloguith bclvccn Ihe ihorl 1 in Ihc vnb IB iitt and the 
loae /(n a/tat. Ry writing (be forinct 11 //c. the diillncllon mlchl bare 
brcB made- H^icc alio another abturd tule in iticHlcm r'Aj^lith, rli. 
thai o niB^t never be doubled. We write iezvr, with a lung f, lighllj, 
bat we mutt not dare to write ittiir. The rtauui, of eoune l» thi* ; 
that If the old M or ur hid been doubled, the word wontd have becD 
wrltloi tuuer or tutuir. whleh Wat fell lo t« a titlle too cinmay N» 
rvfuim In niudriabi>eliin{; la «q much needed ai the utc of (he almple* 
foe i^v, Uvtgiv. and the power eithrr lo double Ihe v in rMv, uvptr, 
flmrtr, &c., or etic lo double the / In Itrvtr. which would be ■ crtat 
deal better. I lewDunend thii ch.mge very jtnoiEiv. 

' Bp. Percy print* an old ElalUd wllh ■ ihroughoul. 'Qahy dob 
Mur brand t'ae drop wi' bluid, ^luard, EdwudT' It ihewi creat 
ttufddily. tnjtevr vroold haic ben> quite cotiCit. 



MSS. of Dunbar and Cawain Douglas. The symbol ^ 
inio dUiisc, because iis form had gntdually become ideniic: 
with iliat of^; but prinicfs long cominued lo print y,y 
(=);', )>■) insiL-ad of the and thai, whcnut-cr ihRy found ihai 
thcrp was insuflicicni upttce for the trords in full. Some 
modem ' comic ' writers seem to fancy tbat Ik* vns actuall 
froneuiKtd Mjie, and /iai asju/ 1 

JJotMni Ittifrs. For ft or W, the symbol ek, w 
sotnewbat rare in the fourcecnifa century ', was incmajtif^; 
UMd, so that at tlie present day it lias comj^ctcly superseded 
ki. It may be noltccd licrc ihat. ^vcn in cariy MSS., a 
capital I-' was written bite ff. a fact which has been so tD 
underKlooil lliat wc actually liiid, at the )trc3cnl day. sadi 
names a* Ffinck. F/oulkti, and F/reiuk (all in the Ckrgy 
list), where ii is obvious ibat the ff has been inistalun (cr 
F/, which is absurd'. 

J^i/orm digraphi, Ac. The origin of the modem E. tth 
for tth (= theli) is curious. It is due to ibc corasiant con- 
fusion En MSS. of the fifteenth century between llwr letters f 
and A which arc freiiuc^iitly indixiinguishablc ; so that ttk 
came (o be misread as Uh. Tyrwhitt actually prints wrdtht, 
/tkhe in his edition of ibc Cant, Tales, IL 7645-6 ; yet all 
the Sis-lcxt MSS. have either ivrettke,fittfu, or urrcht./uhi. 
It is just this manipulation of AISS. which makes 11 so dtffi- 
cidt for a reader to form just ideas. Everyihinit lias to be 
tested, when (as in many ol<l, and some modem editions) 
editors cannot be tnittrd, and frequently conceive it to 
be their first duly 10 misrepresent the spdlinRs of their 
MS. authorities. Howcvvr, the result is. thai Uh is now 
the accepted way of writing tth {= ckch), and this fact 
is of considerable importance in etymology. In vrork 
containing kh, the / b unoriginal, and as the tcA is doe to 
an older tt, we shall expect to lind Uiat ihi; A.S. fon» 

' ' Mync falrc SkIhi ' : C Plowmui. C vA. B. 

IC>] " 






are uvtf<a,/xcaH*, as is ihe osc. As to mA, Caxton has 
abauhid (=• aboshhiii, I. 53), but boih teh and ssk fOAlj 
gave way to jA, wliicfi is now never doubled. So alw, when 
^ mu dUased, (he compound Torms //A and MM eoon gave 
way 10 li, which is now never doubted '. 

Initial (em^na/imt. TbcM are little altered ; for ei- 
JiiDpks, see Otc Glosnry to SpecitnetiK of Kng., pt. tit. Bui, 
as Ok inilat k was less lued, except before t. i, m, smdy, tbe 
combiiuiions t/, ir and sir ftave way to ci, cr, and ler ; also 
tk gave way to k, except before e, i, atid_y. Scl (Ii«.-i)ipcan, 
though we itili find the archaic spelling alttidtr in Spenser, 
1'. Q. ill. I. 47, which was probably copied from Chaucer. 
Schr occurs in Gawaiii Dougln.1, hut »oon gave way to shr. 
/« disappear. 117 disjtppcars entirely, having always been 
rare ; yet we may Femember that the modem E. lap, in the 
s«ose to wrap or enfold, is ihn M. K. tulapf^tt, anil that il is 
this form jelaf) (= older wrap) which explains the words m- 
velop, A-vti^. j.e. to at-wtap, de-wlap. 

Final com^naliont. These will be dtscussed when we 
come to tbe next century, 

$ 300. Even from the abcnv sli|;ht sketch, which does 
not include all the details, wf can be^in 10 understand bow 
tile modem iiyslcm of sjiclling grew up. Wc had, first of all, 
an An^o-Saxon system of spelling, largely phonetic and 
intended to be whtdly so, founded upon a Latin model, and 
free from etymological cruses. Next, an Early English sys- 
tem, also phonetic, as far as the imperfect symbols would 
allow; but some confiif'ian was introduced by the fact tbal, 
whilst slight changes wcri; going on in iIk: pronimciatiOD, 
very material changes were being made in the s>-mlx>ls em- 
ployed. Early Knglish was written out by scribes who had 

* "Witfitfam miy Hielf be tat/tii-vi ; xc Ptlt\ In the SoppIemeiU to 
theiecflnd nlitjon of mf Dictioauy: bnt tbl» ia niiolbn )»Klter. 1 Mill 
hive my daabti ftboui iL 

■ We uUl wilte .VatthetB [Gk. KartfAa), tboufh Matlum and 
JtftAaet otxai ■* muhbbkb. 



been preriouxljr trained W write out Anglo-French; nnd 
the French (or Franco-I^in) system of ejrmbols graduUlj^ 
took the place of the older Cdto-Latiii syatcm. Two , 
defects of the Karly En^iiih xystem may be cspeciaDj^H 
pointed oul, vis. ihc confusion, in wriiing, between the ciose^^ 
and open o, and between ilie close and open r. Thus the 
A. ^. brid (pron. hraad) i-aine to be pronounced as mod. £i^| 
broad, whilst it was spelt brood or brod^ ; and the A. S- ^fr^' 
(pron.fftw, riming with Aw) came to be spelt g«ot at got, 
Utou^b its pronunciation n-aa not altered. Once more, the 
A. S. sd, sea, came to be spell stt, without much change in the 
pronunciation, the E. E. >«■ being; pronounced with the open 
«. i.e. like the t in tre. At the same time llie A. S. ip/d, speed 
became £. F. spetd, «iih Ihc close sound of e. i. e. the sotnx) 
of F. / in <4i^ or not unlike the mod £. tpadt, in which the 
apparent a Itt really a (1ij>hlliong, composed cXV./ followed hf ^B 
short ('. Thiift boili the long o and long t in \L P.. had (at^l 
least) iwo distinct values; a confu^on which lasted through- 
out tlie fomieenili and fifieemh centuries. Tl»e Middte- 
Knglish jreriod introduc-d oilier changes and uncertainties: 
above all, the loss of the final f in Ihc fiflecnih century caused 
great confusion, and own gaw rise, as has been shewn, lo 
the mod. K. device of denoting a long vowd by employing a 
final r after a consonant. Siill, the great aim of ihe spelling 
was, aa before, to represent the letmdt of the wonls. 
Numejou.t Anglo-French words (Lc. ifordx current in iW 
Norman dialect as it was dc%-clopcd in KngUnd) had been 
introduced into English at rarious times ; at first slowly, but 
from the lime of Fdward 1. the stream set in Meactilv, and 
continued long. These word* were introduced with the 
Anglo-French spelling, to which the English spelling of titt 
time had been asjlmilated. Accordii^jy, ihey came in at 


' Tbc lassof Ibc A.S. •<ctnlt >>i«it to mwk \tvig *uweb> igakava; , 
the nwani of dbtiiiguthkig length ; we Einil ir«tf, tmuul (with « loof), | 
tad gtJ. god (with ikon). Tlit wu aiwlhet mum of tnniUc 

I JO"-] 




fint in an unaltered and phonetic rorm, but in course of 
time the speOing of such «ords indicated tbeir sound with 
less accuracy. It v-ould be itifliculi lo ki)' xi, whui period 
we again began lo borrow French words from France itself, 
but it is most likely that when the home-supply of French 
wofda began to fail, the forei^jn supi>Iy t>egan to )>e drawn 
upon, perhapx iii the (irteenth century ; and I suppose that we 
have never ceased lo borrow French words from abroad ever 
since. It makes a material difference, because the Anglo- 
French liad ways of its own. and exhibits curious points of 
ctiAerence from ihc I''rench of Paris'. By way of example, 
take the word adagt. of which there is no trace earlier than 
1548. according to Murray'* IXciioiury. This is, of course, 
a French word, but will hardly be found in Anglo-French. 

5 301. Just at die time when our s|ielling was already 
becoming very faulty, ilu: iuvmiion of printing aune in, and 
surely, Init not immediately, retarded all further emendation ; 
so that, in die sixicenih cenlury, we find that the power of 
roaJung any material improvement was practically gone. 
Kcverthek-ss, the writers of that period had ihe oouruge 10 
invent at least two considerable improvements, or at any raic, 
to shew how ihey mif-ht have been made, if ihe system had 
been carried out wiih perfect accuracy. They l)ecame dis- 
satisiicd with the confusion, just above mentioned, between 
tl>e cloiie and open o and the close and open t, and en- 
deavoured 10 employ the .tj-mliols <i<7 (nr m. if tinal) as distinct 
from M, and ta as diglinct from iv, in order l» remedy 1l The 
symbol oa was, practically, a new one, though it is found 
occasionally in iho thirteenth century'. It was now used 

' Thu« ttnvfy b fraon Antt'o- Frcndi ctmfriir, but tetivty frun F. 
tvnttjftr <n tl ii ipoll Id Cot|>r>ic)- Thi- M. E. mlj. lui'ii. kata Anglo- 
Freaob vtin, has bnm ollercd \o rvt'n, iii vT<)rr (« inuniute^ taUcly, thit 
ll wu borrowtd from Paiiuui iwm. 

* ■ Hm> tci iae prUuDe DOQi ^trnd jer uid maert,' i. e. Sht b; in 
pfbon .(ooo icir* ukI mare ; Ancrcn Riwle, p. J4, I. 9. Ezunpin 
•retoinnriui raic. 

VOU I. y 



for the open 0, as in mod. E. broad, the oaly word now l«ft 
iritb the old sound of on. Ax cpur bread Is (roni .\. S. ^A/, this 
filing od is properl)' found in words which have if in A. S. - 
ace the examples in } 4a *. The sjinboi ra is hardljt ever 
found (if St aU) in the fourteenth century; Inil we hive 9«en. 
in } 199, tlial Cuton hMftat, i.e. peace, in place of itie M. E- 
fiKt, from the Anglo-French fra. This symbol was now 
used to express the open c, as in tea for M.E. s«. Ii will be 
found thai mod. £. words containing oi commonly answer 
to A. S. words containing li or /a (sec $$ 48, 49) : whilst t» 
commonlj' answers to A. S. / or A {see {$ 45, 50). Another 
improvement, towards ihc end of the sixteenth century, was 
the getting rid of the excessive use o(_y for /, so common 
in Caxton ; so that the word iit was no longer iyt, btii 
reiuxned to llie tarly A. S. form. We may oho remailt Umi 
the use of u became more common. As regards consonants, 
the symbols ) and p have <iuite disappeared; irA and ssi are 
now always lA ; Ai is commonly ri ; tei is always ith, and 
dff* is used for ggr or the sound of final JJ, as gf is for the 
final/ InitiaJ g/t is nc«dlessly written for g Ui ghastlji, ghnt, 
ghertin*; also in a-ghail. See further in j 199 above, uid 
in § 301 below. 

\ SOS. The loss of the final t occasioned several addttiooB 
10 the number of final combinations of leitersL Thus the 
M. E, barrl, a bar, «-a» disvyllabic ; but after it became i 
monoNyUat>lc, it dropped not only the final 1, but the r pie- 
cedii^ it; the word is no longer har-ri, bai bar. Hence 
the plural is no longer barrts, but ban. Similarly bMa 
became biA$, and we have a new combination tM, not foond 
in M.E. Similarly arkci, the pi. of d/-it, ttccamc ar^\ are, a 
late form, has tlie pi. orcr ; ^^/dt/, the pL of M, became Ml i 

■ Tfac ban] M ocean for m (A^. i) in At, fit, nw, lAv. nv, itrm, 
tett, mitfUlM. But in iker i;b«tlcriiw> it laswcnio A.S. /. 

' Hcmhc;4 itodooMBw, vii. laahcvUuil t2wf Iskud. Agttil 
b iomnA in Scocti^ u t*t\y u 1415. but did not bMOmc (ODcnd 13 
ftftcf 1700. CIm/ b fiom Van. gUl, * demoK. 



diigges, the pL of deg, became dogt ; /ormts, pi, of/arat, he- 
cuae /orms; mnes, j)I. of um, became mnt; and (he M. £. 
gaJwtt became galtawt. Ttic inMrtion of b inio the M. E. 
dtlte, dauif, brought about ihc &lse fonns dtlt, dbwAf; > 
matter which b explained io the next section. I believe it 
will be found that none of the f<Mlowing final combinations 
are used in tlic M. E. ]>enod : bs bt oa ga ks ma qqi 
W*. Further, final dt, ft, ngs, are only found, in M. E, in 
tinaccented sylbbles, iiuch as rthauit, [J. of rilawi, a ribaJd, 
taili/i. pi. of fiiili/ (P. I'lowman, C. »i. 97), hrJings. pi. of 
lording, a gcntlctnan. Oihcr modem cntEngs are the tt iD 
maze (M. E. Katt), the dsi in adtt, tlie gut in limgitt, calaltgue, 
the A in rajiih, thah, Ac. 

J 80a. So far we have dealt only with ihc spcUinR from a 
phonetic point of view. The old »|)cllirg was, in tlie main, 
very strictly etymological, because it was so un/vnuiousfy'. 
In striving to be phonetic, our ancestors kept up tlie history 
of words, and recorded, more or le*« exactly, the changes 
that took place in them from time to lime. But in the six- 
teenth century* an entirely new idea was for the Erst lime 
started, and probably took its rise from t!ic rc«ral of learning, 
which introduced the study of Greek, and brought classical 
words, and with them a classical mode of spcUiug, to the 
front ; a movement which was a&sisicd by tlie fact that the 
I spelling wa» all the while becoming less phonetic. Thin new 
idea iavolved the attempt to be eomeinuly etymological, i. e- 
to reduce the spelling of Knf;lisfa <n ords. as fiir as possible, to 
I an exact confonnity in outward apptarance with the Latin 
I and Greek words from which ibcy were borrowed. Rut it 
I was only posahle to do this with & portitn of the language. 

* Conicitiiii alteniptj «t ctynoloBT loinctJinet prodnocil raUier queer 
nnit*. Thualtie M. T^/mtlt wsu tiirnod \Mo/t>itaU, obrionsly l>ccaiue 
nan fanckd it niiut ban Mtiic councdian with auilt, 

* Sk Mu Mulln'i LeciQin on Langiise«, Sci. II. UcL 6. lie 
InUiiMnlhcwDiluOilPnlooO.ISiJ'f'uictuii] ,1606;, and U. EmIcom 

T a 


li was easy to do this where words were acluaUy borrowed 
from iho«ir languages, as, for ntsmplc, in ihc cue of such % 
verb as /o (oUraU. which was now spcU wiih one / in order 
to confonn ii in outward ap^icanincc lo the LaL toltrait. 
But the wnrdx of nalive Kiigligh or Sc^mlutai-iuD oHgin were 
less tracublc. for which reason our writers, wisely cDoogfa, 
commonl)' let them alone. There rematocd words of French 
origin, and these suffered considerably at the hands of the 
pedants, who were anything but scholars as regarded OM 
French. For example, the Lat. it^la bad become tbc O. F. 
and M. E. dtUt, by assimilation of the Mo / In the com 
form d^la, precisely as it became diiia in Italian. The 
mod. F. and the Italian have the fonns o^ and Alia stiH 
But in tlie stxiecnth century the disease of so-cu!Ie<I ' etitno- 
logical' spelling luid attacked (he French language as well u 
ihc Engliab, and ihcr« was a cra» for tendering such 
mology rtol/fw/ lo At eyt. Consequcnilr. the O. F. ddU 
recast in the form Abli. and (lie M. K dtik was respdt 
or dtbl in the same way. Hence we actually find in Col- 
grave's F. Diet, the entry: ' Dthk. a debt' Auotlter word 
similarly treated was the O. F. and M.E. Jtmli; and ac- 
cordingly Cotgravc gi»"C8 ' Jhu^f. a doubt.' The nwd. F- 
has gone back to tbe original 0. F. spellings Alle, dtuie ; bm 
we, in our ignorance, have retained the i in dcubl, m spite of 
the fncl th.1t wc do not dare to sound it. llic rackcr^ oTow 
orthography' no doubt Irusled, and with some reason, to the 
popular ignorance of the older and truer spcDing, and the 
event has justified thdr (-xjwriaiion ; for wc have continued 
lo insert the i in dou&l and Ml (properly d<ml and dr/) to ihr 
present day, and there is doubtless a large majority among 
as who bdieve such spellings to be correct ! So easy ti it 


' ' .Such ntcben at oar anhoenpby, as to tpeiV Jcnt tioc, trbcn 
Aould uy JnM ; Jti, nbvii h« tbimjil prmiooDM dttl '; U I. L. t. I 
Such WW tlip opinion of the p«duil lIolofaMs ; ntOM people is 
It wai ttie «|»iii(w of ShaketpMR I 

i 305-1 



for writers lo be tnidcd by paying too greal a regard to 
l4lin spelling, aiul so few ihcrc arc who arc likely lo Ulce 
the iroublc of ascertaining all the historical facta 

Most curious of all Is the &te of the vatA/iuUl. In O. P. 
and M. E. it tH aiwaysyij/ilf, but the aixleetitli cenlur}- lumrd it 
into F./aiilU, E./a$i//, by the insertion of /. For all that, the 
/ often lemaioed muie, so that even as late as the time of 
Pope It wa:i still muic for him, as is shewn by hix riming il 
with ougii (Eloisa to Abclard. 185, Essaj- on Man, i. 69); 
with tiaugit {E»83iy on Criticism, 411, Mora) Essaj^ "Eip. iL 
73); and with latighl (Moral Eku^'s, Kp. ii. ais). But the 
perMHcnt presentation of ihc letter / 10 the eye has ]>revailed 
at JaM, and we now invariably sound it in English, whilst in 
French it lias become yiiuJir once more. The object no doubt 
was to inform ns tlial the V. fault is ultimately derived from 
\j3.\xn./aUtrt ; but this docs not seem so far bcyon<l the scope 
of human intelligence that so much pains need have been 
lalten to record the discovery*. Anotlier curious GiUification 
is that of the M. E. vitaitUs^ O. F, vitailUs. from Lat. vktuaUa. 
The not vcr)' difficult disecwety of the etymology of this word 
was hailed witli such delight that it was at once transformed 
into F. vi<ftMilUi and E. rv'cluais ; see Colgrave. For all 
that, the M. E. vitdilla n^s duly shortened, in the pronun* 
dation, to villht, precisely as ti\. E. balatUa was shorlcDed 
to (>aUUt ; anil viliUs it still remains, for all practical purposes. 
Swift, in his I'oliie Conversation, has dared to spell it so ; and 
QUI comic writera arc glad to do the same. 

The form of llie word advamt records a ludicrous error 
in etymology. The older form was avamt, in which the 
prefix a- is derived from the F. a which arose from the I^in 
ah. Unfortunately, it was suppoKid 10 represent the French 
a whkb arose from llie Latin ad, and this Latin ad was 

■ SlmiUrlf, tha O. F. luid M. E. vouu became F. veuUt in tbe ili- 
leartfa oratDiy ; bnu:r H. tuu!/. Hst la falten, M.E, /amegii, the / it 
unuaaaly igoottd ; we uy/oinwi. taA oughl to t(>cll It mx 




aclu&il}' introduced into the written fonn, after whicb the 
d came to be sounded. If then the prcDx ad- in ad-poiKt 
, can tie said to represent anylliin^, il must be taken to re- 
present It I-alin prefix aid-\ It v-ould be an endleits task 
lo nuke a list of &U the ximilar va^rics of the Todor 
remoddlera of our spelling, who were doubtless proud 
of their work and coiiviiiced lliat tlic/ were dispbyitiK fiTOt 
eru(£tioD. Vet ibeir method was extremely incomplete, xs ll 
iwas wholly inconsisleni with itself After rcdticitif the wocd 
hUa-ale to ideralt, the/ ought to have altered /!>ffrir to/oln, as 
the latter \* tlie French fonn; but this they never did. Tbcy 
should likewise have altered miilfr to mala-, since there is 
only oDc / in the Lat. maleria ; but this tliej aevei did. Tkgf 
AaJgoJ hold oy a false frineifJt, and did mi aiUmfit la tarry U 
Ml/ (omittmUy. So much the belter, or our spelling wouM 
have been even worse than it is now, which is saying a great 

% 304- 1 belict-c that tlie rtujiidity of the pedantic method 
which 1 have just described is «ry little understood; aod 
that, on the coDIrar}', ntost KnglitJiraeD, owing to an ex- 
cessive study of the clastsics as compared nilh English (the 
history- of wliicb b neglected to an almost incredible and 
wholly shameless extent), actually sympathise with the pctlano. 
But the error of their attempt will lie ajiparent to any who 
will take the pauis to think o%-er tlie matter with a tittle care. 
Their object was, i^Tc»pecti^■dy of the sound, lo render the 
etymology obvious, not to the nr, but to the />« ; and bcooe 
the modem system of judging of the spelling of words by the 
eye «»^'. There iB now only one rule, a rule whidi is often 
carefully but foolishly concealed from learners, v-i(. lo go 
entirely by the look of a word, and to spcU it as we have sttm 
il spelt in books. If we do this, we bug ourwhxn in the 
belief tt»t we are spelling ' correcUy,' a belief wliieh etea 
good scholars enicruiiL Certainly the pedants put se\-cisl 
' Tbii ba it in itself a bltur luire on th« wluls ^itcm. 



words right, u they thought ; but their knowledge was slight. 
They let the pure English and Sc&ndinanan words alone ; 
and fts we have seen, they mended (as they thought) the 
»pcI1ing« of French word$, not by comparison with old 
French, which might have been justified, but by compaiison 
with Latin and Greek only ; and they were frequently miiOed 
by the fancy that Latin waa derived, in its entirety, from 
Grccic Thus Ihcy fancied that the Lat. siha was derived 
from the Creek t^q, and accordingly ahered its spelling to 
rv'ixj. Hence, e\-en in Engli.ih, we have to commemorate 
and itnmorutli^ this blunder by writing tyh/an. They seem 
to baxc had a notion that the Lat. s/iiiu was derived, of all 
things, from the (>reek ^nJXoc, a pillar, wliidt would tie ex- 
tremely cont«nieni, we must suppose^ as a writing imple- 
ment ; the fact being that 3/i7tu and miXoi have no etymo- 
logical connection. This blunder we commemorate by 
writing slyli. We display our knowledge of Latin by often 
writing fyro (for /irtt) ; and of Greek by often writing 
Syrm (for Gk. irnp^f). The notion of Grcecistng words 
extended even to the old rerlis in -ist. Forgetting that the 
majorily of these were borrowed from French verbs in •iier, 
OUT printers have substituted the ending -iu, merely because 
the F. sufBx -tier represented a Lat. suffix -ixare. Imitated 
from the Gk. -tf™-. Nine Knglishmcn out of ten mill l)eliev« 
ia the excellence of the use of this -fu ', as a mark of eru- 
dition and scholarship. It is all of a piece with vitftails and 
driJ and detiil and /<uuV, already noticed ; and shews how 
hastily false notions can be caught up, and how tenaciously 
they are held. It ts extremely amusing to see that the 
mending of spelling only extends to words o/tasy derivation. 
"Dsoi we write paroxytm because it is ultimately from the 
Gk. nofo^fiit, though paroxttm would be really better, 

* From ■ fktntli( point of view, -iu hu much to onmmend it Thii 
iMkM it* tdoptian all the mare CKIiaonliaaiy, (or modcni Eo^liib 
abhett ssy bdicf In the ear. 



because, u a fact, we borrowed il rather from the F. fiar- 
exismi than directly. But we ought, by llic Kunc rule, lo 
write aneurysm, if we arc Id point back lo the Gk. atnvfuvofiot. 
Yet ilie usual spelling b anfurism. simply because the ety- 
mology is less obviouH, and the eye remaiiui, accordingly, 
un&bockcd. Wc write sn'ente because of its oonmiction with 
the Latin seitntia ; and Tor this reason sotnc writers of the 
Be^'entee^Ih century, struck with the beauty to the ej-c of the 
sitcnt { after s, admiringly copied it in lucli words as tet'it*, 
KHuaiiott '. and setnt. I'hc etymology of the two former wai, 
however, so obvious that the habit fell into disuse ; but ibe 
etymology of tetui was less obviotis, and so we write wm/ still 1' 
Wbai, again, can be mor« absurd than the (iiul mt id tbe wotil 
tongue, as if it must needs be conformed to (Ik F. lai^u*} 
But when once introduced, it of course remained, becatne 
none but scholars of Angto-Saxon could know its -etymology. 
It i» imposuble to enumerate all tlu; numerous anoma&e* 
which the disastrous attempt (o make etymology vitiV* has 
introduced. Vet this is the valueless system which is w^H 
much lauded by all who have made no adequate sttidy of tbc^B 
true history' of our language. But before recapitulating all 
ihc facts of the case, it remains to say s few words upon the 
changes in our si>cUing since the time of Elixabetb, 

$ 806. Broadly suited, ttie changes in our impelling since 
the time of Shakespeare are remarkably few and unimpor- 
tant, especially if considered with reference to the numerous 
changes that had taken place pre^-iotisly. A sgiccimcn g( 
Shakespearian spelling has already been gitvn at p. i, and an 

» ' Sitt, oi SiUe,' Ac ; Phillip*, World of Wofdt '1706). 

* 'I might t\tt> Dolc nitajr Uite tpctUnip in purticnlai wordi, Ui\ 
tm^putar luiii.sitior litt.uifHaTilai /iVHd/c.nfaicli i* tnit Ulclyco 
Dp, and luili no ippnrtnce wilb louon. ihc ImIxih wixd bdni; Hhu, 
wiibont any r. Sitnt (or ittit, Kl|,iii(yiii|; * uticll nf Mvoof, whkk writ' 
inj U al»> but Utety inunlnocd, *nA hath no BorB ^c^sikI tkoa lie 
tonna, <dat Litla wotd fram wbich it conwi b««a( mUm'— 169I : J.J 
Bat, CoIlccUoa «r llkigUib Ward*, ftc„ p. l6d. 




analysbof ilie alteralions made in i)i« spelling of that pasa^c 
will MilBci-. 

(a) Wc have wisely discarded the long j (Q. an*! subMi- 
toted P for in Dvut, and w for c in vp. These are manifest 
improi'en)ent& Sn also \* i)ic moduni ii.te of / and /. 

(^) Wc do not tlu'nk it nccesury to mark subKUnthrt, such 
as'Lambc'or 'Doue'or 'Prlcft,* by ihe use ofacapiul letter. 
This enables us 10 mark proper names, tucbas'Luccntio'or 
' KalheriiK:,' hy unng a capiiai letter, and to dtSpenM with 
the necessity for tnarkins them by the use of iiab'cs. 

(c) We ha^-e cm ulf the idle Rnal c in very many words, 
such as iaabe,/onle, thoHldt, aikt, bwkt, againe^ Icoke, n^t, 
demtie; but wc retain the final t in wi/f and lakt, to shew 
the length of ifao vo«-el3. 

Such improvements arc sensible, but they have been made 
from lime to time by the printers, merely as a matter of 
convenience, to avoid varying forms. In doing this, ^^^y 
have made at leaic two mistakes. In the first iilnoc, the final 
e should have Iwcn dropped in haw. gtvf, dcve, siMVr. ami all 
words in which vt follows a thorf vowel ; or, in other words, 
V should haw been allowed, like any other consonant, to 
stand as a final letter; sec p, 317, note 1. In the second pla«^, 
a double/ when final, should iiave been reduced 10 a single/. 
There was no reason for treating / differently from other 
letters. If wc u-rilc eat. tad, tag, Ac, we ought to write 
il>/,(u/,li/.tx. The present rule is that/final must alway* 
b« doubled except in ^and «/; tlie latter beiDg sounded as 
M>. However, the printers lia^-c sticeeedcd in reducing the 
forms of wor<ls to a nearly uniform standard ; and it is sur- 
prising to find how long it took them to do so. It will not 
lie easy to iind a Ixwk in which the !(|>elling Is perfectly 
uniform throughout much earlier than about i6<|o'. Practi- 

' I haTC ■ copy of tbc Iltuoiy of Biltun, by Jnhn MUtan, printed 
In iiSqj, In whkb the ipetlin); U MinctMnc) vah«l)lc. H» mil Ar occQi 
DO Ibe Mine page (p- 43). 


MODEttf/ BNGUStr SPEUJifC. [C»».w. Xn. 

calljr, tlie preieiil siKlIi»f[ is Identkal, in aU Unponant 
parcicubrs, with thai of ihc scvwitecnih ceniu[7, and. In all 
ihat U mosl csGentjal. with that of the nxtccnlh ceuury. 
Tbe retarding aiid pelrifyiDg icfiuencc of priotiDg upoo the 
rcprcKL-nUliK fora» of vroids soon became Mii>reme, and 
prevented aoy f^reai altcralion. 

Meanwhile, the changes in our ewr-shifting pronnnciaiion 
became still more inark«d, and we now constantly spell 
with one vowel and pronounce aiwlhcr. Ahalt i» no longer 
sounded with long a, i.e. with the a ai/allur, but «-itb loog 
€, viz. the sound of the «r in G. Betl. Btti la no longer 
wounded with tlie long r of du G. Baf, but wiili the long 
i of lial. bigio or G. Bitm ; and so on. We siiU retain mocfa 
of the Ehiabcihan spelling, which ex-en ai that period was 
retrospective, with a Victorian pronunciation. From all this 
it follows thnt all our spelling is extremely archaic, and refen 
to pronunciations of many centuries ago, soidc forms being 
more archaic than odters. If then we want to know why any 
word is wpelt as it is, we can only tell this by knowing 
ill Kholt hiiloty. Whtn we know this, tvirn we have asctf- 
lained all its changes of fonn and soimd, and the reasons for 
all its changes of form, we can then Ictl exactly what bu 
happened. I'hc labour of doing this for c^'cry word in the 
language is of course enormous, but even a general acquaint- 
ance with the leading has, such as may easily be acquired, 
wdl explain ihe forms of many thousand words, and enable 
the student to detect such exceptional forms as have been 
produced by Uiieniional meddling. The chief points to re- 
member are: (i) thai our present spelling is archaic; (a) (hai 
spelling was at first purely phoncuc, and afterwards parliaSy 
so. down lo A.D. ijioo or 1550; {3) tl;at, after this, the new 
principle set in, of rendering tlie etymology viaUe to Uk eye 
in the case of Latin and Greek words, and of respclling easy 
French words according to their Latin origin^s ; and (4) that 
the changes which have taken place in our pronnnciation, 





since the time when the spelling became practical]}' 6xccl, *re 
more violent tliaii those of earlier periods. 

\ 906. As the tXoTj has incviubly been a ion;: one, and 
abounds with minute delaib (many of which I haw been 
compelled, by a sense of proportion, to omit), I now briefly 
recapitulate the chief poinU in it, to that the reader may the 
more casly grasp tome of the main principles. 

(i) The CehJc alphabet was borrowed from the Romao; 
and [lie Anglo-Suon from the Celtic, but with a few 

(>) The A. S. pronunciation agreed with thai of the con- 
tinenl, and of tbe Romans, in many imponaut paniciUars, 
esjieciiilly in the sounds of a, t. i, c, *. Tlie si<elljng was 
meant to be purely phonetic, and was fairly correct. Accents 
were employed to denote voueHenglh. 

(3) In the twelfth and thirteenth ccnturieK, some sounds 
allercd, but the spelling was still to a great extent phonetk, 
as it was meant to be. At the same linur, Anglo-French 
words were introduced in ever- increasing numliers, and the 
Aaglo-Saxon s)-inbolit were gradually replaced by FrenrJt 
ones. 'I'bc lauguagv was, in fad. rc-spcIt by Anglo-French 
scribes, who employed a moilificd form of tbe Roman 
alpbabeL The accents employed to mark long voweU dis- 
appear, and the vowels d, t, and ate sometimes doubled. 

(4) In the fourteenth century, further chanj;ea were intro- 
duced, and phonetic accuracy of rcpmcniatiou wilk »till further 
impaired. A list of the symbols then in use is given in 
$191, p. 307. 

(5) Alx>ut A.D. t^eo, the sound of final -t, already lost In 
the North, was loEt in the Midland dialect also. When it re- 
mains {as in hont\ it no lon^r forms a distinct syllable, but 
b emploj'ed to denote the length of the preceding vowel. 
Final -ta commonly became dnal -t, and followed its fortunes. 
Final -td and -tt Unbred as distinct syllables. ConsonanU 
were dout>Ied after a short vowel in many words, especially 


iflhc old sngle consonaDt was followed by*, as in btOtr far 
hiltr ; but (he rule ma capriciously a)}]>tit;d. 

(6) The invcnlioi) of prinling began to |ietrify the rorius 
of words, and ictardcd usefid changes. The use of final r In 
the wrong place, U in ratine for ran, bccantc cxtranci/ 
common ; and the use of> for / wtisi i-anried to excess. 

(7) After A.i>. 1500. a new system of so-called 'etjtno- 
logical ' spelling arose, which was only applied to a p^Uim 
of the language. French word* were often ignoRUiily altered, 
in order to render their Latin origin more obvious to the eye. 
I'hc open and dose sounds of long « were disiingutKbed 
by writing oa (or tv, if final) ami 00 ; the open and close 
sounds of long t were distingui.ihcd by n-riling ea and M. 
New final combinations are found, of which bi, ts, ds,/t*, gt. 
ms, and bt arc the most remarkable. 

(8) English sjjelling, afit-r 1 500, was govenicd by two coo- 
nictiiig principles, \\x. ihc fihotutie, which chiefly coneenied 
popular words (Lc. the oldest and commonest words in 
popular use), and the so-called ' ffymolegieai.' wtudi chicBy 
coiu^emed Itarwd w-or<Li (i.e. words <lerit«d from Greek and 
Latin), The former ap>pealed lo the car, Uk latter to die j 
eye. Neither of these principles was consislcntiy carried out, 
ud the ignorant meddlesomenea* of the latter tDtrodoood 
many faJsc forms. 

{9) The changes in spelling since 1600 arc coroparaiiwiy ^ 
trifling, and arc chiefly due 10 (be primera, who aimed ai 
producing a complete uniformity of speUing, which was prac- 
tically accomplislicd shortly before 1 700. The tnoiiero use 
of f and u as vowels, and that of / ai>d v as consonants, an 
real improvemeots. 

(10) lite dumges In |)n>nuDctation sUkc 1600 ue groi, 
especially io the x-owel-aounds ; as shewn by Mr. Kills and 
Mr, Sweet. Pracdcally, we retain a Tudor sj-siem of aj-mbols 
with a Viciorian pronunciation, for whidi it is ill fitted. 
' jOr,/j, tho>tslilbiuii]iiiM.E.,wiieb]riu>mcaiMeo<uiioa: Hep-jij. 




(ii) The not result is that. in order lo nndcrstand modrm 
English spdfiog, every word must be examined separatdy, 
and Its wliolc hiKtorj' traced. We must kn»w al] tu change^ 
both in form and sound, before ik can fully cxpl^n il. Th« 
commonesl mUtalic i^ itiai of supposing Latin and Greek 
words to have been iiitroiluced into the language dirttify. 
in cases where history tells us llutt tlicy rvally came to us 
through the OM Trench, and should be allowed, even upon 
' etymologkal ' (■rounds, to retain tlieir Old French spelling. 

(12) Tho shortest description of modern spoUms 
is to say that, speaking Konerally. it repres«ntA a 
Victorian pronunciation ot ' popular ' words by 
mMttu of symbols imperfectly adapted to an Elisa- 
bothan prononciation \ the symbols tliemselvee 
l>eiag mainly dud to the Anglo-Frenoli floribe« of 
tho Flantagonct period, whose system was meant 
to bo phonetic. It also aims at suggeHting to the 
eye the original forms of ' learned ' words. It is 
thus goTcmed by two confitoting principles, neither 
of which, oven ia it» own domain, is coosistently 
carried oat. 


Phonetic Sfklu)»&. 

5 807. The preceding investjgaiion shews thai modem Eng- 
lish H]>elltng IK, from a purely phonetic point of \icw,cxtren>d]r 
unsatisfaclor)'. Whether a phonetic spelling should be ndopied 
for ordinary use, is simply a queslion of convenience, and 
should be so regarded. Those who cannot denj that our 
lulling is phonetically bod, usually take up the |it)silion that 
it is ■ etymologicBl/ A sufficient inrcstigation of the bets 
will enable an unbiassed mind to Me ibu it is, even front 
thi^ point of view, almost equally unutisfactory. Many 
Gpcllings, such as s<ftkt, tongw, sitve, rkymt, umi are simply 
indefensible ; ihc more nearly phonetic spellings n'lAf, /tug, 
tt've, rime, seni are at the Katne time truer to the original 
form, which is what is incani by 'etymological,* as the epithet 
is commonly used. The only argument of any weight and 
force is that the introduction of a new system will, al the out- 
set, be allen<lcd with grave inconvenience ; which no one 
denies. For all that, the experiment must some day be made 
in good earnest. 

} 308. Meanwhile, it is daily becoming more impossible 
to explain pronunciation on paper without having recourse 
to some wcU-devised system of i^ionctic spelling. The 
'glossic' system of Mr. Ellis has the advantage — If it be one 
—of appealing to the eye. It uses symbols as we are ac- 
customed (o use (hem ; and it has actually been appbed, with 
considerable Riccess, to llic description of the sounds used in 

f 3o9>] 



provincial Englisfa dialects. Sec, «.g.. Miss Jackson's Sbrop- 
sbire Glossar}', and many of the publications of the English 
Dialect Society. For Knglish dialectal purposes, numerous 
symbols arc required ; but a small niunber suffice Tor repre- 
senting tbe sounds of the ordinar)' literary dialect. I now 
quote p. 9 of Mr. F.lli*'* trAcl on GIohMc entire. It can 
be learnt very quickly, and is quite suSicicnt to exemplify 
the author's principle. 




Atviaji frmfuit^t - Engliih Clank <karaileri as tkt LAKGE 
CAPITAL UlUri an mubJ/J in Ikt f»llti»(m£ taerJt, v>kkk art all I'm 
tlu mntaS iftlling. txitf* Iht lim unJtrUittt, mtanifo' loui, ittoi, mujcc. 

»E£t hAIt kAA cAUi. cOAl cOOi. 

EkIt kEt osAt nOt kUt rVOr 

iiEI<iiiT K>It. rOUi. tEUd 

Via Wait WHrv JUv 

P«* Bex Tor Doe CHeh Jest VJxt Cape 

Fib Vie TIIin UHks Seal Ze.ii. kuSH eoi'ZHe 

kaR R'tNO kaKK'ino Lav Mav Nav siNG 

M*rk mphuit by ('J twrnn ■ vonl 

J'FonouDce ti, fm, /v. rr, tj, m. ob- 
>.;uRly, iAb the wtrtm lylQitile. 

Ulirn UiEic of 1nH3r« ■■U*n cariBB U- 
^rifm of ^'Tikh lh« IwD /irU may 
Einn ■ <Ii«i^. itad (hcia u uck. 

L*tl*n nuin Ihcir nata] Eum<4, and 
•Ipkahnlcal wnncnxni. 

Wonb In toMauMTt or NOMIC >|«II- 
in^ ooeumnc ■fumiB GLOSSIC nod 
eoowtwlT. uiouM H nnilaHbvd iriib 

■ w*<ry Ufti '. Hii< iximtii with 

hpjiibl IfiKrf. uc dx in a ^ftrvtt 
Itif^ u in IhcH ifjUAOoak 

iMdifio lilt inodlnc nnxl nnn- 

Dif diphlhuiiKi. M In rEER, PAIR, 

■OAR. »OOR. HERn. 
Vm K Iw K* inrl XH Inr UK', "hin 

4 Iwnl ri)lli>w^ MCcv< lu <ZuiivDtu7 

boQ^. whuG r' 11 rcuinccL 
Stnvxi* (A. ,14. U, <it, IV W > tirphv 

(.} vhrh nw:g m #y. 
lUvl A tiKM uTi the fint lylUblc lahcD 

wri <Mh«ni^Lia dimct*<l. 
llMk tItnA by (") 4llTr a lone vovtl 

4r n^ 01. f*. «^ vtd aA« liic Jin4 

couKUDI laUDmag ■ ibort wvvl. 

t34ii «cr rik*ti'R much tminini;. 
tiCui li b liU ten nfmcihuii mi- 
•ni 1 ifkJh*U 0T «aad, dlH» il tnini 4ll>. 
krin-inxin loml diTircoHL Too m«ci 
dli^ difA^ r.faiHk hu k« diwMol 
Mao toajMiAni. Inailili uxt Kimi- 
VB-xL Dbi Km Ii *iip-|cd four 

J^nWi «■ Inggliik Cloiik. 

niliur our riavcvd nowf dv ^ w rf i 
■J vol nj dK] ■Dthtrr ov |ifi»nnw- 
itnjc (lILthfovrfj vii'Sojdi kuiluupUlL 

Xf-x icfikt^i kdtiim -*hHHi«L wild, And 
|ul n« Iwrit |» dhl cnlt Iwdlil «> 
viii n whkb U leeU nun at dba 



[Ciu». : 

d*r, Ajr, lur. AB alit ritn vidh 0, 
■r, Mb, «i, AuUtfioA' ui feCcn^lv liwcf 
vU rvdili r^LAjcncii 4 rniiKu^ ntVt- 
nj^»h«i in dhvir KtuitdL Ta) fuiL-lnh 
fvlilnc WW* nul tu4 f/. fn>, nti <f', «. 
otKfi ON under dhi Urm. fur dheu 
olakcitT icundj vhicb fur ha prtKi- 
Imi in iptKh, (Ihea npnibditd btl 
■UTl>v4~ipi4ttk uiJ dnih dhi dJAIiitiG V' 
Asa LiiHfc^^and'v, under dhi >«ra 
Hrk«m4ui««t AulwiA dhi *oiind( ^n 
fllvfcr, occufk dtftrring. ucciir' 
rinJB miy be* milwaii rim iiith rr, 
dhu> di/fr', fJHT', J^rrij^, etutrrvg. 

dhi dublinx (^ dhi r ■• ilhi 'loo 
mfdl ukHi'miM dhi -Kiakti 
« dhi (tnl r, a^ dhi (id 
■dund, Hid dha diUaii~Krahin« 
dhvM «0Diid< #VB ribdAi iiard in ^r^ 
imf, Mrr-fn. Ken^mU •i.i***''- 
liciii <uioi> dhi> « ■ luancvinH 
tinkuliil vinhMV- Bu bis At 
Rt"(im'kii>i«i nr dfUMu^ in* n> 
kiwi 'E ■ inDch tlrfkln CdcaUilhclk. Aul 
fell' AiiiihiH«pilEri ^Hknii^hcB, anr 
uil>nI>C4 r^inti ifc duknth-Mi. ns- 
thihf iril miMr wirrfatfU minwl. T» 
Jirnuii dhi^ u dhi ain «» ^EjniTCT^ 

§ 310. I'his sysicm is open to one ^vt objection. 
Tiie symbols ve only intelligible to Knglt^thmen lii-ing at 
the close of (he ninetccnih ccnttit)-. The rounds iodicalcd 
are slowly but surely shifting, and some of litem may l>e con- 
siderably dunged in tbc coune of another fifty years. On 
this account, it is far better to allovr the E)-inbo)x a, t, i, o, u 
to have their oKlinary continental value*, because the 
so denoted are of k inuob more stable character, 
the principle adopted by Mr. lilllis in his - palarotypc.' and by 
Mr. Sweet in his ' romic " system. Believing the latter to be 
the best suited for common purposes, I now give Mr. Sweet's 
Mchcmc, from bis Handbook of Phonetics, p. 109. 

'The following tUt shews the correspondence of the Oroad- 
Ronilc* letters, •iih examples: — 

and brH 


as in 



















tv«l, read/. 






hvd, better, 







ii. ty 



' B)r ' Broad- Rotnic ' b mcuil a aysteni tor codinioci tmt : (mtlm ' 
lytiem, nucli more ininDl« in ehanwiet, U c*lkd ' Nanotr«Rc«Dic.' 















uu, uw 



Tlie reader &houId observe the dcscripliw characlcr of the 
sjmbols. Th« a, e, i, o, w !iave (lie coiiiinenial values ; aa 
h used for the a in/alAtr, because it is really long. Thejr 
in Jfy, or »■ in Jlig^. is really a diphthong, compounded of 
(continenial) a and /; by sounding a, r, in npid succession, 
(hU will be perceived'. So also ihe ow in woto or ou in 
iatsf is really st diphthong, compounded of a and », as is 
well shewn in the German J/aus. The sound of ai 'm/ail is 
just thai of(contincntal)close<' followed by i; by pronouncing 
It dowly, the glide from i to i will be detected. Oui o'mno'a 
really eu, Le. an with an after-sound of u. In order to de- 
tect UiiH after-sound, we should allow the ho to be emphatic, 
and to end a senieiice. Thus, in reply to the qucsdon— 
'are phonetics ralucleas?' the answer '\&~'no.' The symbol 
a is probably the best for the peculiar sound of a in man, 
afpk, hal ; and Is adopted alio by Mr. EDis in his ' palaco- 
type,' Ae, at are more arbitrary, but are convenient as 
representing the 'open' and ^ wiih tolerable exactness; 
and IK comes very near the sound of long a. i.e. of the a in 
mm when lengthened. Hut ihc most difficult vowel-sound 
to represent i«, unfortunately, one that is txfrtmtly common 
in spoken English, viz. the quite obscure sound heard in 
'bwd,' "bctwr," uncmphatic 'ihi-.' uncmphatic 'and,' tin- 
emphatic ' o,' ' about,' &c. This is denoted by a himtd e (a). 
Ou-ing to ihe alwence of trill in the English r, wc actually 
use the sound of this obscure vowel instead of a final r in 
uich words as hair, rare, kar, &c. (unless the next word 
be^ns with a ^-owel) ; hence these words must be denoted 
by— hac», raca, tits. Wc also actuaDy use the kngt/ientd 


* Compue C. IM», a gtoK. 




[Oi*». X»D^ 

soand ol Ibis obACurc vowel in Hrd, turn, &c^ which tnnst 
be written — basd, i»an. 

I 8U. As to tb« consonants, Mr. Swcei uses i, d,f,t 
(hard),/ *, /, «, H, p, r (if reaUy triUed), /, /, r, », jt, y, «, 
with their nsud vJues. Also ^ witli itx tuual value, uid ti 
(a» in glossic) for ihc souni] of f in atitrt or of ;« in ri«(pf. 
Also Ih for Ihc /:4 in fkin ; and i/A for the Ih in /4»w, Just u 
in glossic. Of u*A in whal, Mr. SwMt saj^ : ' I taaj note 
that my icA is an atiilicial sound for the nninnt) w of Soaib 
English ' '. ^ is denoted by kw, as in glos»c. All these can 
be vcT}' easily remembered, iUid cause no difficulty. 
The following arc peculiar :-~- ^H 

O denotes the fh in changr. ^^ 

H denotes the aspirate, but ai the itgintmig of a wofd ' h ' 
can lie used instead, and is more convenient. ^M 

Q denotes the ng in sing. ^H 

$ 313. The use of r for ^A, and of f for ng are tefine- 
inenu that jjerplex the beginner, and I therefore beg leave, 
(or the present, to neglect these two symbols, which I be- 
lieve lo be unnecessary ; Mr. Sweet also joins words (ogetbcr. 
or separates syllables, just as we do tn rapid speech. This 
also is B moitt perplexing (and, in my experience, a iao« 
disheartening) refinement, because it needlessly destroys aJI 
hope of rendering his system intelElgibte to the inexperieDced*. 
I shall therefore take upon myself lo write out the well- 
known poem by Campbell, entitled ' Iioh<-nlindcn,' in a way 
of my own, closely agreeing with the above system, bm 
slm|>uried, as far as possible, in accordance with more com- 
mon methods. I wriie it as 1 pronounce it myself etlb- ^M 
^uialiy, that is, suppresung the i/in and in unaccented posi6o^ ^B 
(unless a vowel follows), and the hke. I omit the nisrtim 

' Thii Du of w (or tc4 in tvAo/, witm, ttfy b dsnal in London j m) 
Ihc more It tlio |ilty. 

' II ti bIso nccdlm, bcoait hjphcot <an be Med inttoul. f<* 
'come up U oatx.' Mr. Sw«et writs ' k4m.>*p>i -wJna'i Uu ' k>n>-^p^ 
nnoft * is niu^ cleanTi 



I oT (he acccnu, pauses, and ihe like, because the poem is 
yviy familiar, and my chief object is really to shew the 
; vowel- sounds. 

on LtadsB, wen dli9 sao waz lou, 

aa\ bUdle* lei dh'sntiodn snou, ' 

ait' daak 3i wino wi>i dha Aou 

vt Ais9, rouling ri-]>idli. 
b9t Lindan sau dnsdhs sail 
wen dha dram biil, at ded »\- nait, 
ksntaAnding faiaai »v dcth ta iait 
dlia da^duics ay (b)M' siinaH. 

bai taocli uii' uampil faast sreid, 
iicb hon9»Tnan ditiu ()i)ii bictl-blcid, 
an' fyuuiias cvri cliaaja neJd 
K> join dh3 dredf>»l' icvalri. 

dhen sbuk dha bilt, wi' Ihanda rivn, 
dhcn roshl dha stiid, ta bani drivn, 
an' landa dhan dhajboulcs »v bcvn 
&a flscsht dlia red aalilarl. 

bat reda yet dlia.-t lait ahal glou 
on Lind4iu hlli av sleined snou 
an' bladia yci dha lorani ' Hon 

av Ai»3, rDultng riupidli. 
tit maon, bat .tkaeaa yon Icval san 
kan piias dha wan-klaudz, Tonling dan, 
•rata fyuuriaa Fiantk an' feiari Han 

shaul in dhaea >aU^ras kxnapi, 

dhe komlKL-t * diipni. on yii brdv, 
(h)tiu rasb tu gkorl aoa dha gr«iv, 
weiv, Myuunik. aol dhai bitnasi wciv, 

an' chaaj widh aol dhai chivalri. 
fyuu, fyuu shal paii waca mcni miii ; 
dba snou shal bii dhaea wainding-shiit ; 
and evr« taaf baniith dhaca liit 

Ehal bii a souljaai sepalka. 

* I am afntld I hsnlljr touml l)ic h lirre. 

* I belicTB I really wy 'dictbl,' bcctaie ij ix mpraiwaDOCBUe, li' 
hM rafiMy. ■ Very norly ■ tMRRt-' 

■ PBrbspi I oD^hl M »y ■ kamlwt '; but I do not. 
2 1 



[Ciur. XVIL 

§ 313, My chief objea in introducing the aborc speci- 
men, is lo enable me to give the icsulls of the invcstifi^tions 
of the preceding chapter, so as to shew the extraordinary 
changes that luve tak<:n ]>lace in the pronunctiition of oar 
vowels. I here mainly follow Mr. Sweet's History of English 
Sounds, p. 66. The ' OM-EngJish ' arc tbc usoal A. S. forms 
and sounds; llie 'Middle-English' are Chaucerun. Tbe 
reader is particuUrly rrqucKlcd to take notice that tbe words 
in itiitUs rcprcticnt actual spelling, i.e. thcyarnw; uhilu the 
words in Roman tditrs represeoi the pronunciations according 
lO the above scheme, i. e. tbc soundt. 

MMMH (niui). 
sirt (ecI). 
lUafJ <ti«iil) '. 
tiama (nim>). 
5 imii (entte). 
htlpiin (hdpan). 
irtf/iJ« (Bco»on). 
mule (mcie). 
tttfan (ttclau). 
to ti iMC). 

A^am (rfrewm). 
grMt [jjicene). 
sh (Keo). 
i( nuVoM (wliaaV 
win (vHis). 

to ett (u>d). 

-M/.if.£«. JAthool). 
14 CtM). 


BiaH (m«n). 

tat {>*.%)■ 
HarJ (lunj). 

IMDV (nuiB»)*. 

mJt (enda). 
Mftn (hclpn). 
oven (tcno). 
mitt (macla). 
mUh vtUdra). 
la (m«). 

Aivn (dnem). 
grteit (ettcn). 
iiv <»«]- 
B/iitH (witm). 
kit (bil). 
tpc» (wiinV 

9i (aofl). 
kMi (Iwol. baol). 
(M, M iUo], 


mam (imm). 

MMW (nciflB). 

/RWM (acvn). 
mmT <iniii). 
Um] ((tiit). 
Ma <»■■>. 

^f«M (dtOn). 
^nmt (gciin). 

terV (wh). 

wtiw (wtiia). 
firt {Ai»). 

*w (<«)'. 


' BdI mod. E. karJ ii detlv«d from a Htidui fona Witf. olA 
Kinple a. 
' Mr. Stf«ct nmiu ihe (uftm Is MOiwf, «iiy/, hi!ffn, mtU, fte. 

* Mod. K. dttil ii mltf fioRi ■ TUbnt {otta'dJJ (Aeedy. 

* HeiAi' >T|imcnCS Itic kociu] of G, di in iU«/. 

* Th«*liehtdi{raenc«iiitbevowclii*di»(oll>c«aa*oaaaufollo«iiig. 







UOIir.RN RNaLllll. 

ti (too). 

W (too). 

M. lee (Inu), 

tmni (wum). 

tent (ton>). 


3j kilt tliuu*). 

iMW (hnutV 

iIm)M (ham). 

•^ (diq;}. 

Jay (d«l). 

Jay (del). 

M«ca« (wSgna). 

X9>n> (mUii «7 


*V (»")• 



/m Cl«»). 

S 314- In Mvcnl or ilie ub»vc words, the dllTetence be- 
tween the Middle and Modern l'Jif;liiih pronunciations is so 
great, that iniermediatc forms can be assigned which wc majr 
rougbly allot to the sisiefnili century or later. The most 
renurkablc of such forms arc namt (nacm), driam (iltcem), 
wint (wcin). fire (feir). In the sixtecoth century, the dis- 
tinction between the clo»r and open e and ^ was still kepi 
up ; whence the dixiiiicdon in spelling between lea (sae) and 
ttt (sec), and between lot (tao) and loo (too). This has been 

' ^cady explained in § 301. 

% 81S- It will lie readily understood iliat the sliort sketch 
given in this chapter is merely a preliminary introduction 
to the object, of ihc most meagre kind. It is simply in- 
tended to point out uliat are the results which the reader 
may expect to find, if he will take the trouble to examine for 
himself the works by Mr. Ellis and Mr. Sweet. The table 
in j 313 is of great value, as it will usually enable the student 
to understand the chanftes in tlie vowel-sounds of nearly all 
the most ordinaiy words of native origin. A large number of 
examples have already been ^vcn in Chap. V. It may be 
remarked that the sounds which arc known with the greatest 
certainty are those of tlie earliest (A. S.) and llie laies/ 
(modem) period. As to the sounds of the Middle- English 
period, doubt may exist in the case of certain words ; but 
the general rexulLs are admitted. The most diR^culi and un- 

[certain period is that of the sixteenth an<I seventeenth cen- 
tariest when great changes were taking place in the sounds, 
Eirequendy without any corresponding change in tbc symbols 
employed to represent them. 




.xvit \ 

Note.— I beg leave to Kiy cxprcswly ihai I do iwt advocaie 
Mr, Sweet's 'romic' system as being the best solation 
the question of s|Klling- reform in modem EDgUsh. Vi 
even widi rc^iieci to [hi.i inudi'ilis[Mited queiuinn, I think it 
anqucstionablc thai for man/ of oar mo<ieni lioundt the 
above symbols cannot be improved upon ; amongst vbich I 
would eKfiecially select the symbols aa, a, at. em, e, ei, i, H 
(or iy). o, oi, cu, uu (or uw) vi» uiscd in { 310, and th, dk, km, 
as used tn ^ 3(1. Tbc most objectionable symbol is ol>- 
viou.tly ihe tiimed t (a), for which it baa «ell be«n pro- 
posed to u«c a, with the «ound which \s familiar to M* in ibe 
words aroma and Anurt'ea. One great reason for employing 
it is thai it is alreaily widely used for this weak txiwel-Munif 
by the Indian govcmmcnl. Ani^ther. of course, is, that it 
docs not occur anywhere in Mr. Sweet's scheme (except ai 
aa doubled); and it is a pity not to use so excellent and 
common a symbol, which would prccixety denote Ihe nsual 
{iionunciaiion of the mo«t clemeniary word tn the language, 
vii, the indefinite article '. Moreover we should notice ihai. 
though Mr. Sweet uses the same symbol (a) for llie sound in 
(om€, there is really some dilTerence in the sound. The hcM 
method of denoting the <> in (omt is die real <rux in eveiy 
system that has been proposed. As the sound is, after all, 
not very common, I agree with Mr. I.ecky in prOfK>^ng the 
use of a 10 denote it. 1 beg leave to refer ibe reader 10 U 
cicellent article by Mr. Lediy Id the Phonetic Joama) fiv 
August sii, 1886, where the proposal is made to employ Ihe 
symbols a and a, and 10 rt^m our difficult and varnble 
symbol r in such words as ^aeard, latUtard. fyuwJ, sty- 
ward, tiMiri, tfferf, which should I>e written pl^kard, lanitrJ, 
kamard, siaiutrd, tiicvi, iftrf. The effect in Irunsltlerattng 
the poem of Hohcnlindcn would be to pmeni it in the 
fonn following. It is sufficient 10 girc three verses. 

' The Indefinite aitlcle b ntvtr ptDDcninced like ay tn d*t in iKsOice , 
(gnltMfot llieMlieareni{]huli),U)oagheIt)Urcaue dUmIoM thilttt 




OD Lindn*, wen diui eccn wax loa, 
aol* bisdiex lei dh' (cntrodn bichi, 
an* duk at winter vax dhn* flou 
«»■■ Aiser, rouling mrpidll 

beet Lindn sao aoccdlter uiit 
wen dha dram bill, .-n dcd .iv nait, 
kamaaoding faicn av deth la* lalt 
dha daiknes av 'er sitnori. 

bai taorch an' trtzmpii faast arcid, 
iicb haotsman druu (h)ii b^etl-blcid, 
an' fjniurias evri charjcr acid 
la join dha dredfal revalri. 

The unprejudiced reader, who would rather Icam than 
'SCOff, may Gniiili ihc poem for liiinAi^If witli i;ri;ai advaiitnge. 

I haw one more suggestion lo make. If er be objected 
to as being difficult to dislinguiah from a in writing *, 1 aee 
BO great objection to u-ting a for the sour<1 of o in tomt 
at) well as for the obscure vowel. Thus time would appear 
as tarn ; whilst Cam would appear as Cam. A very little 
> practice u-ould render this l^iiliar and easy, and the whole 
problem would be solved. Abundamt would appear aa 
^ ^iandam, the second a being distinguished from the others 
bf the accent falling upon it. I think this is preferable to 
the romic form * »l).>nibnsi.' The words hleodttu, tmtroddm, 
iui, an«thr, drum, irumjxl, would appear as 'bladlc4(' 
'amrodn,' 'bat,' 'anadhcr,' 'dram.' 'iratnpet.' On the 
other hand, bat and dram would appear as 'bxt' and 
' drxm.' 

' Noce (hat tbe E. /, m, m u« ofttn pore Tomb, uitl rcftUjr atti mt 
vowel to \x wrilleu before them. 

' Mr. \j^-j mitnaA/, ix. ah fer Ihc'in afi\ aim tA for Qtealn 
[ .Ian, aUch he «ptlls ftir. 

* Ranembn' diu a » ha« a pnrclj conveotjooal tynbol. u above 
defined. 'nieduU«nmdof<ln/it< U the tunc** that of *ia nnacccnied 
^Bod la. \a rapid tprwh. 
I^B * Tbo « %bA 4 ire bnt vrrillca a;«rl ; (bu >nKt, lai, i*n may be 
^B '■•iltlai ke<m, tat, kair. 


Ekclish Consonants. 

§ 316- ClBBsifloation of CtmsoiiBiits. CoDsiderable 
attention has been given in many of the preceding chapters 
to the laws which regulate vowel-change ; it will now be con- 
venient to consider the consonants. These have already 
been considered as far as they are affected by Grimm's Law and 
Verner's Law ; and in Chapier XVI, which gives a sketch of 
the history of our spelling, some of the consonantal changes 
have been incidentally mentioned. The order of consonants 
in the Sanskrit alphabet is such as to classify those of a 
similar character ; it arranges them as guJ/urah, palatals, 
cerebrals, dentals, labials, semi-vawels, and sibilants. English 
has no cerebrals, and it is convenient to take the gutturals 
and palatals together. Further, the English k takes the 
place of a Teutonic KH ; and this has suggested, in Pick's 
Dictionary, the following order for the primitive Teutonic 
consonants, when used initially. 

Gutturals : k, kw, h (for kh), hw, g. 

Dentals: t, th, d ; a (dental liquid). 

Labials: p, f (for fh, labio-dental), b ; m (labial liquid). 

Other letters : y, r, 1, w, a. 

The consonants ng (guttural nasal), t (voiced /), and s 
(voiced s) also belong to the original Teutonic alphabet, but 
were (probably) not used initially. Besides these, English 
developed other sounds and employs other symbols, such 



^, eh, Uk, fii, gh, jige), dge, X, ph, wh. th ; but these 

an be most conveniently considered under the primary 

Isymbob «iib vhich each is mote immediately connected. 

shall therefore adhcrv, in the main, to the above order, 

simply for convenience, wilhoul iwivocaiing its adoption. 

$ 317. Voiceless and Voiced Ooiuoiuuits. Anotber 
important method of claiisirying Oie consonants is to cotitrui 
them in paini ; each ' voiceless ' fonsonant ba* its corre- 
sponding 'voiced' one. where the terms 'voiceless' and 
* voiced' * have real physiological meanings. When (lie 
predwe vensc of 'voice' in this connection is once caught, 
the student will haw no difficulty in pairing off the con- 
sonaniB with ease. Let us take the case of the pair of 
letters i, g. K is 3. tweittt or turd letter, as can l>c easily 
pro^'cd. If wc aitcmpl 10 sound the syllabic iaa, we shall 
find it perfectly easy to do s» as snon as we pa^ on to the 
vowel-sound ; but if wc try to pronounce the i alone, or iaa 
without the aa, wc can produce no sound audible to a by- 
stander, though we are con.tcious of a feeling of tension at the 
point of the o list ruction. If wc now try the like cx[)eriin€ot 
with gaa, vrc sh^l find that even wilhcul the assistance of the 
vowel an, it is posuble to produce a slight gurgle or vocal 
murmur which, with an effort, we can make audible. The 
::£ffcrenc« is, perhaps, not very easily perceived in the case of 
this particular pair, because A and g are both momentary 
Bouiidx or checks, and not continuous ; but if we take tlie 
pair of continuous letters s anti z, the dilTerencc is plain. We 
can pronounce and prolong tlie sound of j, so as to make an 
audit>Ie hissing sound ; but this sound is wholly due to the 
escape of the breath through a furrow aperture. On repeating 

' Otlwrwlio caltod 'fntcl* and '(onkiit,* which tomtt 10 lb« miu 
ithiDK. llic older i^naniarp txtAJlai, ttnuii ud ntMa, Asrtltaii Ujfl, 
I we *«aitvbiit boeiTiil. uid ibcrercirc objcctjunable. 1 gi>c in the leU 
I A very popnlu rccoudI. Far 1 more Ktentific one, see Sw«rt^ Hiad- 
] lioek of nionctks, p. jfi. 



the experiment with s, we find ihu, ii« addition A> this hissing 
sound, we can produce a vcr^ au^lible bnxz l>y means of lite 
breath passing throuj-h the vocal chords, which are now open, 
wheroiu ihey were previoualx closed. Ln conaeclion with 
this difference, sec ilic rcmarkii in Max Mailer's Lectures on 
Lanfniagc, voL ii. Lcci. 3, where it is slated thai the lerms 
' surd and sonant are ape to mislead,' because ' some persons 
have been so entirely deceived by ihc term sonani, that Ihey 
imagined ail the so-called sonant letters to be actually pro- 
duced with Ionic vAraiuns of the chords vocales.' But diis 
error is easily avoided, and if we grant Ihai, strictly speaking;, 
the letter ; is a perfectly mute check, it is al«) true, to use 
Max Mtlller's own words, that ' in order to pronounce it. the 
breath mu»t have been changed by (he glottis into voice, 
which voice, whether loud or whispered, partly precedes panljr 
follows the check'.' And I suppose thai in thccasc of a con- 
tinuous buifx, as bearxl in pronoiiiiciitg s, tlw tonic vibralidoft , 
of the vocal chords are real enough. We may therefore | 
dclinc the ' voiced ' consonants as those winch are readily 
atcompanitd by sonorous ^oice or \-ocal munnur, Ibe jloitb 
being actually ' narrowed ^o as to be ready to sound, which It 
never the case with voiceless consonants.' The list of English 
consonants that can be thus [Kiired ol7 ik as follows : — 

















>fa ^i Hi Mmni 









§ 318. The above table is of great importance, because (u 
Frof. Whitney tells us) the conversion of a voiceless con- 
sonant into its corresponding voiced consonuDi. or the 
levcrse, ' is abundantly Ulusltated in the lustory of every 
iangunge.' I'he common rule is, that xoioeless consonaius 

' ThcM wofdt m OKd with reftrencc to #, u compRd whh/i tal 
Ifccy an cqfuUy spp1icBt>k to^, ucampand wiiki. 


have a special affinity for oiher votccleas consonants, and 
voiced conxonants for voiced. The plural of tal is «dt, 
where / and t arc voiceless ; but the plural of dog is d<^t, 
where the form [irettented to the eye is deceptive, llie word 
being realty pronounced di^a. The voiced g tuns (he 
voiceless i into the voiced t. We can thus u once sec 
that the followin)^ ftnal combtnalions are easy to pronounoe, 
vix. ks. Is, iht. pt./t. as in loeit. eats. Srfa/As, <afA, tuffs ; but 
the I turns into t in di^i, Ms, brtalkts. eait. loaves. In fact, 
we actually haty; a sgtcdal symbol (x) fur the combination 
h, as in ax, lax. Precisely ?imilir is llic case of the 
suffix -td of ihc past tense and past participle; we may 
write ImM, but we pronounce looil. Here also the easy 
combinations arc gd. lid (vrilli /A as dA), id, vd. td, an in 
baggtd, brtal/ud, grabbfd. moved, routed ; but the d [urns into 
/ in hcJud./rolhtd, urapftd. ettfftd. hisfrd. Whellier we look 
to the final or to Ihc initial sounds of words, wc find that the 
combmaiions sk, st. sp are easy and common ; whereas do 
true EngUah word Iwgins or ciids witli sg, sd, or ti. Initial 
li it also cosy, and although we do not use it initially in 
English, it b the sound given in German to the s}-mbol t. 
which be)[tns a lar;;^ number of words in that languaRC. Aa 
to tniliol/x, it is usual to pronounce it ah a mere t, but there 
is no inherent difficulty about it. The same is true of the ^ 
In ptarmigan, usually called larmigan. In contrast with //, 
wc have bdin idtllium. I.aslly. when we reg^inl lite collo- 
cation of letters wHkin a word, i.e. in a position wticrc they 
are neither initial nor final, the operation of the law can still 
be traced. Thus the diilicult word atphoard is sounded as 
etfbbMrd. We do not say fin-Utn. but fi/lun. When we 
add the i-oiceless IH lo the word htihe, the v becomes y^ and 
the result is twtt/lh. I'he Latin prefix tuA remains unchanged 
b) sui-Jttl. ttth-jugat*. but becomes a / in tup-prett. sufhfdant\ 

< CnlcM wc cooiida mf u mlly tbe older lunn ot mi, |>Mwrrtd in 
Neb word* onl;r. Compue mp-fr. 



Ii ftcnially changes eUU funher in sucrnir. ivf-frr, ti 
nm-mcH, all of which may be included in the principle of 
atsimilah'im, to be Kpoken of more M length beTeafier. 

f 3L9- It i8 also worth while lo notice thai the voiced 
conEonanls approach more nearly ihan ihc others to the 
nature of voweb, and are more easily combined viib ibem. 
Hence il i« that a itnglt voiiceleas letter iKtwecn Iwo vo*tl» 
is liable to become voiced ; a peculiarity which is chkflf 
seen in the case of /, as in biitjr (A. S- i^sig), <A'<V (A. S. 
4ysig),/rin€ (A. S./rtosaH). rist (A. S. rttau), Simtkily we 
bave^ for f (=^) in n^or, from F. luere, and tajlagcit.from 
O. F. flaton. Such a change Is due to the a^inibiing effect 
of the nitjoining voiced sounds, and may be called voicing. 

§ 320. Another peculiarity is that a ^-oicelett consooaoi 
may take the jitace of anoihcr voiceless consoiunt, or a voioeil 
one of a voiced one. This U a case of acttui subtiUutien, 
aitd is usually due to impeifect imitation of th« souixL A 
cliild lc:arDiiig to speak often asc« / for k, aiying Uii for t^', 
or / for Ihc voiceless /A, saying /rough for through. A 
foreigner who finds a difliciilty in the £. ih, is likely lo put f 
for the voiceless sound, and s for the roioed one, saying ta»i 
for IhatiM, and zis for Ihit. Ewn g for J is not unconuDon ; 
children are very likely to say goggie, if you ask them to say 
d^gu; and wc find Shakespeare uung gegg't uvanf for 
Goifs wounds; see p. i. We constantly meet with i for v 
in reprcnn tat ion's of a negio dialect, as in /j2, hob, for lot, 
Aavt. I think it may be 1^ down as a general rule in most 
languages thai a voiceless consonant b usually suppJAiued 
by onotlier voiceless consonant, or by its ntm coircsponiliiiK 
voiced sound. Tlie chief exception is when complete as> 
stDiilation comes into play, as in the case of ef-/tT, ftom the 
Latin ci ixtA/ern ; and I think mch a change may fairly and 
OLsily be explained as due to a double change, vix. first from 

■ Cap>ia Cook (elU us th>t, in the So«h Sm. be to oiftcn . 
7iw-// (diMjrll^lc). 






ei-ftrre to * ep-firri, and secondly from * op-ftrrt to of -fart. 
Both of th««« changia are perfectly naitiraJ ; almost, in foci, 
incvimltle. Similarl}', the intemcdiatc fonn between Lat. cb- 
turrert and ^-airrrrt may have been *op-euTTtrt', whewa^ 
on the other band, the change from ad-grtdi to ag-grtdi 
coukl be made at once. 

§ 331. CoDEonantal chang;cs aie mostly due to the effects 
upon the consonants of the sounds (whcllij^r conwnnntal or 
vocal) which either innmcdiately precede or follow them. The 
general prindpic which rcfpilaics change is simply this — that 
certain combinations, being thought lo be diRicuIt or being 
dinliked a.t hurth, are so altered as to he more easily uttered 
or to give a more pleating effect to the ear. Some of the 
changes are arbitrary, in so hx as certain peoples seem to 
have a peculiar lilting for certain sounds and a dislike for 
others; but by far tlie greater numtwr of changes arc due to 
what has been called ' Uxincss,' or the desire to economise 
the effort of talking'. All such changes as involve economy 
of effort are rfricily due to the action of the vocal organs, and 
are to be exphined phj-siologically ; and the result is that the 
laws which govern such changes are extremely regular in aU 
languages, admitting of no variation, or at most of very 
little. WTicncver any consonantal change seem* lo contradict 
natura] laws, we may always suspect that it is due to txltmal 
infiiMtut, the chief of which is a desire to conform the word 
to other words with which it is wrongly (or sometimes 
rightly) supposed to be connected. As an instance of lazi^ 
ntit or tiommy of tffoH. we may observe that the super- 
lative formed from rhc comparative btlltr ought, of course, to 
be itt-nt; but ii was wry soon shortened by dropping the 
second t. TIm resulting form bmt was siill so troublcaome, 
that ^/ was gladly accepted as a substitute for it. On the other 

' TTie 'liking' oad 'ditlikiiig' are not irslly diHJnct from tbedetire 
for ecoaom)' ai cFTon. In cich kx», ib« more troeblcMMne Mond (to 
the tpciker) U 'dUllked,' and lunconidoDtlj) aTOlded. 




band, there wax a MiiMIc-F.n^Iiiih vert> /o afye, lo atone for, aa 
In the phrase — ' They shall a6y bitterly the coming of mdi 
a guest' (T^ersiift, in Dodslcy's Old Plays, ed. Uulilt, L 
406). Tliis was confuted wilh llie verl> aMJe, by a labe 
association, and hence we fmd in Shakespeare's /u/. Citjor, 
HI. a. 119 — 'If it be found so, some will dcerc ah'de It' In 
this case, wc have no economy, liut an iiicrcasc of effort, 
caused by sounding a useless </; and ihe explanation is, of 
course, that the increase of effon is due to the cKtcnial 
influence of an ideal association, which led the sjteakef 
to think iliai the d was essential. Nearly all changes 
can be explained by one or odier of these two prindple^ 
which shoukl never \k \otx sight of. The true sludeni of 
etymology expccis to be able to explain all changes in a 
word's form by help cither of ftoittmy of effort or of mm^ 
atseeialion, the former cause being physiological, the latter 
psychological. 1 wouKl merely adil the caution thai there are 
special coses ilui can be explained by neither of these ; wv 
must allow for the effect of national kabili, which may cause 
us to prefer cenain sounds to others ; and for the infloence 
of the eye upon [he car, which has caused us to pronounce the 
tia/aull, inserted by pedants into the older iona/aut, as fau 
been already explained. Hence, in api>lyii% the first prin- 
ciple of ecouway t>f tffori, we must allow for the influence 
of national haMs \ and. in applying the second princi|^ of 
txlernal infiatttce, we must extend 11 w as to indude alt lundt 
of menial a^iodation with respect to the forms of words. 

{ S22. The following arc the principal methods by which 
ronsonantal change is effected in Kngtiab. 




■ - FalftUlisation. 

a. Voicing of voiceless letters. 

3. Vocalisation of voiced letters. 



4. Assimilation, producing combioaiions of ix>ioclci8 
|1elt«rs, wiced tclceis, or doubled letien. 

5. SulMtitutioR of oiie voiceless comonsuit for aooiber; or 
of one v-oiccd consooani for another. 

6. Mctaihe^s ; or change of place of adjacent consonants. 

7. Abbccviaiioii of various kinds ; including apbnrcsiii, 
aphcsis, Ac. 

8. Change of voiced letters to voiceless. 

9. ItiMclion of 'excrescent* lettere, chieBy in accented 
[syllables; and other aiktiiions- 

Ckakcis tut Ttix Stmbols KXPLoyxo. or duk to them. 

to. Mere cJiange of symbol, th« sound meant being the 

II. Symbol -change causing misnpprchcnsion ; misuse of 

II s. Doubting of consonaiiial symbols ; often due lu ic- 
iCentual stress 
To these wc must add. in connection with the subject : 
i;). Vou-cl-changeH due to ooaionanta] influence. 
1 4. Contluuncc of fonns. somciimes accidenlal, l>ut some- 
times caused by the influence of one word upon another like 
ii. i. e. by fonn •association. 
5 82S. It is absolutely necessary to give at least one 
example in each case, for clearness, before proceeding 

1. Paiaialisaliim. t > eA. The guttural i, as in A. S. 
' (pron, jt>/(/) passes into the palatal cA in £. cAi/d. 
.f. Veiftng. i >g; t> d. The voiceless k in A. S. <&■, 
t, is ^'oiced to g in tlie derived E, dig. A. S, /rrf/ > E. 

Vocaiitatiim. g > y. The voiced g in A, S. dag has 
vocalised, and now forms a component of the diphthong 



4 a 

4. Aiiimitation, k4>kt; gs > gt', fm > mm. The word 
boked is pronounced tookl, by assimilolion oi kd vo kt, 
where k and / are both voiceless. Dogs is pronouoocd dtgt, 
by aviiiTniUlion of gt to gn^ where g and ■ arc both voiced. 
I'hc A. S. hidfmaist is now Lammas, with the double m for 


5. Suhliluliim. k> I; lh{dii)>d. The M. E. bakte Es 
mod. K. bat, the winded mammal. We have the fonn 
murdfr as well as the older murthtr (= murdMer). 

6. Me/aiAttis. ti > kt; pi > tp. As an example oT 
mrlalkfsis, or chan^ of place, take the familiar word ax 
{aks) for ait ; also M. E, tlafuftt > E. ^foi;^. 

7. Ahdrfjialion. The A. S. yw^n/ has become E. faeL 
The epiuopus hiui become E. hiih^. The Gk. •^'n^ 
e^n; became A. S. almtist, and is now o/jnj. 

8. Umvieing. d> I. The A. S. cudtie b now ruHlffisk. 
Examples of ihb character are very net. 

9. Addition. Excrescent p after m, Ac. A. S. temtig is E. 

10. SymBctthamiie. A. Sl f in eyn is now k in ib>L A. S. 
ew is E. yi». 

ri, Misapprthtiuien. 3 > «. Caperealy is now 00/fr- 

13. DouSUitg. A. S. ^tftr is E. Mttir; with no altcratioit 
in the sounii of Ihc »'. 

13. Vmtl-mfiuenct. er > ar ; wry common. M. E. 
kiriati is now harveil. 

14. CimfluttKt. A. S. /S^and A. S. /ifV are now fmt 
and >%»/, sounded alike. A. S. grard and A. S. gyrdt ore 
now haCayard. 

824. From wliat hgu preceded, the following examples 
will be readily understood. 1 cite only word* of F.nglah 
origin, or words of Latin ori^n found in A. S^ though many 
of the above changes may be illustrated much more copiaiu!]r 
by word) of French or Latin otigin. 




Palatalisation. So called becauac it causes [he formation 

I o( the ' pMlxbJ ' lelterH eh, j, th, zft (as in iture). The 

I letters k and g aic tiablc to be Tol lowed by whai has been 

[ciUed a paruitic j; inuoduced between the i org and the 

vowel-sound. Good examples ace seen in the occasional 

vulgar English pronunciation of Had as iyiad, and o( garden 

t&gyardau lliis ly is intenivediate bctvyren k and ch, and 

the result of ibe inlioduction of the^ is (lie ultimate pastnge 

of k into •■* altogether. Similarly g passes through gy into 

\J> °^ J- "^^^ '8 extremely common in Anglo-Saaon, in 

which dblect llie parasitic vowel was «, which produced the 

same result. Thus the Latin tak-rm wa.s borrowed in the 

A. S. form eeaie, whence E. (Mi ; and the A. S, geard (for 

i'gard) is now yard, whereas the cognate Icel. garSr is 
preserved provincially in tlic form gur/A. The A. S. brytg* 
(pronounced hryg-g>, with y like G. tf) became M. E. hrigge 
(pronounced brij-p or brij-i), mod. E. 6ridgt (pron. irijj or 
It is worth notice that English abounds with palatal- 
isation tn other instances besides those arising from ki, it 
and git ge. Thus the A. S. see produces E. M, as in A. S. 
teae-an, later fotm tctM-an, E. ihakt ; to which wc may add 
^^ nearly all words that now begin with M. Further.y/andxt'pass 
^B into<'A,fA,sotliai the E.fBwAm.JKU'idff./'iMrMi are practically 
^H pronounced as romic tivtschm, Mfisknt, fifwAjit. Di, si pass 
^P into y and sli respectively; as tn moduhlton (modfii/a/t'on), 
often turned into tne^uhtien; and A. S. gratian, T^groMe, 
gives the *b. grasi/r (pronounced grciih^). 

$ 326. History oT E. The following arc examples: 

fc > oh ; only when followed l>)- e or i. A. S. tea/ (Dutch 

ka/), E. <ki>ff^, A. S. i-«fr (borTo«"cd from calc-mCi, 

I £. <-4>t/i. A. S. d*rr, a turn ; hence E. (hart, a turn of 

I irotic, and eliar'Woman. A. S. «rAi: ; £. ekarloek. A. & 

' l%c A. S. ', <«plod fiDDi Lm. f. had the looDd of i^ 

VOL. t. 

A a 


tear-ig, full of care, K. eb<iry\ but the substantive 
preserves the *-sound, A. S. (/aet, or rather c/<t ; E, ch 
A. S. e^se (borrowed from Lat. eastut) ; £. ehtat. A. 
Chowan i Iv- titw. A. S. Mirni; £, thicien. A. S. 
E, tkide. A. S. <^iitf ; E. ckH4. A. S. wJl-, c>* ; E. rf 
A. S. «« ; E. i-Aw. A. S. efn-ait, to ajilii, pp. Wir-m ; whence 
E- ehin-k xni prov. Y.. th'tu (a unall ravine). A. S. i»&i<] 
M. E, (htsin ; cf. E. (-Aei}» '. A. S. <eorl ; E. cAwr/. 

k > oh, at the end of a syllable ; this sometimes 
pliicc in verb^ even when a follows in llie A. S. 
because the linal •an pa»«cd into -m. A. S. ac-t, «^ H. I 
ach-t, Uitcr atht. which in mod. E. should have 
pronounced as eith {ei :\* ly in lh^\ hut is always 
u a(, by confusion with the verb, for which the 
aundaiion tik is correct The hardening of the cA to i wat 
also partly due. in my view, to a pedantic derivation of the 
sb. from the Gk. nj^ot, with which it has no connectiofi 
whatever. See Murray's Dictionary, where tlic author 
obsenvs that 'the "O- P." rioters, ignomnt of the Shak- , 
sperian distinction of akt [verb] and atki [substantiTe^Hj 
ridiculed the stage -iironunciaiion ef the ab. by giving it to^^ 
the vb. in "John Kcmblc's head atkhts"' A. S. Utt', \ 
E. bttek. A. S, bnte (gen. btnc-t, dat. bmc-i)*\ E. brntK 
A. S. j/e-an, E. tttJt ; with a by-form t/ct-an, whence (witli 
prefix it-) F. httr<ck. A. S. biree ; E. birth. A. S. Mie-oM, 
later ^^-mt; E. UrofA. A. S. i/nu-ati, to deceive ; Sl.l 
bUath-cn, to turn aside ; E. iifmh, A. S. hric, pi. ir&, L 
Arttk-t, properly a double plural ; now braehts, A. S. i 


* The mod. E.<-i4mw uuwcn toan A.S. ivifMH, in which Uhboh 
W been tlildetl (fem ihe < to the 0, beciBie the ( Kcmed to bckiin 

' ' FapH, bkf' '. tee my iuipptement 

' In Middle iLiigliih, (hr farau <A tbc noniiutin, lUtivr, wwl i 
Utc were ill coofiual laccthcT. A Imec miDbcr at ntuiL E. vwroUrd) j 
nomiQaiJici uc due to old £tniliiit4 or 4atit)ii. Itatt 4nh-^ b |bl i 
lilt. . the aom. form thouU IfE tmi. 



'?..dil<; gefU(Ac-«oT oK-v, M.E. (Afiif; E-diUA. Here the 
i is shortened, aM in ik, riu. below: it should be spell JicA. 
A. S. jliK tgCD. /«-M, dai. fitK-t), E. fineh. A. S. iic-c, 
E. Aw4. k.S. Ik, Ik corpse (dat. ilr-r) ; whence E. 
h'ch-gate. A. S. mtarc (gen. incarir-«) ; E. mareh, a boundnr)', 
frontier. A. S. fwme-an, later twcnt-tn ; £. pumh, A. S. 
rdc-an, also rihe-an ; E. ^akA. A. S. rfr ( ; E. nV*. A. S. 
flff/f ; M. E, jim'/i(, jkW^ ; wlience twiri, sutk ; E. sttek. 
(Here the weakening is due to the frequent use of the 
pi. tv!ib-e, and Ihc frequent occurrence of final -<• in various 
oblique cases of the M. E. forms.) A. S. liifan, Ittet-an ; 
E. kath. A. S. kwile; E. ickich ; cf. suek abo^'C. A. S. 
iCTJiif* ; E. winch. A- S. wrtiKt, guile, deceit ; M. E. Kr*irf*. 
guile; TLvirtntk, % side-pull, iwint, sprain. Cf. also rettky 
for rttiy; ilarch, from M. E. tlttrk, .\. S. sleare, sirong; 
fkitrth, Nordicrn ki'rt. from A. S. cyritt. 

§ 826. kk > M. E. oob > E~ toh. 

Written ec in A. S. In some cases the kk i.< pre^tcrred, 
but written ck ; c- g. Mek, from A. S^ Pite-t. Hut there ate 
several esamplcs of palatalisation. A. S. hicct ; E. biteh. 
A. S. fiiict ; E> ^itfiVf*. A. S. gtW-an, M. E, jrirrA-o*, E, tfr-i 
(for *)rikA); by loss of the initial j =_>'. A. S. laet-OM, to 
sciic, I p. 8. pT. /flvrv, whence M. E. h<ch-m'. to sciw. 
catch; E. fakh, sb., a catch for a door. A. S. mace-a. 
fcuei mtucra, E. awXrA'. A. S./nxf. s-. » covering ; wheooe 
Patt-an, v., E. IhiiUh. A- S. atig^I-twi<(-(t, a hook-iwitcher, 
the name of a worm used aa a bait for fish ; hence E. Iwi'tth, 
A.S. vxe(t'<,%^ E.tuafrA, i.e. walcliman. \.^.wieeii, wasc., 
ft wizard ; xciu^, fem., E. ti>iifh ; cf. E. it4i'>t-<d^ orig. ' ad- 
Acted to vitchcrari.' A. S. ■orates, wrttt-a, an outcast ; 
later wrttc-ty M. F-. wr€t<k-t, E. nvikh. Cf. also ^/cA, a 
* baking,' fiooi A. S. &M-im, to bake ; ralch for raek. The 

■ In MMt. L 14, the cu1k«l MS. of the A. S. ca*p»U hu (he iccan- 
live ^'Mh>b-<-<v«, ■ hitr tpcUinK tA gt-manan ; in the latevt HS-, the 
! wool i> iptil aMKcAM. 

A a J 


obsolete word bhkh, biackiiig, b From M. £. bhxceht, 
derived from A. S. Uat, E. ^^k. 

% 327. Voicing, k > oh > J. Sometimes, after 
passed into <k (as above), it is further changed \QJ, w 
is the voiced sound corresponding lo <h (f 317). Tiius 
M. E. hi/rwieeht is due 10 adding the Si-ainl. stiCHx 
(Icci. -leiti) to K. know ; t!iis word is now pronounced 
or Houifj (5 310). The M. E. on eMar. E. a-jar, means 
the turn " ; from A, S. citrr. tyrr, a turn. Hence we 
enabled lo explain some difficult n-ordH beginning nith 
A. S. (oifi, the jaw, became M. E. (hauil (= chavet), 000- 
tracted 10 ckauU, chowl. later j^le ; K. j^wi, joie ; indeed 
we ftcCually find the Norfolk pg-iyjclt for ekrtt-Ay-chaml 
(HaUiwcU). So also jing-U scemii to be the frequent2titc 
form oiefimk. Sec also /n// in my Dictionar}-. 

Sometimes k is weakened to t (written a). Thus the 
ace primi'Pcm l>eciomes F. printe, by dropping tbe Us 
syllable. In the same way we may «^tB £. fraiut 
a weakened form from prank. 

5 328. k>B. This is simply a ca«e of 'voicing' 
examples arc rsre. Flagon and sugar have been doi 
above; $319. Hence wc can explain E. lA^, M.E. <A£f -os 
dilatn, from A.S. ili<-ian, to make a dike ; from oKr. a dike. 
Sprig ansnent lo an uiiaullioriscd A. S. 'aprtt. IceL tprtk. 
So also the Du. word Irtkktr was adopted into English a* 
Irteker. but iB now Iriggtr. 

Fioal k loHt. A.S. de-an became M.F_ aigh-tn, whence 
£. ligh. It wu probably first weakened to *^--am; 
examplea oi g>gk below. The gk is now mute, 
is a caae of estremc weakening ; i>g>gh, and tlicn drops^ 
So also A.S. b<tr-lie became Ai/-Aj in tlK Ormulum, and 
is now barley; here> represents ) to the eye, hut is reallT 

ttoct , 

' la Wriicfat'* Vocal)., ei. WiilelKr, p. 6*8. we bne Hie iMe— • 
nmtoriam (ckaNd Uoitit'/vt). Miat Utmncou [|;l<i««<l Uatrtt], 1 





muU;. I may observe that (as Dr. Ikfurray shews) har-Ue^ 
har-Ut, Le, 'that which is like btar^ where hrnr is the 
LovL Sc. word rei>re»entfng A.S. brre, barlc)-. [Not -lie Ibr 
U<tc, a Icck, plant, as in my Diction 3r>'.] The final f (=>() 
is also lost in /, A.S, rV ; in rvtry. from A.S. dfrt, e\*er, and 
<nEr, each ; and in all n-ord.t ending in -ly, .^.S. -lie, older -/»'. 

} 838. Substitution. k>t. This mitistitution is seen in 
the common provincial form ast for mk. ' t att yoMt pardon, 
mu'ani,' fnyi yin. Gami> (Martin Chuztlewit, cli. xxv). The 
Shakcsperian word afo-ieock (Rich. II. iii. 4. 39) is now <ij>ri- 
eot. Similarly, M.K. iiatkt is now Ai/, in the sense of a 
flying tnammal. The A.S. ge-mac-a has become mod. F.. 
maie ; a rc4u]t which is curiously confirmed l>y the faci that 
OUT modem inmalt was formerly inmati '. Afi/l. the soft roc 
of fishes, is a substimiion for milk, Swed. mjalltt ; this was 
]>rnkihly dtie to a.<isociatton with mill, spleen (A. S. mill), 
which is quite a different word. 

k>p. The Lsit. locHsia became A.S. hpust*, later altered 
to le^patrt; witence E. lobstfr. 

% 8S0. ilOvtL PicciMly as k tiecome« th, so sk t>ecomcs 
th, fbrmeily written uh ; this result is really due to palatal- 
isation (§ 334) ; and is commonly due to Ihe occurrence of r 
in oblique cx-teti ($ 325). Thus A.S. ase-an, pi., is mod. £. 
Oih-tt, by substituting the suffix ti for tn (= -on). So also 
A. S. (Tw, M.E. auk, E. ask (tree). A. S, lAJi-, borrowed from 
Xxt. diieut \ Y.. dish. A. S.^jr; ¥ A.S.Jtitse, M.K. 
JItstA; ¥., flah. A.S. /rrs(. M.'E. /trs(A, and (by meta- 
thesis) ^«/A; ¥~/rtsh. So also A. S. mtrs<, fintstt, Pn-t«tu. 
jvaitan, uryuav ; E. marsh, ufsh, Ihrtsh, wash, with. The 
comiDon A. S. suffix -ite is K. -tsk. Initially, A. S. st 
often became t(t ; thus scaeim is also seeae-an, wlience 
£. tiakt (§ 334). Kmilarly sramu, ueamu ; E. shamt. Ac. 

■ \ haTc nnlbnuMtcljr la«t the rcfnraoe tot Itilt ferm ; bat I cui 
|;;iiatBntcc il» rorfsctnci* 
' S<v l-etiUr m my unciwlEd SopplemcDt to £1701. Diet. 


The general nik is ilini the A.S. sc almost invarMbly be- 
comes K. th; and, conscquentty, that most K word* 
beginning with sr or si ore not of A. S., but of Scandinaviui 
origin. But ti ih also liable to be affected by ttAslilutim, 
being interclmngcahle with jf or :r ; as tn A. S. atcian, Ifl 
asl:, also spell axian. whence prov. K. ax, in tlie some KeMe. 
HcDce A. S. misean became M. E, mixfn, E. mix '. A. S. jii- 
dan became M. K. lixen, yxtn, l£..yix, to Itlocoagh. Kt 
ifjclt X in A. S., and gcnendly remain?! io. as in ax, /ax, «x. 
six. wax (to grow), wax {a substance) ; A.Sttx (cu:r),_/^, 
»x, six, tifaxan^, wtax. 

$ S31. History of KW, K2T, GIT. oiir>qa. This i» 
merely a giaphic change ; the pronunciation <lid not aker. 
Cf. A. S. ntA, E. qiuen. &c. 

ka>gDorn. The A.S. <-ir rcmainft as •bi (Iwt pmnomicnl 
aa n). in e«a/a, (nf/an. fit/bw, myl/att, tt^f. tmkt. (nyliaji, o»l. 
cnolta, cndwati ; E. inafe, kntad, ttitf, iitfl/, kttift. knighi. 
knit, knoil, hie/, knmt'. But tlie m>rd gnarlt4 stands lis 
*knarUd, being related to M. E. knarrt, a knot in wood ; tbe 
Shakespearian vatAgftarl, to snarl, is for *t»ari. being alUed 
to Du. tnorrtn, G.hmrrtn, to grovfl; and gnaik is for *imuA, 
d*. Dan. knatkc. In gital, K.S.gaal, the^ seems onginal; 
'aignnw, A.i^.gnagan, it is merely the prefix^*-, which di»* 
appears tn G. iMgen. The difficulty of sotiiMling k and g 
before r has led to tlieir total supprettsion in mod. E. ; the; 
only appear to the eye, and might as ««ll be dropped. In 
fact, this has happened in a few words ; nip wras fonnerlj 
inip, and nMIr is its rre<iuentatit«. The nap on doth 
was formerly nopf.t. and denoted the little knots or ht^i 
on the cloth, which were nipped off to the process wliich 
produced the mip. There is very little trace of this in A.S, 
but we find the gloss 'uelkie, hiu^iam (uc)* in Wri|;bl'» 

' The lattaa wmim, t^Mx m A-S. (Wants}; «« faul NonJiBmbftu 
awjui, Moician ttaxaf, Ihry Er*>Wi Uatt. vL tS: Mid Mckbui co, 
Htjx, V<ipanMt PtaUo, f 7. ^ 







Vocab. ed. Wttkkcr, 480. 13. Here hiMppiam is of course 
a sciitxU «rTor Tor kmppian or cnappian, to |duck off the 
knofw on cloih. 

( 88S. Huttny erf H. It will be convenient to consider 
Ibe asfnraic {d) next, because of iia answering 10 tlie 
Aryan t. We Rad (hai it t.t (generally reiaineii, iiiiiially, 
in English wordM, lu iof, hill, him, hit dropped in words 
of F. origin, as heir, Amitsf, koiuwr, hus/ltr {osllir), Mii, 
kumtte, ktoHMr. Buc the fact is that many F. words liave 
Iseen conformed to the native tinge, and few hiouiiitgfy 
say 'a6it, 'twghty, 'earse. Wd, 'trilagt, 'idtttts, 'wiugt, 'wriiU, 
and the like ; although some of ilicse are not particularly 
uneommon. Even 'umbU in dUUked, and some fairly xound 
the A (rather ilian^) in humour, human, humid. It is 10 
be Doied also, that [he spelling (of »ome at least of these 
words) without iDltial h in I^Iiddlc English k not nt all 
common ; tmttle and imourt being rately found '. The 
only wwds in which the spelling without h is really com- 
mon in M. £. are tthil, eir, trilagt, oil, otld, osltltr; for 
jiojt/, ktir, &c., to which we mutt add the native word 
i/. from A. S. ii/. Still, we may certainly coDchide that 
i)k K. h was weaker tliau the English, and was hardly 
SO«in<ted. It is notorious that Ix>ndoncni often My air 
for hair, and conversely hair for air ; and it has often been 
a source of wonder why those who can readily sound h 
should so frequently do so in the wrong place. The hatnt 
is very old; for, in the Romance of llavclok (temp, Edward I), 
wc find it for hit. *Pm for hipm, Le. hence; and conversely 
hatdt for tniU (end), and heriti for trht (earls) ; see the CjIos- 
vay. As I have nowhere seen an explanation of tliis plie- 
nomenon, 1 venture to offer one. My theory is that, the 
English h bein^ strong, and ilie French k weak, the tower 

* Prabilily we luvc come to *aaoA the 4 in aiany t& tkete ward* 
(iam Mtinj It Meommonlf wrillcn. 


ENGLISH CQltSOHAm^. [Cwlf. XVIIl. ] 

classes discovered that ibe letter h was not much patrontsnl 
\yf their French -siieaking muiers. And, as ' Jack wonld be 
a ^nitrmon, if he could q)cak French,' they attempted to 
jnutsic this pcculisriiy by Eupprefsing the * where they were 
accustomed to M>un<l it. But, nature being too strong for 
thein, they were driven to preserve iheir k from <lestniL-tion 
by sounding it in words which had no right to it; aiKl hence 
the confused renult. ! am ihe more inclined lo think ifati 
explunniion cora-cl, because it will al»o explain the conrtueO 
use of V for n\ Here also the w was one of ibc commoiMM 
of English sounds, whilst in French it was sooiewhat rare^ 
On the otlier hmid, initta] v was so common in Fn^nch, thai 
the K, word icint-yard^h- S. win-gtard) was actually turned 
into vm-yard, and so remains. I'he lower classes tried to 
supplant w by v, the result being that ilicy also tamed r 
into w. The chief vrondcr is thai the conflict of longnes 
did not produce even greater confusion, especiaDy wbea «e 
c»tl^ider that ihe French was mainly of Latin, not of Teaionic 

til>l; hn>n; bT>r. In A.S. we frequently find initial 
hi, hn, and hr. The initial A is always lost in later M. F^ and 
in mo(L K. ; hut it v* ver)* necessary' to know which words 
once had it, because the h will answer. et}-mologK:8Dy. lo 
an Ar}'an k. Thus A. S. hl6d, F, /ow/, is cognate with Gk. 
sXvro'r, renowned. Skt. fmta. heartl. The list of A/>worOs 
contains : htUtr, lad*, tadk, lady. Lanmai. Imti. iapvinf. 
tail (of herrings), laugh, itait, v. and adj., leap, lid, link (of 
a chain), lit! (to hearken), littm, loaf, lord, lot. lomd*. Tb* 
Air-v'ords are : ttap (to slumber), ftap (of cloth), mtk, neigh, 

' Not quit« hdIcduwii to iht Anglo-rmwli <liAlrvl, whkh tuil umat rir. 
to wvnal. See.. «ich worJ* being mostly of Tcutook otiKin. Wivtrn tt 
an «]i«eptIon to thU nile. beicK from lj». mfera. 

* A. S. iltu hu ii>/ ; M in n<tiif. iiamiiicriiic, wbodce F_ liip. Set slio 
wraf ii M. E. nrntfifen, >laa wiaff*n; wlicnoB K. Uf, it »nt> a),. 
£,tiit-warm 1« dtfficntl ; it MMU to bt due to A. & A/i^, thclto, wsnnUi, 
oonAned wiA wIm, tepid. 



f liSl 





wth, nttti4 {k lost in A.S.)v nil, nod. nat; to ii1))ch may be 
added ihc Scand. words mi/, rngg-arj (witli F. Kuffix). The 
Ar-worda are : rait (a nigbl - drewi), ramsmu, ra/i, ralitr. 
retHe, rastn, rem, rtaeh or rtteh (lo try to vomil), »-e«r- 
MMW, rffd, Ttet (for yarn), /-(W, rtek, rid, riddU (sieve), 
ri4g*, rime (hoarfroett), riaJ. ring, s^ ring (a Itcll). v., rini. 
rippU (on water), rwf, rook (bird), roosi, rue (to be sorrir 
for), rumple, rung; to wbich may be added the Scand. 
u-ord* rafi, to seixe liastily, rafie (a diviicion of Su»<«x), ri/le 
(10 plunder), ruttf^, riii'j(a fold), rne^i (a small heap), nai. v., 

$ 838- Pinal h. Tbe A. S. final A had the sound of 
the G. final M. This tounil vfas wrillcn ^ A in M. E,. 
and BliU remains in wriiuig, though always either muic or 
soanded as /i The Unol gi b muie in horeugh, hoKgh, 
dongi, f/eMgJi, siotigh (mire), l/ioriiugA, linugA, throi^h; liigh, 
n^h, Ihigh. It is sounded as / in ih<>»gh. eotigh, enough, 
hough, /at^gh, rough, loagh, trough. The puxtJinjt coml>ina- 
tion cugh is due to tlie merging into one »r three distinct 
forms, viz. -tigh (descending liom A. S. -uh), -cgh (A. S. -4h), 
-ocgh (A. S. -6h), whilst at the same time the loss of the gh 
has affected tlie quality of tlie preceding vowel, by tlK^ prin* 
ciple of compensation. Regularly, wc should have had 
Ihmgh, A. S. "/rwA (fof/WA), but it has been lengthened to 
Ihrmgh, as If from A- S. */>mh : or else llmrgh. A, S, kurh, 
but it hcu been alterctl to lAor{oii)gA. Again, we should hiive 
had (ti^h, A. S. lidh ; the spelling diugi is simply ab$urd and 
aDJusiiliable ; and the Riinc remark applies to the mod. E. 
though, ymi for M. M. ihogh, A.S.^edh. Again, tlie A.S. Uh.fiUh, 
itih. should have become boi--sfi, ph«gh, tloogh. but ihe 00 has 
been further changed lo oa, so that lbe« spellings are regular '. 
The A.S. d in r6h, Le. roi^h, answers lo M.E. on (long m), 

' That Ik, tlicy hi*v come ■bout rc^larly ; bat, ai Ihc ^ h dow Imi, 
ifceir have reillj 0«M to be ton, flon, ilm, praeounced u romic Aiw, 
//««. ilan. 


£JtfGL/Sff CONSOyAiVTS, [Ca*r. XrUI.,i 

Inii tlie u has bctn shortened, though the cpclliDg has bern 
retained. Kiich woni miut, In fact, be inwsiigaied scporatdf. 
yi(. HiicoHgh U a spelling due to popular et)-molo^ ; It »lioukl 
rather be kukufi. as pronounced. Cifiugh is an error for cloi^, 
or raihei cIm/; fiom Iccl. ifAS/f. For migh, ttvtgi. sec $ 338. 

S 334. TiDdl ht. The A. S. A/ fin%l answers 10 Arym 
jb ; cf. A. S. ri^ with Lai. ri'<'/«f. It is now writlcn gAt, and 
Is common; as in ItgAf, might, n^bt, A.S. Uoht (Merciaa 
tihtf, aaif, niht. In the combination -ougA/ there is (he sanoe 
conTuHon as that noticetl above ($ 333)- I'hus A. S. Mk 
should have become 30^6/, but the vowel-sound has been 
ultered, atul the .lymbol oif is a very bad representative of the 
modern jiouiid. On ihc other band, in the«il, the ■ 
is short ; which should have given K. Ihtgbt. Two sound* 
have been merged in one, and tlie symbo! which represents 
both is not correct for cither of ibcm. Wc may abo note 
that delight, tprigbl/y, arc ntiswriticn for dfUti, tfriUfy ; both 
words being of French origin. 

§ 336. Loss of h. In sotne caic4, h disappear* from )dg^ 
altogether; whether finally, as in_/^r, A. S./mA, Ita, A.S.iUtA, 
rot, A.S. r&h; medially, as in trout, A.S. (ruht. borrowed 
from Lat. trmta, and w(, short for jwught, A.S. nOhl; or 
initially, as Jn it, A. S. Hit, and in the combinations hi, hi, hr 
(sec $ 33a)- In some cases, the h has already disappeared 
e^-en in K. S. ; both finally, as in shoe, A. S. iteA, Goth. tMt-t ; 
and medially, as \a tar (of com), A. S. /ar, Nonhurobrian 
rlur (Matt. xii. 1), Goth, o^; ttf, A-H-t/cm, Goth. jaituHiM ; 
slay, A. &. tUm. Goth. tJahat ; kar, sb., A. S. Uar, GoOl 
tagr {for 'la&r) ; iVetth, A. S. vx/ise (fw HvfJhiw), a deriva- 
tive from wealh, a foreijjiier. 

{ 336. Hw > wh. .\. $. hw is now Vrriuen wh ; as in 
AwJ, jticr/, li. w*j. KiArt/, Ac, There ar« cases in which wh 
is miswriticn for ic ; as in £. vshit, put for u-iht. A. S. t«i/, 
and a doublet oi wight, so tint iIk A »» in ilic wrong place; 
kJkH, a mollusc, vhidi th« lower orders correctly call tuU, 



~ -^ 




! 337-1 mSTORV OP G. 363 

from A. S. vifoe ; wAorllebtrry. belter mrlld<rTy, rrom A, S, 
wyrtil in ihc compound plant-nanic bisepp-wyrlil. 

$ 337- History of O. Initial %. 'Die various fortunes 
ot the A. S, g nuy Iw tnralc<l more briefly. Numerous ex- 
amples can be added from my Diciionary, and tlie (racing; of 
consonantal changes solciom causes much trouble, when 
OBce we know ihe regular change* to which iJicy arc liable. 

The A. S. g often remains, initially, as a hard g, cwn be- 
fope the vowels fand iKy\ as in A. %.gtar-wt, {.pJ., whence E. 
gtar; A. tOK*^; A.S., (oii)gt'nnaii, 
gyrJan, gi/an, V.-gi./Jy, gift. gild. {lt)gm, gird, gift. Thi« 
hard g is wmctimcs absurdly written gh, as in ghtully, ghost, 
\,gdif; orelse^.as in gtuji, guild, giilt, K.S. 
gati, gild, gylt. 

SB > 7- A. S.f <v (initial) has two distinct values ; sotne- 
llmes it representa Uie Goth.y (=j'), I>ui in otlur «-ords the t 
la* crept in, much as in the case of ihc prov. K. gyardrn for 
gardtn, cited above. In both eases it becomes Y~y. Exx. : 
(i) Goth.>f, A.S. f^E.jY; Goih.>, A. S. ^<b, E. ^va ; 
K.%.gtii,Y..yt3^; Goth. Jer. A.?>. g/ar, r..year\ h.S. git 
(G. J'ts-f), K. ytl ; Goih. joins, A. S. gtt^, E. ytm ; Goih. 
7*«ff' (=V*'V*)- A.S.jf^m^f, 'E.young. Also (2) A.S.gtard 
{Icetgarfr), E.yard, an encloited xpace ; and in like manner 
V..j'are,yam,ytll,yflt<Kti, Fult, from A.?>.gfar{i,g/iint,gtllait, 
greU, gM. Gi has the same feic, as in Y..yard {ioS).yMm 
(to long i<a\yfasl,yeip,ytt(ndaytytl,ytx,jitf{d,fTom A-S. 
gitrJ, gitrnan or gyman, giil, gilfioN, giutra, gi/ or gf/, 
giafian. gitliUtn 01 gyfdnu. ¥.. yaum, represents a fusion 
of two A. S. forms, gtSnian and ginian. In Middle Engltdi, 
ihis^ { = A. S. gt, gi, gy) is very often written j. Tlic 
oonunon prefix gt- has almost entirely disapjx^arcd ; m 
can trace it in ilic aTck2icj-av'i,yr/ifl,jtiU, A-S-gtzcit, gf 

' ExpUiiwcl l>7 n» &uia A, S- g^ ty. yaa, Iti it be (m>). BM II may ba 
, (aigh Ifiigi)t7ri, i.e. yea, mj utnej^etUd by Klnge. 

-j64 BNGUSfi COAfSOA'A.VrS. 

f/fc^i,, and in the middle ^Hable of Aatui-jr-tt»rA, 
A. S, hand-gt-weore, and hand-i-traft. SiDtitaii}', It is best to 
explain jfini from A. S.ff-Zu'm^iM, with loss k& e\ ntx alw 
my explanation cX yiarn (a), to gric^-e. It appears u /• in 
t-nough, from A. S, ; t^nrfA ; and as g- in g-naw, A. S, ^wtpm 
(for ^gcnagai). The initial jtr has disappeared in f/^ rrom 
A. &fi/'; liSrA, A. S-^/j-ftfw; -/ir/r-, A.&. gurJ, in tlie 
pound if-/irfr, A. S. fs-gkel. 

§ 338. Final and medial g. The A. S. ^ is sdi 
preserved ni<:dialty or linally. If changed, Uic foratulte an: 
g >gk (silent); g>y (vocal) or j'; ^ > w (vocal) or 9mi\ 
e '>J (*') : a >/; ^' '^ disappears. Exx. : A. S. fKlg. K. 
Au(p, wliere thi.- prewcrvalion of ^ t« protKilily due to itx 
yliortening of ttic long von-c!. \.^h>uig-an,T.,iK^h; A.&. 
OHg-tBt, K. uy{gh. A. S. afay, E. aS»y ; A. S. gr^. E. ^^r ; 
'l.fsl A.S. cay^, E. Ay, &c. The A.S. sufllx -^ = E. ^r, as in 
hdl-ig,'h^-y, 8k. a. S. fglaH. E. fltf ; A. S. U^<n, E. Uin ; 
so also in E ^rain, fain, fair, hail, s., /air, maidtn, main (lc. 
strength), Mullrin, nail, rail (a nigbl-drcss), rain, xar/, fiMn/, 
j/(j;r, tliU, tail, thant (for 'ili^it), tvoain. uphraid, wain. A. S. 
j^-<7ii, v„ to Assv. A^-n, s., a 6mo ; K.^.fugoJ.K.f<iiDi', A.S. 
nt^d, E. n<nr; A.S. tfg'iin. E.mcv; A.S. si^u, E. Miir(pig): 
so also in dm/n, draw, maw (lieapor4;orn), mm, tatv. ihar. 
h.S.galga, F..galJcm{t); A. S, morgm, yi.M.. monntn. sfaorl- 
cncd to rnvTcv, E. nor^ou;; so also in iorreu). haiitw, noaJ' 
laa>, V. A. S. dwtrg, E. dwarf. Tlie nie<tial g has i]uiic tB»- 
appeared to A.S. ittwtard (for "tUg-weard), E. itnearif. In 
Muw, A-S. Mf^<w, and A/r, A.S, i^n/ (borrowed from Lai. 
ttgtda\ the loss of the^ has lengthened the i, by compensn- 
tion. We have cun'ous changes in htnekmaH for 'An^jlmait, 
A. S. AfngaZ-matm, horseman, groom ; and in orekard for 

' In A.S.^>; Wte g- (fna ft'i b a pnlix; iut n m Guth. ,;itM ■( i 
AoR iat}a-iiai. <X lutt. <^, U. 

> Foi th« fowil-Mimd, <1 A. a Ate, E. iMC TV i U alltclnl by ll> 
follaviiig tr. 






. S. orl-gtari, \. ft. n-on-jnird (cf. our modem prununcintion 
f tor tun). 

IV Ttie A. S. >y is usually preserved, bui passes Into fif 
i[writien ngt) in posiiioiu similar to Uirae In which j( is pala- 
talised. Tlius A. S. tengan, M. 1^. tengai, \» now tiV^r; cf, 
erinfi, neingf. twinge, d'lig-j; ittng-y. I1ie A. S. m- or 

faks become n in //dcjVm or Itngltn, spring ; mod, E, latL 

\ 830- Double g. Double g i» writlen r^ in A. S., jjf 
(or j!^/) in M. K,, and i^r in mod. E. in nearly nil cases, the 
aouad having changed from g to/ A. S, bry(g. M. E. brigg*. 
'S.-irUgfi A.S. ny, M.E. egg*, E. tdg<; A.S, A«y, M. E. 
A^r, E. kedgt^; A.S. mr^^f, properly *myegt {cf. 'culix, 
n^g' in the Corpus Glossary of the eighth centur}*, I. 617), 
'^. midge \ A.S. Ary<f, E. ridge, A. S. xA-jp, E, sedge; A,S. 
slugt, E. tltdge-haiamer ; A. S. wfiy, E. uvdge. The break- 
ing down of ihcj^ into the sound of y is really due to the 
lireiiiueni Dse of the oblique cases oT the substantives, in 
whicli a final t follon-ed ihe eg ; as in A, S. iryrg-e, gen., dat., 
,nd act. of to'^S' whence the M. E. noto. took the form 

^g-t bmead of brigg or brig. The Northern dialect early 
Tcjccied the final inHoi-tional -e, which prevented this change ; 
^Aence the Noilliumlirian fonn.t brig, bridge, r/^, ridge (back), 

', sedge. This enables us to explain mug-uvrt. L e. midge- 

ort, from the early A. S, myeg (without a follo*-ing vo»~cI); 
A. S.jf becomes botli 1 and u in later English. For the 
cf, fiea-b(mt. In some cases, A. S. eg = Y..y, i-c. is 
; as in liegan. 10 Ay ; liegan, to lie ; fyrgan, to bwy. 
When the double g is preserved in modern English, we may 
be sure that the word is of Scand. origin. Thus [lie veib to 
egg em b from IccL tggja. 10 instigate ; the A. .S. tgg'an could 
only give edge, and indeed we find the form to edge on also*. 
Hence alio the derivation of ^g from A. S. d;f, an egg (as in 

I in Aaj'tpan/; ami ii',(, i- ktdp, 
* Sec Edge in Kicbtnlwa. 




my DictioiuuT)'), cannot be rigbt ; tbc A. S. <^ became (ngo- 
lart}') M.Kff.snd is obsolete, whiUi ihc plural agru becatae 
M. E. eyre-n (with added -n Tor -rjt), and k nito olwolcle. E. 
tgg is cerlaiiily of Scand. orijipn, from Iccl. rgg (Swed. Off, 
l>Ai\. etg) ; OS further rxpUined in ChajK XXIU. ^B 

§ 340. History Of T. 7* is rarely ^-oiccd, to as to be-^ 
come ■/. In native words we haw only \£/, K. fraud; 
A. S. ^^;^ K /iriifr ; A. S. c/He (Icel. W/r>, E. t/o/ and W^ 
Tbc change of / (o /if, as in nvnf/ (A. S. aotar/), wbenoe 
swarlhy, is hard to explain; equally difficult is lath for M.E.' 
la/tt. A. S. iaJtu. Finul / hxs disappeared in A.S. aitfiUt, 
M. £. anv/ll, E. tuvcr/. It is also \oit liefore tl in A. S. 
E. btsi ; M. E. lalst, E, /a//, superlative of A. S. Ut, E. 
It has also dist|i|ieaied in ado, put for at-do. It is 
written imte in the uonU tig^h, tighttrm, ttghfy; put 
*eigMb, 'e^htlcen, 'e^htiy. In some difficult positions it 
not sounded ; as in toalsuxtin (romic bou'san), catlU, d 
mas, miftltlet, mrctllt. In the word Moisom, A. S. biiitma, it 
has eT«D disappeared from the vriit«n (bm ; so abo in 
gorte, from A. S. ^dTj/. In the word tawdry, iltc ; is all ihit 
remains of the won) laial, the word being a cnnlraction for 
Saint Awdry. i-c. S^nt J!PtlJ>rfi (lit. 'nobtc 8trei^(th 
The curious word sHekltr. lit. 'controller,' answers 10 an' 
older tligktta-, from M. E, iligklSai, frequenlaii^^ of A- S. 
!lihli»>i, ttihiian, 10 coniiol ; here we Itat-c a change Irotn 1 
' to it, by a substitution due to misapprehension. Popuhi 
elymoloj^)- conuected it with the sb. siitk. 

{ 341. Exoro«c«at t. There ore numerom cases 
which an (xtrti-tnt letM" is developed, owing to a fuUoess 
stress upon a ^liable, after the letters m, n, oTi. On diis 
subject Ok render may consult an in^nious paper by Prof 
March, ' On Ditsiinilaied Gcmiiuuion,' which appeared in tbe 
Transactions of the American Philolostcal Association for 
187J. He reniaiks that ' the first / in haffy reptestnU 
do^g of tltc lii)« ill hap; tbc second / t<.-]>tc7cnti iJie o] 




msTvxY OF to: 

Ing of ihc lips in -fy.' Again, 'the labial nasal m is 
douUed ; but Uic lomc noovcinicnt of the organs wliich m j 
m wilh the dogc open, nil! make ^ if it be closed ; hence wc 
find b appearing in the place of a eccond m. The most com- 
mon case it before r, or /. ... X. S. siumaian has in Ger- 
man simj^- gcminMion sikI appears ax sihlummern ; in E. 
Ibe lips clo»c in sium-. but the anticipaijon of the comlnK r 
leoidi to stopping; the as they part, and what wouiil 
have been -mtr tum» out -i<r ; and so we have slumber by 
distimibtcd gemination.' Al any rate, the effect is certainly 
due to sUess; mi ts more forcible than mm, and \% «iibsti- 
tuicd for it accordingly. Prccixety parallel is the change of 
iM lo w/; as in A.S.jSMWr. which became '(homtr and so 
Ikimder. Similar are mp and nt. At the end of a word we 
find a sultftituiioii of si for ss, or at any rale an excrescent / 
i« heard alter /. Prof. March thinks that iliis tendency was 
helped forward by the fact liiat ti h a familiar F.. ending; it 
occurs, e.g. in i)ie snd person nngular of the verb, as in 
kmtl, Imxdsl. and in supcilativce. Clear examples of the 
excrescent / after s or x are seen in E. agains'l, amids-l. 
ammgs-l, f^het't, behcix-l, kes-l. mi^s-l, wh'Is-t; from M. V^ 
agtiH-<i (.\. S. tng/asi), M. K. amtW-^t, among-ti, A.S. bt- 
kdt, M.E. hthvix. A- S. h<fs, M. E, mi4d-a, whil-ts. T Is 
excFCMCeni in tlic dinriioll Kb. Mr»ts-I {Si.V,. rrius), » plct^- 
Ezcrescent / after n occurs only in attm-t. A. S. atu/n. anrmn ; 
and in words of F. origin. (We may also note E. kvt-/, from 
A.S. wifr-<, due 10 association with icat^; but tliis form is 
not, like the rest, of purely phonetic origin.) 

§ 342. Hifltory of TH. The E. ih has two sounds, 
voioclcM and ^-oiced {tA, dA). I shall here denote the former 
^bj ^, and ihc latter by 5 in A. S. words. In tljc ca*ea where 
tk has been replaced by rf, wc may assume that it wa* voiced 
(d*, tf) ; I>ut where it has l>een replaced by 1, it was raiccless 
(Ji). The A. S. gt'/ord'ian, /ord-ian, to further, ptODWte, 
provide, became M. E. (u)[/t>rAw, and is now afforJ. A. S. 


iyrSen, a load, became burdfn, turlkm {^ttirdifm), and il 
now iurJrtt ; the change being assisted by association ^tfa 
burden, the r«rrain of a song (F. diutrtftm). A. S. e^e became 
M. K. fou3<, coud<t later coad, now spell eaidd, \>y needteu i^i^^h 
scrtion or /, to conform it, to the ejc, «-iih thottld and tranm^B 
A. S./Jr/r. M. E-^/fefr {=fidh<U), is now fiddU (for 'fidk). 
A.S. storior, M. K. merSr^, merdri, became boib mwthiT 
and murder, of which only the latter is now conunonly 
used, A.S. r63ir, M,E. ro/A^r, »■**»•, is now rudAr. Simt- 
briy, uc find that tlie M.E. spiJhtr is now jpiJtr. As to 
the voicclcM ^, we find it ciianged ut / In A. S. Uhfia, 
M. E. Ai^/f, also ki^t, later highth (Milton), now hngkl; 
A. S. nSspyrl, M. E. mist/>irl, now nostril ; A. S. genhp, lalcf 
^ttiht, tiki, now j^A/; A. S. ttafuyrfi, M. K. Uabtvrlh, now 
ilaht'arl ; A. S. PUfl>t, E. /A^/'. It is also explained below 
(§ 3<3). *^' '* can change into J, by Vemcr's Law, in the 
conjugation of wrbs, so that a verb whooe primary Men 
ends ill th can have other stems ending in d. I'his accoonti 
for the derivation of ludi from the ^'Vtb to seethe (pp. $«ddeii), 
and of lead, v.. and /txiV from A. S. AJ-irn, to travel. TIk 
voiced £i ((/4) in tathe, breathe, loathe, sheathe, soothf, nretUie, 
is derived, by voicing, from the voiceless Ih in iati, breath, 
loath, sheath, sooth, wreath. The reason why the M in these 
verbs is voiced is very simple, viz. because, in tlie M. E. fonu; 
it came between fw> vototis, whereas in the substantives dw 
th was final. Cf. M. E. bre3en, to breatlic, wjib M. E. fc^ 
bnath. Astimiiatiim 0[ Ih lo s takes place in bliss, put Cat 
A.S. bUJir. older form bUS-s, happiness. dcri\y^ from ASK-, 
blithe, happy: and in lissam, put for filh-somt, I e. iaht-um> 
ZiOM of tlL Fmally, Ih is hut in difficult coin bi nations, as 
in worshifi for worthshifi ; wrist for 'writhil, from vrff-iim, to 

■ KoA add* E. dttt, Irom A.S.^an. to ibstck Bol tU« b ^Mc 
wrong, (■) beciiu* Jitt u • Utc inponaiiun fmm Dutch, sod ' 
btonse tbe radnlcM li (» con only chinirt iitio / lii Eoi-litb. E^wd^ 
•bnud i> hi* derivatioo a4 A. S. Avrf, a dwarf, from /vwnl, p 

msrofiy of d. 


twist; f^cr/otk, Norman, Norvxiy, NorOKci, all detii-alivc* 
from JVortA ; and in fiolAa, commonly pronounced as the 
* rornk ' clouz, on account of the dlBicult combiualion Si. 
So also A.S.Jna'/tl U P.. wiiltlf; and Ihtoatk ii commonljr 
whaek, often pronounced as 'romk' wxk. 

§ 3*3. Hlsbny of D. Wc learn, from Vcrncr's 1-aw, that 

I in man)- cases a th is changed inio d. The hex that the A. S. 

I pi. t of tvter3an, lo become, was weard in tlie ist and ^id 

I persons singular, wurd-t in the and person, and wwd-m in 

llie plura), caused confusion between d and the voiced Ih tn 

H.E. Again, an A. S. d often answers to IccI- 9- Hence it 

is not suipristDg 10 find that the A.S. kidtr,ptdtT, hvuidtr, 

/ceder, m6doT (Icel. Mira, ^Sra . . .fdSir, mSSir) arc now 

kilhtr, Ihilhtr, tehithtr./alhtr, molHer '. So also A. S, wcder 

(led. p^r), is E. wttHhtr : M.E. ttddfr is now Utter (cf. IctL 

tjdSr) ; A. S, gadrian is now galhtr ; A. S, id-gsdre is now 

t legtihtr. E. tward, as in grtauward, A. S. swtard, also 

^■ftppears provincially as nvarlh, Icel. sv&rSr. K. jvi/, from 

^■A.S.^(ur(/, also appears ^zgarlh, from Ice). ^ dn'r. 

^P i? tiecooies y in E. n^i?/, from A. S. aditfd; but here the 

inHuence of the Lat. aoc form abial-<m is obvious. A. S. 

tudele is now eullle-fish (cf. G. iuUtlfiseh); but the ongin of 

the word is obscure. A.S. ttJd. M.E. Itld, UU, is now //// 

(of a cart) 1 to alsn the Icel. Ijald is accompanied by Dan. 

»tell, Swcd. alt. The final -ft/ of the pp. is often pronounced 
aB/((3t8); hence we liaiv xt»nl for wm-ed, A.S.amH-^. 
pp. oiuitnian, lo accuslom ; whence even teimt-rd {=won-td- 
td), wiih reduplicated suffix. Note also such forms as buiil, 
girl, sent, kep-l, Uf-l, Mes-I; and ilie entire disappearance of 
■id after / and ^. as in aghatt, led. Final -d staixts for -ed En 

Ibal-d. M. E, ball-td. 
§ 344. IriisK ord. /> disappears in a few words; as in 

■ But father and nelktr mnf h.iv« lircn due In aMOcUtioa with 
irvtier: fbi iLef an (till pranouiiccd with ■/ io W«sl Cumbtiland, 
wkcce the None JadocnM U Tciy tlroog. 


■ b 



aitswtr,g«sptK weodAmt, A. S. aMdrwtrian, g«dtp<l, u-uduiind; 
wanim, fonnerly wamand ; tint, a piODg of a fork. A. S, 
litid; lint (iree), A.S. />W(se« p. 3?i); also in uphtJsltnr, 
fonncrly uphotdilrr ; and in bandtg, fonncrlj- icmd-tl^. 

Kxcrescentd (cf. § 341). Excrescent ^appears tSiti m 
ai the close of an accented syllaUe, as in ^im-^in the acute 
of ' prepared to go,' M. E. &wi», Iccl. 6£rtiii, prepared, pp. 0* 
6&1; <ht'in-d-ie. frequentative o{ K.&. daintin, 10 dwindle; 
gan-d-tr, A. S.gandra, earlier form ganra; hind, a peasant, 
M.E. hint, from A.S. /itna, really ibc gen. pL of Mwa, a 
domcKlic ; kin-d-rid, M. E. kinrtdt, A. S.*fjn»-rAdfn ; ltn-4, 
M. E Itn-tn, A. S. fdn-an ; rcun-d, to whisper, A. S. r^jv-ton; 
tpin-d-it. M.E. J/fW. A.S. //««/; Ihrnt-d-ir, A. S. Jntn-^i 
and perhaps stoua-d-rtl. In /im-d, ilic siifiix is that of the 
pp. (Conversely, in some words, llie corobanatioii nJ is 
pronounced a» a ; aw in grotaiditf, handsmnt, handkertki^, 
I.astly, dn is pronounced as n in Wtdntidi^^ 

Excrescent ^ also appears after /in al-d-er (tree), A.S.afr; 
d-d-tr (tree), A.S. tlUr-n; and in sucli form* as aidtrfir^ 
i.«. first of aJI, uhcrc a/-d-tr is for M.E. alltr, A.S. eai-ra, 
gen. pi. of tal. Iron-mevld was formerly yton-msle, as b 
Lyly's Euphtu^ p. 39 ; the -rf may !« chw to -t^, as if for 
mol-td, i.e. sisincd. from mp//. A.S. mJ/. a spot. Nim- 
fangU-d was formerly ntwt-/ang-tl, i.e. prompt to caich at 
new things, as in Chaucer, C.T. 10933. 

AsiimilolioK of rf to j appears in bitat. A. S. bUdittm, orig- 
to consecrate by blood ; from hlSd, blood, vjtfa tbe ordinal; 
mutation from 6X0/. Also tii gosiip, M. E. gedtih. 

§ 346. History of IF. The most remarkable facts abool 
Ae letter n arc ihc frcqueiri loss of it in all positions, aiuf the 
occasional insertion of it at the be^nning or end of a word; 
as shewn bctow. If h cbai^S, li dianges 10 m ; very tairly 
to / or r. 

It chai^ies lo m before/ or ^; as in A. S. iunrp, E, ha^\ 
A< S. nin-dtrigt, £. uanirrry, wimbtrry. A. S. hwin-^tn, k9 




I whine, has fonned a frcqncnlaiiTC whimmtr. noted by Jamie* 
BOD as a v-ord in use in Roxburghshire, mod. E. whivtptr 
(wiili excresceni ^). At the end of words we find die same 

I change ; thus A. S. hotegn, hoUn, M. E. holin, became, by low 
of n, helly ; hue xlso, by contraciion. hoim ; so thai hotm-eak 
means ' holly-oak." A. S. iinti. a lime-tree, became lint 
(TcmpeM, V. lo), by vowct-lcngihening ({ 378)and Hibgcquent 
loss of J, and is now hmt. M. E. bren-sloon, burning stone, is 
now brmstom. A. S, snate, a boat, is the same word as Du, 
stnak, whence we Iiave borrowed E. intact. N U now 7 in 
aHtui, formerly ^iJKMm (Welsh gwiantn). In one word, n has 

r become r ; A. S, pituwinth, a small mollusc, is the prov. E. 
ptmwmkle, E. prrimitilile, by confluence witli the name of * 

I flower. 
§ 346. LoeB of n. A'^is lost in A. S. before s and M; as 
in A. S. eiSe, g6t, liSt. mC3, i3fr. tSU. imc£3. Ai. £. cfiu{f)d, 
goott, lilht, mouA, Mer, tooth, untaulh, ui ; cf. Goih, kunlha, 
G. gam, G. Imd. Goth, mtmlhs. anihar, Umthts, iunlht 
(known), urn or lauit. So also A. S. l/o3a. M. E. Itihe, lilht. 
■ E. AM/, t* for 'Um^a, Le. ttnlh. N is lost, fin.illy. in A.S. 
drffin, alio A-as, E. <fro« ; A. S. rfw, E. eff : A, S. «/fqf a (for 
'tbtiega sslcxL aln&egi), E. tlhaw; A.S. <>^, E. <^vfl. I.e. 
evening, also <w ; A. S. gamtn. hcUgn. myln (borrowed from 

ILat. moiina), misltUin, snUen (only found in Ihc compounds 
d-sfiba, ht-toUtn ), E. game, holly, mill, mitlUhe, sttlfy. N is 
also lost, medially, in tpidtr, M, E, fpHhtr, put for 'tpin-lktr, 
i, e. spinner ; ThirsJay, A. S. ^wiret-dirg, ihe day of Thun- 
der ; A. S, ansiurgl. E, agnail. Similarly /mrlttn-nig^ has 
hecotae/orhnighl, and finally yorM/^A/: O. Mercian «w^^, 
A. S. *ii{d'^ii/<m (wiih excrescent d, cf. Goth, ainli/), M.E. 
tnltien. is no«- r/tm. But (lie most frequent loss of » is In 
tn6exion», where it hox loUilty divappeared in the majority of 
catKH. I'hus the infinitive of all A.S. verbs ended in -an, 
becoming M. E. -en, ■<, mod. E. mute t or Iosl Similarly 
' A. S. be/eran b now btfore; so also in the case of btntalh 


jeni/ir, vnjlhin, a&otU, mliout ; and in Afmday, St" Joy, ytittr- 
day, A. S. in6nan-d<eg, tumtan-ditg, gi'ilran-dag. IiiiUally. it 
is lost in adder, auger, A. S. nadre, na/e-gdr (lit luic-boref). 
Also in aught, when popululy used for nought, as in the 
pbnse 'carry aughi' in ariihinclic. This peculiarity u due 
to a confusion in ihc use of tlie dclliute article, so tlul a» 
addtr, an auger, were wrongly used instead of a naddtr, a 
natter. It must b? remembered that an was formerly used , 
before consonanU as well as vowels^; hence u-e can accouDC 
for F.. dratt by supposing that Ihc Scand. form anSrakt ' 
(Swcd. anddrakt, O. Icel. andntt) was misuiMlcrstood as am 
drake, thus causing the loss oXan. 

§347. IntnuiTe n. Owing to the tmccriainty above 
mcniioncd, the oppueilc mistake arose of prrluciDj « to 
woida which began with a vowel. Thus A. S. eftk became 
odI, and an ewi was misapprehended as a newl', whence Y- 
naet. Similaiiy an awl was sometimes tltought to stand fbt 
a now/; hence the not unfrequcnt use of natel or nafl in the 
sense of ' awL' Such foims as nasi for ait, neiy for a'; (an 
egg), Ac., arc occasionally found. Xuncle, naunl. probably 
arose from mint umie, mint aunt, misapprehended as my 
nunelt, my naunl. An intrusion of n also occurs by putting 
itg (org, as nighlingaU for 'ni'Aiiga/e, M. E. nighlegalt. Al ihe 
end of words wc find an excrescent » after r; as in M. E. 
iilour, E. htltr^n, M. E. marler, later marler-n, now mtarltn, 
both words of French origin. Hence wc can undersiaod 
E. itubbor-n, M, K. stilior, which may also have arisen from 
misapprehending M. E. sli&or-netie as 'itib^m-ntsit. 

Atiimilatian of nd to nn is seen in E. tmnnva, M. E. sm^ 
ewen. A, S. tviiffwian, to expose lo wind. 

{ 348. History of P. ^ is changed to its voiced cqniva- 1 

' Layxmon'i Bnil b«£uu with the wmAtAnfrettt, wiilten a fml in 
IhaKCoad uid lilcr MS. la I. ttj oftheOrtadlom. wefaid ttHdiMtag 
mri/, a doechty wife. Still latrr, wg find m Hmi fiaJt, a Utile whtk, 
Sli Cawaja, L jo (aboat a.U. 13160 or lilci). 




lent, vii. ^ in a few cases. A.S. l^pairt is now lebsUr; 
h.S.papolanoii ftihU; dribbit iiibe riequemative at drip; 
waiiie, to reel, orig. lo flutter, ix (he rmjucniativc otw^/>,lo 
Strike, lo fludcr; the M. £. atlarefift or «p. a spider, has 
given us fep-wfi, now tgiwtb ; and i)tafi has become twi. 

P has bccomcy] and afterwards v in A. S. tnapa, later fonn 
cnafa, E. kno)^. 

Excroecent p oocuts after m in tmpty, A.S. atatig; 
giimpte, M.%.gliiHsni\ znd sfm/iiier {or sfams/fr\ 

§ 349. Hiatory of P. The Anglo-Saxon (Southern) / 
bad the sound of i', even initially (as in modem Souihcra 
dialects), and in all pooilioos except in such words as ^, 
er/irr. The Mcrcianymusl have liccn the same as the mod. 
£. initially, and also kept that sound in some words, both 
nodiall)' and finally, vii. in words such as deq/^, tea/, ttaff, 
diff, offer, where the / is sometimes doubled. This sys- 
tem of denoting the voiceless sound by doubling the letter 
is found En A. S., in the word offrian, to offer, borrowed 
from \.a\, offerrt ; the true A. S. doublcy(or rather double 
p) changing into M, as in habian. to have, in&n., as com- 
pared with h^ hafd {= havd), he has. But a single / 
between two von-els was <Ioubilcss sounded as v, even in 
Mercian, and in modem English is always so written ; it was 
early written « by the Anglo-French scribes. The form off, 
being emphatic, is still pronounced with f, but (he unem- 
phatlc ^ b pronouncc<l of, c\«n in the compounds htrtof, 
Ihtrtof, vshtrtof. In some M. E. MSS. we even find such 
words as from needlesKly spell ffrom, as e.g. iu the MS. of 
Itkhard the Rcdcless ; but I think we never tnd ff for the 
sound ofi)'. This diMtnction is perfectly observed in mod. 
Welsh, wlierc^=/, 3nd/=w. We have only four words in 
whicbyhas become p initially; these arc raiK, val, vineiotd. 

' We may odd wAimftr. the eqninlaii of Lowland SccAch ttAimaur, 

bcqaenlailic from ■ buc is^iiH, witb Ibe ume wnsc as wJi'tu (} J^j). 

* The capital f it aliu wrilicii ff, u uld aboTe. 



and jsixtt, A. S./aita./at, fin<ge, */yxen (fem. of/«*)'., Lift 
represents a nom. came fi/; l>ul ihc M.E. pi. wa» A««, E, A'sws. 
Ca^ gives both the pi. ealz^i, and the dcrivitiw verb ta 
eahx. BtUff ^ivcs the derivative verii 6elia>e. Cues in 
which the medial/' has become v arc. of course, cxtFcmel/ 
common ; in fact, they run ihroagh the wlwle lansuagc 
Exninples are seen in tlie plurals leoBti. liptt, loapts, lUeva. 
Ac ; in the v-erhit behave, bthoet, (ohft, (orvt, eUav*. erase, 
gravt, halve, h<xve, ktait, live, tese, ftc. M. E. hmitn (with 
prefix be-'), bthouen, eaiuen. &c. ; also in eove, five, gif»*, At, 
A. S. (S/a,/!/, gIS/, Sec. ; and in anja'i, r/aper. ever, evU, harvctl, 
haven, hvtf, liver, navel, raven, ftc. The / ts preserved in 
fifth, fi/ly. luitlflk, and ilie like, by ilie voiceletsM or /. F 
is miswriiten gh in eleugh (} 333). 

F has rccnarkably disappeared in the rollowing cases: 
A.S. ha-ftl, ha/3, htt/de,V.,haii. half, (aJso A«). had; A.S. 
ht'aftd, k.¥..heued,hetd.V..beatl\ A.S.»urJ. 
E. hrd; A. S. hUftt^, £. tady\ A. S. eftte became M. E. 
<»>/, our nnu/. Both / and /are ignored in the mod. E. 

Aisimilalien has taken place, ot /m U> mm, in lemon or 
lemman, A. S. l/oftman, L e. ' dear one ' ; Lammas, A. S. 
kU/nKTsse, \. e. loaf-maxt ; and in aMMnM. The last remailt- 
able fortn arose thtis: the A. S. tinman, pi. at/men, became 
Early E. wintnan, pi. mmmeti. The pL form is xUU sirioljr 
pmcn-cd in our |>ron uncial ion. though perEisiently 
women; the singular has been changed frotn m'man to 
tDoman by the influence of the ■», whicfa tends to turn ■ inio 
«, and o into u ; cf. Gotli. tmman with the modem ETivnK 


' Though A-S.fyitn doe* not oo:nr, wc find AS. tan./jxe, wbkfc 
onl; diflfm in Ibe mllix: tee Index to Swot'* Olden Ij^. TctB 
fixiem ocean m • uwname. fal wai ir-iinj>oricil tioin Dulcb. 

* J/oiot i> cAcn iddcd : bat it i> more ViktXy that lUmf irpraxctt 
I«eU Aontr than the A. S. ila/b(. Isdoed, ibe Utter ro««i «ppe«n to be 
ths orifuul of haVM. 




Vcrjr amitu is the cbangc fromyn lo mn, later at, u in A. & 
tkt/n. sU/t. lalcr slttnn, whence mcxi. E. titm (of a tree). 

4 3S0. niatory of B. B \i ^omelimes changed to voicC' 
less^ as in gM-sif, M.E,.gosai or goihii, i.e. 'rclaitd in 
God,' said of a sponsor in baptism. So al»> tmttmpt=fin- 
itmM. L«. uncombed; ftoai A.S. eam^, a comb, with 
mutation of a lo t; fcn p. aoj. 

Sxoroeoent b is common after m. as in tm-i-m, M. E. 
ttntrei. A.S. amyrian ; gam-b-U, from gam* ; bram-b-U, M. E. 
brimbil. K.'A.iritiKl; tn'm-h-U. M. £. lumW, ready to scizd 
from A. S. nmim. lo sciw, take; slum-b-tr, M.E. tlumem, 
A. S. iltimerian ; Im-b-tr, A. S. tiaihrr, but cf. Swed. timmtr, 
timber, and GotH. limrjan, to build. Similarly, mj appears 
for urn (or even n) in an accented syllabic, as in lamb, A. S. 
&jni (Du. atid Dan. lam, Swed. and G. lamm) ; so alto in 
<llmb, ttmi, erumi, dumb; to which we may add limb, A.S. 
hm, and ikmnb, A. S. ^jnd ; but this linal b is no longer 
sotindMl. Tfiim-b-ie is a derivative of Ibumb ; and trwn-i-ie 
of tnimi, from A.S, truit-a. HumbU-btt =2 hummlt-Ut; 
where hummlt is tbc frequentative of j&«w. AVn^ is from 
M.E. ffum-Mi, nomtn, .\.Sl mm-en, deprived of sensation, 
pp. of nim-an, to seixe, uke, catch ; cf. Iccl. tium-mn, bereft, 
pp. ointma, to tal^e. 

\ 3S1. Histoid of U. The letter m is lost before/ and 
/, even in A.S., in a few word*, vijt. /(/, E-fitt, Goili. jSmf 
<wbere the m is itself a substitution for Aryan N} ; fiile, E. 
oiuel, cogtuie wtl)t G. amift; i6/le, £. ti^t, cognate with G. 
*«/?, O. H. G. samfio (adverb). 

M becomes i» before /, as in A. S. amtlt, E. tmmtt, or by 
contraciion <mf. So alM> wc have Hants for Namhitskirt, 
Otherwise called HaBipshirc, where the p is cxcrcscenL Ct 
own/ (through the French) liom LaL i»n//a. 

% 362. History of Y. The original Aryan Y is repre- 

KOted in A.S. by gt only in a very few vroids, ^.yt,y*a, 

jMS,y4iir,yor*.y*t,y«kt,ymi.iy»tttg.y<mlh\ m yMi.jmir.iht g 


BNGUSn COtfSONAtfTS. [Ciur, XVin. 

nras dropped, viz. In A. S. tim, t6weT. In ocher cases j 
corrc^pon<l5 to an Aryan G, Sec 5 337. 

§ 353. History of &. In mosi Aryan languages, r baf 
a tendency 10 turn into /. Hence we can cxplaiD E. smotildtr, 
from M. H. imi>lder, a. sliQing smoke, ns being x variant of 
M. E. smorlhtr, with the mhk sense ; from A. S. snor-ian, lo 
stifle. The M. E, smorlirr is oow imetier, so thai tmotilAr 
and smotk<T arc doublets. 

Rr has become dd in A. S. ptamu, M. E. farrok, an 
enclosure, now paJdetk. In fact, the railway-station no« 
called Paddock Wood is En the old manor of Parrcrit; 
Archaologia Canliaju, xiii. 118; Hastcd's Hist, of KeM, 
8vo., V. a86. CI. porridge <p/iddigt <pellagt. 

R has disappeared from ipeak, M. E. tpe/un, A. S. sprttan ; 
also from ^t(A, M.E, spttlt*, A.S. j/<fr, earlier spr^, 

R is tnumive in hride-groom, for hridtgoom, A. S. Arf(^ 
^xima ; and probably in groom itself; also in hearu, M. E. 
A0r/,AMf, A.S.Ad>. jtfj/ti'as formerly n>j^, probably from 
A. S. twigan, to make a ru.shiitg noise of 'sougli.' As to the 
pronunciation of r, sec § 310. 

Melalhesii is not infrequent in vords contaioiDg the letter r, 
which is liable to shift its place. Thus we ttaw tird. Uam 
h.S.bridd; bum, from A.S. trrtinan; brtgbl, fioni Mercian 
berht {A. S. htorht) ; <rui, from A. S. ctfri* ; frtih, from A. S. 
ferte , /right, from A. S./yrklo \ nctlrH, for ' notlArH^ "mw- 
/4jV/, a. S. notpyri ; ihrmigh, from A. S. /vA, cf. E. Iharougk ; 
Wright, from A. S. xoyrkta ; vtifotight, A. S. KwA/< ; rtiVrf fer 
/jlrti/, from Ihrtt ; Ihirltem, thirty, for thriiUtn, tkril^, Cf. abo 
\.S. girrt or gras, tgnxi; A.S. rntim ot rtnnan, lo ran; E. 
ti/r/ or Mrr//, to pierce ; M. E. hard, a bride ; E. /rith as a 
variant of firlh, from !cel.j5<»^''- 

j SS4. HistoiT <rf L. /■ has disappeared from tath. 
which {Scoich i/i, whilk), nuh. A. S. t^f, hunk, swjrit ; also 
froin at, M. E. a/r, a/rr, aiso, A. S. eai-nvd, a doublet of oJW. 
England is for Eng{tt)-tand, A. S. Engle-iend, £nglaland,ibe 




land oT ibc Angles. L is not sound«] in e<Uf, half, eahe, 
hahtf/olk.j-oUi, talk, joaik, qualm, ftc. ; nor in would, ihMild. 
The spelling of xtwuld and ihould has brought about tbe 
tntnisivc / in touJd for toad. Assimilation of // lo U has 
taken place in Mltr, pror. E. /uZ/cr, A. S. lealtrian. 

§ 868- History of W. The A. S. suffix -wa or •«« Is 
now written -wf, as in mnvt (</rrt(r), ifxarwa, now arrow, 
tpanoo). The A. S. final w is absorbed ; so Ibnt triam is 
Irtt, tntcto is kntt, gle<Ku is ^ /i^r, ir/xit is /ru^, /cw is^'on, lUw 
is hut, &c. It b presen-cd to the eye in tive, new, yew, 
mm, Ac., but is vocalised in pronunciation. 

tF has disappeared from A. S. wis, E. coze ; A. S. rtotVAi, 
btcr i-Mi/tt, E. eud ; //ktvr, K./cair ; Mwerct, E. lari (bird) ; 
dwt'Al, ndwihl, V.. ought, natighl; idwel (Goth, tarwala), 
E. Mil/. It alM> occasionally drop& in certsin combinations, 
as tt'/, /4it:, tw, rw. Thus /f>^ is from A. S. tol/tfi, adj., stam- 
mering; lAong, from A. S. /i*wiif ; tusk, from A. S. /««;', 
also lyjc, ttmx {for */«»>c): jmtj*, from M. E. swieit, A.S. 
aoT'/r ; Iff, oZio, from A. S. ndrf, ealiwd ; and jMy/ry is for 
swtUry. Also in ensavr and sword, where it i» only present 
to the eye. SM*r is not derived from A. S. tweotfor, but fiom 
the cognate Icel, lystir (Goth, swistar). 

Iho is now written vih, reduced in pronunciation 10 s 
mcie R) in Southern English; the re b silent in lufc. A. 5. 
Aetf, but the A remains. See % 336. 

PTr is still written, but the sc is silent, viz. in wrile, 
XBTOHg, ftc- To this rule there is one exception, the wriiicn 
S* being now dropped in A. S. wrSi-aa, to root or real up, as 
• pig docs with his snout 'I"hc Promptorium Parvulornin 
baa : ' Wrelyn, as swync ; Vtrrer' Root, sb., is of Scand. 

At tbe beginning of the sixteenth century a habit arose of 
prefixing to to h, when the vowel rollowcd it, in certain 
words. Thus M. H. kool became whi^t, and M. E. Am/ 
* Thfe tpeUtag Out oecuts to tbe Eifuit Glonuy, L 487. 



bccaiDc whole or wk<^; tn which caMS the lo was alight)/ 
sounded'. The w in oAoU and wA^ hu sgain dropped 
fn pronunciation, bul U is kept to ihc cjv in ibe former 
of th(«e words; whcresu whol is now hoi. So also jio^ 
{]•'. houper) became vAeap-, we must not make the nua- 
take of confusin); this word with A. S. m^, sb.. an out 
tlie derived verb from which is w^n. oat wxefi. llii 
IV in oic^ is also unoriginal, and will be explained below ; 

4 370. p. W5. 

i 356. Hiiitory of S. Owing to tl>e frei^uent chanj 
of the sound of final s to s, the Anglo-French scribes intro- 
duced ihc use of (f xo denote a final i that had preaerved 
JU sound ; in imitation of the F. spillings ffnanet, pritt. 
Ac- Hence we find A. S. fljfs, U, IJt, mfs, mituian, dnei, 
answering to V.- fl(t(e, ut, tie*, mice, msitct, once; and the 
M. K. hcttnts, tilhffis, Ihennes, Ihritt, Iratits, Iwift, toheaiia, 
answering to E. hnre, smet, Ihemi. thrkt, triui, twue, whiatt. 
Owing to a supposed etymology from F. tenJre, we find A. 
tiitder, scoria, slag (Ice), sindr, Swcd. u'ndtr, G. smUr 
^Mlt ein&r, ta at present. The correct spelling 
occurs as early as the ei(;hih centur)' and aa kue as 
sixtci-nlli; Kec my Supplement. Owing to confbslon 
F. words, such as teinttt, we find u nuswrittcn for i in 
jtylht, A. S. jS9e. 

S becomett i nie<ltiilly and finally in a Urge number of 
words, a change which is sometimes indicated by writing 
3, and sometimes not. On tlie one hand wc have aJv, 
A. S. adett; Mden, allied to dis- in ditiaff; hiait, A& 
blate; diizy, A. S. ^sig\ drisait, fiequcniaiive of AS. 
dr/<u-an, to let fall in drops; /rtat, i\^ /roxai), AS. 
/r/osan; furze, K.S./yrt; hoMe/, A.S, hiael; notxit, frofU 
n«f€, A. S. Me«« ; eoti, sb, wet mud, A. S, tefii ; tmtu, 

' E!&tltw«ll girn prer. E. vAtau for kunt, tnd ^»Seeni (or kaar^ 
We «T(n lind pxtv. E. ottati or mtO fot Mti ; and ne >n njr wmi fti 


t 3570 



for V^wrtc, K.E./itaen, A. S. yw/oMw (whence also 
loss of/); whftte, A.S. hw/san; wixen, from A. S. (/»■)- 
ttiitnittn, to dry up. So also braxtn from foiur, f /aB< from 
^/lUf, fraac from ^(t«. On the other hand, we have 
tfri'w and me, A. S^ drUan, risan; betoin, A.S. ^ma; 
boicm, A.S. ^m; /^k, A.S. loiian, [iTufKrly 'to become 
loose'; net*, A.S. jmjw; wJiojt, A.S. hwds; ti^st, A.S. 
/^. So alao the verbs Aiwjj^. /ohi^, ntoiat, with m as s; 
from the sbs. Aaiae, loust, mouse, wiiii se ax s. Compare 
with this the voicing of ih between two vowels, as explained 
m $ 341. 

S becomes sh mgtuh. from l(x\.gtaa ; and ch in iiiKA-pm, 
pat for liat-pin, from A. S. fynis, an axle-tree- So alM 
tnod. v.. linuhmaM appeare as M. K. itmman, short for 
iti^sl-man, le. horseman, groom. Cf. 'cantcrius, ha^sl' in 
^Vrifilil's Vo(.ubulanc« ; and see /Uynetmam lii llie Promp- 
torium Parvulorum. 

§367. S>r. There are sooie very interesting instances of 
lltechangeof r lor, by Vcrner*)! Law. In all such cases i took 
f\m oi aU the intermediate sound of s. Obvious examples 
occur in art, pi. of it ; teere, pL of tvas ; twH, pp. of M. E. 
lesai, A. S. Uosan ; frore, used hy Milttm tot /roBeit. Other 
examples arc found in bare, A. S. bar. cognate wiih Lithu- 
anian htsai, bare-fooied; btrry, A. S. Serigt, Goth, haii; 
Mare (of a inimpct), from M. K. blaien, to blow londly 
(cf. Mu-f) ; dreary, A. S, dr/or-ig, orig. dripping wilh gore, 
from dr/M-OH, to drip; tar, A. S. /are, Ooili. Aiutf; 4atr, 
A. S. hiran, h^an, Goth, heaajan ; iron, A. S. frit, earlier 
lonn /wm; tore and dtMnt. A. S Ur and It^rman, from & 
TcoL base leis, appearing in Goib. laii, I have found out, 
t know; rear, r., A.S. rtirtui(=^' rcfs-iatt),ciia%^ verb from 
rLr<; vxeay, A. S. w/r-ig, front w&rian, lo tramp o^'e^ a 
moor, from a*-, a moor = wit, mire 

One very singular example of a similar change occurs In 
the mo4l. F- dart ; the A.S. form '%* dear, standing for dearr 


{=*dtarz), connate wUb Goih. dan, I daio (cf.Ck. Bap^-^^ 
The radical * reappears in llic pi. t. durs-t. 

f 368. Id several words t has disappeared from (be end, 
having been misUken for the plural suffix, and iu rcmcnvl 
has fonned n new but inconcct sin;[u!xr'. A. S. fyrgitt, 
a tomb, M. E. burult, became M. E. buritl, whence our 
^rtal. A. S. raSelst, M. E. rtdeb, a riddle, became M. E. 
redtl, whence our riddlt. A. S. pita, pi. pisan, borrowed 
from Lat. pisum, became M. £. pne, pL ptsrn or paa, LUer 
peate, pi. ptason ; then ptase was taken lo staiul for prat, 
a plural; tlie s wax cut olT, and ihe retult is F- pta. 
Similarly (he supposed pi. tkaln is really a singular, being 
borrowed from Du. uhaals, pi. uhaalstn. On the oUier 
hand, llie pL baifies, in the tense of staf* for women, bas 
been turned into a singular, spell bodia ; bratktn is rcaOy a 
plural in -tn, A. S. bractan, pi. of l/racrt. \. e. brakt. Eatxt 
is siuj^ular, A. S. e/ai ; and so is aims. A. S. alnuite (Gk. 

{ 369. The combinations si, sp. sir. tpr. arc extremely 
common, and remain unchanged. 'ITtere Is bardly an; 
tendency, as in some languages, to drop the initial s. U is 
however lost in paddU, fonnerly tpoddle, when used in Ihe 
sense of a smaU spade, bciitg in fact ilie diminutive form of 
spadf ; this is tlue to confusion with paddtt, in the sense of 
an implement for managing a boat. 

S is intrusii'c in island, M. E. ilatKl, A. S. tgland, bj 
confusion with F. ri/r, from LaL insula. 

Sis sometimes prefixed. It is common to compare mtO 
with smrl/, and to say that the < in tmtJf is preEiscd. Tlai 
is uniiue; both me/Jan and smillan are A. S. and general 
Tcuionic forms ; and, if tbey are connected, we can more 


' Sm k tbt el Wordf oormtpted ibrongb nisuket abe« HoMber, ki 
A. S. Pnlmcr'a Follt-Eirioaliiiry. iS^i, p. 191. ll«i ihen ua ■ lew 
crrora la ii. la f g. under inw, tttjipoiol tu be plonli Ua, HippoMd 
Id be a Gclitiotu (iainil«r. 




easily derive mtll from smiU by supposing thai ihe x wu 
lost. But there is a real prefixing of t in s-quttzt. rrom 
A. S- civttan, of/san, lo crush. This t is due to asaociaEiOD 
with s-guaih, a woid of F. ocigin, from O. F. ei-juaeAir 
(= Lat. ex-eoaelare), in which Die t rcprcscms the 0. F. 
inleniive prefix «- = Lat cjr'. Several other words have 
been cxpUined as containing the same intensive prelix, but 
I brlKK; ttiat most of such explanations arc wrong '. Siutat 
is probably nothing more than a variant of ihc <AAts /mar, 
due to Eubstiiuiing the common combination tn for the 
rare and difTicultyi) ; whiUt nent rcsuUcd from droppingy^ 

§ 3B0. SE. The A. S. it, when followed by t or i, com- 
monly becomes M. E. sch, E. sh ; as in A. S. tceamu, E. 
shame ; A. S. sdnaii, E. sArne. Exceptions are mostly clue to 
Norse influence ; as in E. siin, from Ice). tiiH». When 
followed by other vowcU, u also commonly becomes /A. as 
in A. 5. staga, E. sA<aii i A. S. ttuidor, E. thoulder \ A. S. 
seyllan, E. shvl. But A. S. scat remains as scab, with a 
double form of the adjective, viz. scabby, shabby. A. S. scale 
is E. sca/f, but A. S. sec// is E. f V//. 5"^ final also becomes tA ; 
as in asc, ash (itec),/«-. Ds;!!, ihc d.iiivc cases of ihe«: words 
being triccindfijce; compArc the remarks in note 3, p^ 354. 
In the word scfiooatr, ihc sch is an imitation of Dutch 
spclliog ; but it should nitlier be scoentr, from the i>rov. R. 
scoon, to glide over water. The Uie Du. word schooner is 
borrowed from English'. 

8t. Media] si may become is, as in b/otscm, A. S. 
b/Ss/ma; misstHkrush = mislielhrtuk, the thrush that feeds 
on the berries of the misdetoc. In mislUlve, A. S. mi'sU/tdn, 
the s/ is now pronounced as jj ; as also fn glisten, Issttn. 

' Evta In tiitiui w« (IbH the i»nie prclii wictl intcsti*c!r: (hn^ 
1 t-gtidart, to tcold, 11 (Irrivcd Xxma gri.iart, lo cr)' out, by ptefUing js 
L«t I'X [The Itftl. I aJK> ttiuidt for UiL liisA. 

* Tbe old R«iion of clynMlociung wai to mitt to conchiilon( bj 
r mnbiiiing antxilaiQ initsnoct, ofttn nnicliteil. midn ■ gcnsnl livr. 

* WbilDcjr, Lui£ii>ge lad tbe S^ieocc of IdnipUEe, I MS, p. 38. 


ENGLISH COmONAtfTS- [Ciwr. Xvm. 

Mh%U. lo TaII in line drops, is a frcqucntaiivc Tornied from 
««/, L e, fine rain ; it sUuids for *missle = 'mis/it. 

Me/a/keiis occaHion:JI>- lakes place of final tJt, whicb 
becomes jit {it), and of linal fit, which becomes tp. Tbiu 
E. mi also appeats as ptov. E. ax {= nit); E, toasfi it 
prov. E. a/aps, ftom A. S. wapt. M. E. has elapsen as vneD 
as (latfim for E. c/iu/ ; nnd liiis is an older form, being aDied 
to tlamp. Similarly ^raj-^ is probably for 'grap-s, and allied 
to grab and gripe. Hasp la for * hafii = A. S. hapte, a boh 
of a door, a ' filliiiK ' ; allied lo A. S. gt^hcrf, fit. Axp-tn is, 
an adjectival form from A. S. ceps. Zi'sp b from A. S. iaAj^,| 

§ 361. The principal results of the precediog chapterl 
may be exhibiied in the following table. It nuy be obsemd ' 
that the consonantal changes id words of French origin 
are of a similar character in a great many respect* ; bM 
there are a few such changM which ate not here represented. J 
These will receive attention on a future occaaon. 


(N.II. — The italic » and ji ilomlc vowfl-somuii, foming puts of a j 
diphthong : the romui w ind y dcnMe conMMAiitk.) 

An VAN, 



Mm. Cnoluh. 




ci ce 


ch. ^n eh.jt 


K (doubled) 


oc. ck, klc ; och 

ck; <ch 



sc, >cc; K 

K : Kb, tb ; X 

ic, tki ib;x 









hi (fart)! K*" 

b: tW);Bh 





wb, w 



Ei g«i h 


6-r; ^w.i; 


G (doDbled) 



dee. 7 




I: Aiibtt) 






ih: (.d; (tefl 




d.ii {htfi 

<l,t; (to/j 



a; (tati) 


n: «; (Arf) 

By P7 



p,b; a(-T) 

p.b: »e 



Artah. Teutonic. A.-Saxon. Mid. English. Hodrkh. 




f. ff; a C-T) 

f,ff;T,vei (iwf) 










in: n 














•; ii^t) 

w.ow; {Jest) 



■ i r 

1; r 


ExcKBSCEHT LZTTiKS : d, t, ofUr n ; b, p, d/Zrr m ; t, after 
8, X ; B, afkr r. These produce the combinations n4, n/, 
mb, mp, it, xt, m, in certain cases. See §5 341, 344, 347, 



§ 363. In § 32a and § 323 above, I have noted some of 
the principal modes In which the fonns of words are afTected. 
Some of these require further discussion and ezempIificatioiL 
It is impossible to avoid some repetition, but I give old resulB 
briefly, with references to former sections. 

(i) Palatalisation. Sec this discussed in § 324. For 
examples, see §§ 325, 326, 330, 339. 

(2) Voicing of TOioelees letters. Examples hare 
already been given in §5 318, 323, 327, 328, 340, 34s, 34! 
Thus we have loavts as the pi. of loaf, dig from dt'ie, hwai- 
ledge from M.E. knowleckejnvl from M. E. chautl {cJiawtj, 
proud from A. S. pr^t, breathe from breath, &c. ; hbsltr from 
A. S. loppeslre, pebble from A. S. papol, &c. 

(3) Tocaliaation of voiced letters. This is particti- 
larly common in the case oi g; see § 338. So also to ; see 

§ 355- 

(4} A^imilation. This produces a grouping of voiceless 
letters, as in the sound laoii for looked; or of voiced letters, 
■as in the sound dogs for dogs; as explained in § 318. B 
also produces doubled letters, as in blossom {§ 340). (An 
(§344); Wij(5342); /fmwa« (later leman), Lammas, womam. 
Early E. uiimman (§ 349). It is extremely common in iJIBO, 
as in of-ferre for ob-/erre, whence E. offer ; and is qide a 
distinguishing feature of Italian and Icelandic. Notable ex- 
amples are seen in Ital. ammirare, to admire ; IceL drtkka, 
to drink. 




{5) BabftUtutioa. Kxamplcs have brcn given of / Tor i 
(I 319) ; of it for / (5 340) ; of rf for ? ($ 34a) ; of / for > 
(§ 341): and of ih and th for i ($ 3S6)- ^Vc tnny refer 
httbcr the cluii^ from i (=r) to r {§ 357). 

(6) Metathesis. I^xamplt-s have been |^\'en of itr or jir 
for fk, and j/ for// (5 360); and of ihe frequent shifting of r 
(435,'j)- So also modem E. emjiloj-s vA for A. S. Aw, 
and commonl)- has /' linally for A. S. rl, as in ii//r, from 
A. S. iitil\ bu: these arc merely graphic changes, appeal- 
ing to [he eye. It i» also extremely ]>robal>le Uiai the 
^^-n«e of M. E. tiktkn, to tickle, a frequentative \'crb from 
^Wte baec tik, to touch lightly, «iis influenced in sense, 
^nnd confused with, the Icel. iilla, 10 tickle, whence prov. 
^■E. kitiU, to tickle, and the adj. iiMU, used in the precise 
sense of the mod. E. fkklish. So also waUd, M. E. vmM^ 
appears to be a mere substitution for M. E. tvat/l, formerly 

tuaed in the sense of 'bag' or "basket'; as shewn in my 
Dictionary. Other examples of metathesis are seen in nrc/tf 
for nterilc. In acrt, an Anglo-French spellin); of A.S. ater, 
U may he seen by consulting the Year-books of Edward I, 
edited by Mr, HoiTrood; and in several «-ords of FVencb 

f $ 863. (7) AbbroviKtion; including Aphesis, Syn- 
cope, and Apocope. There arc many uays in which 
abbreviation can lake place, and examples arc numerous. 

Apheaia. The dropping of an initial letter or syllable is 

so common that Dr. Murray has found it convenient to invent 

^-ft special name for it. FIc calU it apfitsit (Gk. S<^tait. a 

^■etting go), and defines it thus: ' the gradual and uninten- 

^nonal lots of a short acccntei:) vowel at tlic beginning of 

^ra word.' A word in which aphtsis occurs ts called aphtik. 

Most of such words are, however, of French origin. Among 

those of English origin we may note : dtiam, short for M. £. 

odtHti, A. S. ^-4&u, lit. off Ihe down or hill, and so, down- 

wards ; l<m*, short for atom ; tiKtyti^rJ. short for awayward. 

VOt- I. c c ■ 



To ibcxe wc may add bishop. A, S. ^stop, borrowed i 
tpiteopui ; tlrrling, shon Tor Eikrb'itg ; and drab, : 
andrakt (§ .^46). 

loitiul oonaonontK are lost in ae\-era) words. Tial' 
has disappeared in nip, nilfbie, nap ; *« § 33 1 . H hw 
pearcd in ail words which began in A. S. wiili At, *«, 
»c« ihc list in $ 331; altio in A-S. hit. E, it. A.S.g, 
). is lost in 1/, ikk ; J 337. A. S. > i« lost in pwiUl, E. 
//( : and Ikwak is commonly tMinri ; § 34a. A. S. n i 
'va.addrr,<mger.augMiSox naught)', §346- ^hasdi 
from M. E.yii«^«, to sncea;. leaving the form kaw. 
Nt. Dream, ii. 1. 56. A. S. w is lost in litp, iwbc, § 355 ; 
iit silent in ili^ torn bin at ion ur. 

§ 304. Modial coasonAQts are also lost in various 
C b lost in A. S. dnmeniaH, M. E, oVvntwm, druncttm, 
droutttn, E. dnxfn. An on^rinal Tcut. A is lost even in 
in <ar. ift,shy, tar. sb. ; § 335. Wtlih, A. S, it>e/isc, is raS' 
for 'welhitf. being derived from ava/A, a slrang^er. Jfti ik* 
loKt in modern E. in /rdii/. ma/: $ 33s. 6 oAen disappoo 
from sight, bccomin« first M. K. j, niwl then / or_r. and * 
forming pan of a diphthong, as in A. S. htrge/, later ioyi 
hayl, mod. E. hail: see csamplcs in 5 338.*h<rc I haw ifat 
included niW,t/'U.Mr(/,/r/r; anA itni {far In^/). T^islost iahal, 
lasl, *c- ; § 340. Tk is lost in wcrMfJe, Kriil. Nor/oik, tx. : 
5 343. A 'n aruwcr, gosffl, uphohltrtr. haitd^ ; | 344. jV 
in agmiil, tlimti, eitven, spider, Thursday, tithe ; and even io 
A. S. in (tniid, gensf, tithe, mouth, flhtr. twfh ; | 346. Ab 
Ar}-an n Is lost injfiv ; ^ 351. f has dis8pi>earc<l in hatt. 
halh, has, had, head, lord, ia^, Uman, viemoM ; and tus be- 
come m in Lummat ; { 349. Jit is lost, e^cn in A. S., in «tfrf. 
soft; § 351. R is lost in sm&lh/r, tptai, tptefh; $ 353, X. 
in as. taeh, stteA. itihich, and is often silent, as in vitl/,/A. 
mt/i. &e. ; | 354. IF is lost in also, aifght. nm^ht.ftm, 
lark. s«. tmi. thtmg. and is tnlent in answer, nterd; in tmh 
(for swifh), luth (probably for * Iwitt), suUry (for tweiliy), ttii 

. 365.} 



(doublet of quid), the eflect of a v upon the followii^ vowel 
I pUnljr discernible ; see $ 355. 

% 306- Final coiuoDants are also losL Examples are 

en in the low of k, K. S. t, a* in bar!^, every. /, and all 

twordsin-/^; also tnj'^A(A.S./ff'm), where tbc^A is silent; 

ITic A. S. k. later f A, is silent in borM^h, tottgh, he ; and 
enlirclj' lost in /ee, lea, ret (deer), and even in A. S. sett, 
F- shoe. 
The A. S. g consUntly becomes y, i- e. pan of a diph- 
£, as in Jay, gray, hy. Ice. ; and A. S. final -^ becomes 
^, not only in adjecUveti icucb as io/y, any, maity, dtay 
E(A. S. Jidlfg, tftig, mirnig. liysijg), but even in rabsianiives, u 
yM)^, ivjf.pttmy (A.S. bodfg.ifig.ptn^.ihon lot ptning, ptnd- 
itig) ; { 33d. Simihrlj', the A. S. g becomes t when not final, 
aa in A. S. tnoitgn, F. muUein. 

tT is lost in amil, f 340 ; and J in WMion. nwdMu. 
tin*, Imt, \ 344. 
The loKS of fiiMl m is quite a chanicicristic mark of the 
modem langufigc. Not only is it lost in tU from A. S. tin. 
game from A. S. gaiaen (the full form of which is preserved 
as gammm), holly from A. S. koltgn, mill from A. S. myln 
(compare the equivalent namen Miller and Milner), aiiillitot 
Trom A. S. miiUHdn, suJty from A. S. {S)tolem, but in a large 
number of words which in A. S. ended In int. This A. S. 
nllix (-im) ii.vuiilly has a grammaiicat value, and is found at 
the end of all infinitives, and at ihc end of many adverbs and 
prep(»ition9; but in modern English it is either lost or is re- 
prenenteil only by a mute r. Thus A. S.^/i^'siji became M.E. 
tii^-en. sing-t, and is now sing ; and so with most otbcr verbs. 
A. S. flWiT-MJi became M. £. Mhii-(in>, ma<(-m, and isnoirnaif ; 
but ihe Unal t is mute. Among the adt'erbt, it may solBce to 
mention A. S. dUifim.^.ttbifCf. K.S. on-sundran. TL.atttndtr % 

.S. ir/ian, behind, %. a/i; A.S. beforan, E. ht/erf, A.S. 

Kindtai, E. hthiitJ, ftc. Among the prepositions we majr 
cc 3 



[Caw. XIX. 

note A.S. UntdSan. E. btntatk; A.S. widhman, E. mlhin; 
A. S. on-i^lan, d-h&Ian, E. dAw/, &c. To these wc inaj add 
A. S. biU-an, K. biit, orien uKcd as a conjunction. In all lbe»e 
inuanccs, tbc -an was origitially & casc-cmling of a substao* 
live or adjective ; it was weakened lo -at in M. E.. and has 
since bec-ome mute t or liax dijtiijipeared. Curious exception* 
ate uren in the words hfmr, thtnrr. wkritt, linft. The A. S. 
hin-an, hence, later hetm-an, became M. V..hen-*n, iimn-tv.%xiA 
(by loss of n) htnn-t ; at tliis stage, in.ttead of the t being loo, 
the commoinly arlverblal Kuffix -ri was substiiutetl for iL,gt*ing 
M.K. A^<iH-«. later An-;, mod. E. Anv-ri-. The final -tt '9 
mcicly the Anglo-French scribal device for ebewing ihai ihc 
final s wat voicclcNS. So alto we have A. S. dan^an, 9an-«H, 
M. [■:. thann-t. Ihftm-*. later Ikam-ti, and finallf Uini-tt; A.S. 
^udff-nn, Mvart-on, M. E. roAiwvw, vAann-f, later wiAmii*M. 
and finally whimee. A. S. sff-Sdm (i.e. ' after ihe,' 3<f"r bring 
the dat, case of the definite amclc). became, in late A. S.. i*W- 
an, M.E. siifm, tilhen, to which the adverbial suffix -s (ilioft 
for -ti) was added, giving M. E. silhens, bter tilhtatt (Shake- 
speare), and, by contraction, tim*. The sanic case-ending 
-an has disappeared in MonJayi A.S. mAn-mt Jag, day ofibe 
moon ; SunJoy, A. S. sutw-an dag. day of the mn. In 
yttUr-day, A. S. gUtr-an dag, the -uh is a case-ending, prob- 
ably a genitive; the nominative being tbe adjectival foim 
gistra, which occur* in Gothic. Tlic only tracei left of the 
old suffix -lat arc in the plural nominaiiws «x-m, bntkr-m, 
(hitdr-m, ihoe-n, eynf, ki-ne; to whkb we may add bra^k-at, 
originally the plaral of krakt ($ 358). In otie adverb^ "ft-tn. 
wc have the suffix -tn added by analogy with other M.E. 
aiivettis; tlie A. S. fbim being simply oft. Cf. { 346- Other 
examples of the loss of final jt arc teen in at, sbon for em, 
t.cevcning ; my, Ihy, short for mint, thiiu; m>, «ho>i for mom; a^, 
short for aslant : el{bow) for tln{hga)) ; naiir-dttpj for emhrm- 
days, (lom A.S.ymi-rm,ym&-rynt. a nmning TOUud, drtuit, 
course, bcncc 'season'; tUm iot tlemn, A.S. Uohm, tlffiu 




Final w has dituippcared in gitt. hut, Irtt, htu, lnu,yoii ; 

5 355- 

Fiiul I hatt disappeared in burial, riddlt, fta ; and in 
KTcraJ words of French origtD, a« ektrry, thtrry, ftc.; 

5 358- 

§ 366. Syncopo. The tcnn syn<tft is usuill/ restricted 
to that p<.-ctilur fonn of contraction which results froni the 
loss of letters and syllables in the middle of a word, as when 
we use I'rr for ntr. a>'ry for every. £x:unptes of ihc low of 
mednl coiv»>nan:» have been given in $ 364. The \of^ of 
the medial g in parcicuiar produces a \trj real syncope, by 
reducing the number of syllables in a word, ilie A. S. nagtl 
l>eing now nait, Ac. ; nee % 33$). A simibr result comes 
from the loss of a mtdial vottvl. Examples arc : adsf for 
ad'ti. A. S. adesa ; ant for ami, A. S. amtlle ; ckitreA for 
eAur'i-A, A. S lyrUe, later eyret,rirct; newlim fwl=.e/t-=<f'l, 
A. S. t/tta ; htmp for hm'p, A. S. htwp, hantp ; mini/or min'l, 
A. S. m}-ni/, borrowed from Lat. morula ; monk for monk, 
A. Sl mtmfc. from \jn. motiafAut; monlh for moit'lft, A.S. 
miiu^. We may add some adjectives, as bald= M . K, ball-td ; 
OKW=M.E. mixn, K.%.6gm; Frtnch for Frankiih; Stokh 
or .SfwV for .SVo//»A or Scollish; Welsh for H'a/^M«, &c. 
The omission of ( in the pj>. suflTix -m is extremely common, 
as in lAr0tt.1t for thrmo'n, A. S. fvdw-tn ; born for Jor'n, A. S. 
bor-en, tec. Syncope also gives us Jm for lio 0$, doul for 
do oul, dfff (on do off, ^p for do up. Syncope iomcline* 
docs considerable violence to the original forms, as in these 
examples : eilhtr, A. S- i^dtr, s/ocopatcd form d &g-hti>aStr, 
wliich i^ain is for d-gt-Awa9fr, and so compounded of d, 
ayc,^^, the common prefix, and Anitr^^r, whether'; tltc, A.S. 
eUes : England, A. S. Jingla-ittiid. land of the Angles ; /orl- 
nighl for fsurlteti night ; futile for /ore-catlb ; lady, A. S. 

' Cr. C.j'fdir, ooiDponsded ol/t and ttudtr ; hcre/t uiiwcn to A. S. 
rf, and wtJtr to Amitffr ; the fr not ipf icariR)[ in it Thas/nCrr [i pre- 
eitcly the Pinimkni of K. ir ; >c« below. 

hiA/dige ; lark, A. S. iikftret ; last for lal'xt. i. k. I^kat : krL 
K.^. hl&ford ; made {or mai^iL. A. S.wu^ode ^ f^fiScsf^mdi, 
A. S. pearrue ; tennighl for iotm nighi; gtitee far alt^ 
(§ 3^5) • whirlwiKd for ^tcfur/U-u-tnd. IccL krrrfiJraa^. D» 
hcirvthind. So also ^ is short for olh^r or omAtr. A.S. 
6w3er ; aod a^n the A. S. &ti3er is a, contracud fonn <f 
ir-hwader, from <f, ever, and ktoaSer. wbciber. ConacqaeMfr 
«r differs from R^;A<fr otily as 6r-ku!adtr does from ^-gt-lauAr : 
in otiier words, the latter contains the panicle gt. u>d die 
former does noL So also ncr-=iu or. from A. S- mt. DOt,aDd 
&-kwa3er; and neither =ne eilher. 

Another kind of syncope appears in the shortaumg ofviuA, 
as in shepherd for sheepherd. There are several words wiA 
short vowels which were once long. Thus rod is sbon fo 
rood; the vowels in red, bread, dead, shred. lead (a meial\ 
head, answer to A. S, /a ; those in breast.friend, kip (dog-rose), 
to A. S. {o ; those in breath, health, suxat, to A. S. ^ ; diosc in 
eloth. gone, hot, wot, to A. S. &; tm is short for Uen^ as io 
Ihtr-leen ; the 1' in dt'lch \k'3s once long, as in dike ; tbe o «ss 
once long in other, mother, brother, doth, done, glove, &c. See 
further in ^ 454. 

§367. Apooope. The omission of final letters or syllables 
of a word is called apocope. Numerous examples have been 
already given, tlie most noticeable being the loss of final Jt in 
inflexions ; see §366. Putting aside the loss of final conso- 
nants, the apocope of vowels is the chief distinguishing mark 
of modern English as compared with Early English and, 
more particularly, with Anglo-Saxon. It penades the whole 
of lilt- language. All final A. S. vowels, whether a, e, o. or «, 
became ' levelled ' to r ; and subsequently all the final ^s. so 
common in Middle English, were lost or became mute. At 
the same time, all the A. S. genders have been lost ; modem 
English knows nothing o^ grammatical gender ; it only recog- 
nises tof;icat gender, as in man, wife, fish ; or metaphorical gen- 
der, as when we speak of a ship as feminine. The A. S. man is 



[of > cotDomon gvndcr, voffxaA tap arc ncuicr, and^/f ts mas- 
culinf. As the final vowel, or ihc absence of one, gaw soToe 
son of indication, tliough not aluays a suit; one, of the 
gender, ibe lowt of genders a»i»Ccd ttic loss of the liR»] vowel, 

tby rendering any retention of it unnecessary, A few examples 
must suffice. 

(a) A. S. final -a is losi in iiu-a, £. au; ^ijf -d, K. ^tw ; 

^drt^, E. dr^r./id-a, V^/o«d;/t>t-a. Y../oal; m6n-a,^. moon, 

Bftc. It bas becomermule in ap-a. 'E.ape; kar-a, Y^Mart; 

' enap-a, tnaf-a, E, knavt, &c'. A. S. crum-a, M, E. cmm-mt, 

^ is now cmmb, wiili cscrc»ceni t. If a consonant is doubled 

■iKforc die final -a, ii appears in modem E. as « single con- 

" sonam only ; ihua A- S, li'p-pa is now Up ; A. S. skor-ra, M. E. 

st<r-rc, is now tlar. The cliief exceptions are -e-ia and -i-ta, 

where tlic doubled consonant remains ; as in A. & stic-ea, E. 

iluk; A.S, gml-h, V.. gali. So also u-e have A. S, ais-A, 

M. E. aii-<. E. au ; hut in graii, from A. S. grot, ibe t is 

doubled to shew that it is voiceless. 

(i) A. S. final ■/ is lost in erdw^, E. trew ; «ii/-*, E. «»rf ; 

tord-€, E. lUrM, &c. It is route in siiU, A. & x/</-< ; wr!(r, six, 

Ba. S. u^t-t, &c. -VS. -itif final tiecoines K. -co?, as in 

™ atfwt, M. E- «r-itif. E. arr-me. Very often the original final 

-« has Left a trace in rood. K. by producing palatalisation ; as 

in E. ivilth, from A. S. tctc-ft. The final -r of the dative case 

^b oflcD the cause of such palatalisation ; as sliewn in ^^ 315, 


(r) A.S. final -0 or -w is lost in Atef-e, E. Ara/; >'/e/-0. E. 

■tid (old a^e) ; dtir-it, E. "tcDr ; .fira-x, E. jo* ; wud-u, ¥.. inW. 
It is mute « in ital-u, E. ^A' (evil); ra/-». E. ale. ftc. It is 
Beedlejg to multiply instances of this character. 
1 A few other exaroplcs of apocope may Ix notetL A. S. 

^B ' Obien« how A« nicd. E. accented vowel ii UnffhHtJ, by the 
^^bthtdple of MinipcnBUloD ; ii bccoinet of xnat^ unpcntBiwe Mid heart, ■ 
^PgmUer tima. Vti; cnrioiu i> the ttccjitionail *hwl0Ditt{, owing to 
TomMon CK. b the verb » kavi ; iti ngulu fann comn out in tbc 
eaaapgDoil U-ltatx. 




a!bK/«r ((%. A«iMVM>v)> H. E. <Ak>k, drops -«r ai 

ohwr ; and finaBjr ahu, b^ ajncSfK. Final •«■ b 

^.iT0 in dhi/, A.S.&v/-««; mnd in kimirti. KSS y m r M*m^ Ott 

fonaer d being cxcreaoent. Final -av is loM nx*"'' ^^ 
geartae; ftoal -^^'In h ar io mr , laA. keritr-gi ■ taal-^ot-itt 
ia/Kid.A.S.UJM.Ud-^. TbeA.S.ib^r-^knrbHbeenc« 
dotra to A>^. 

} 8S8. (8) TTavoiciag of voloed oemaoaaBm. Ttm 
proeem » aanmely nre : eramplra are : Mtt fivm \. & 
dMM bia das has dcarljr been ioflneiKed bf u> aaaaft to 
bring tl more nearly to its origioal form, aa seen In LaL tec 
abtat-tm; aUtle-ifitk) ot emitU, put far 'atidU. from A.S. 
nnA^/c, pcrhapa mfluencetl by G- KutUljiteh, cf obtc nr c origat; 
AZr (of a can). .M. K. Itit. earlier mV. from A. S. kW, dte fixn 
bcin;iC tnflneDced by Dan. uU. Sw«d. Ml, a tenL The mod. 
prov. E. mtM/ or umt/, a mote, is from A. S. natid. an o- 
tronely early form, found in the Epinal Glossary, L 1014; 
poMibly a derivaiive from v,-ind-«Ji, to wind. Run (pt. l Mmai^ 
The voiced J becomes/ in jw-j>>, M. Y..g»l-tA, liL 'rehted 
in God,' ori]pnalIy appbcd 10 a spoasor in haprisw. A most 
remarkalJe example is !«cn in pmru, a word of F. orqjB. 
from ?'. beuTst. 

% 869. {9> AdditiotL The rtde in English, as in other 
languages, is that words beeorae diminiEhMl in course of 
time t^ various forms of loss. ' Letters, like xoMiers,* n^ 
Home Tookc*, arc 'very apt to desert and drcp off in a long 
mardi.' Anyihing in the naiure of addition or amplificatioo 
is comparatively rare, and invariably iligbL Sudi insertioas 
are inonly 'eoplionic' in the strict sense, i. c. ihcy mosliy 
represent some sli^l change in the soond wlikfa requires an 
imertioii in order to compensate for a loea. This «ill 


■ Tfce A.S. form i* inTwubty UU at gtt<U, a tciK, with ■ fob 
bUiOM, lo tona. The tf b ofi(;iaal, lad becMDc* Uigh Cttmaa t la 

* INieniosn of Ptaiej, pi. i. c 6. 




eaail}' otulcmood by obscning ihc cxaniplcs. lliej may be 
disiribuinl into two »eis: (i) those in wliidi vowels »:c in- 
Krtcil ! ;iiul (j) iho«c in which (.-on.sonanW ate inserted. 

Towel-iosertionB- The A. S. iaasprian became M. E. 
xohiifxrtn. ithente E. whiifrr. Here ihc t. apparent]}' in- 
ened, inajr lie ilue u> inctatlicKix, i.e. to pulling er (='') 

^(or rt'*. When the A. & b^tma tost its final •a, Ihc scribes in* 
serrcd a vowel to shew thai tiic m fonncd a syllable ; hence E. 
itt{o)m. Similarly A. S. hUilma became 6ioss{^m, with Ioa» 

I or i and a; A. S. Msm it> now 6et{«)m ; A. R. betm is now 
boll{o)m ; A. S./ir^m is nov /iifii«)m. A. S. Ajfrfttian became 
M. K. ierhi-fn, whence our Am»-*(^)<». The / in glhlm is 
probably due to n graphic mistake, by confunon with^/ij/ri-; 
it would be bctlcr omitlcd. 'Vhun glis{e)n org/issi*)" would 
correctly repre^nt the A. S.g/isri-itrii. We can explain htt^en 
from M. E. ifirn. A, S, 6Aum ; but wc may notice that the 
A. S. word is frequently spelt 6/iuti. In the words buw-jKr, 

' 6rai-i-fr, tMh-itr, eolH-€r, gkit-i-^. grat-i-tr, harr-i-tr 
(^Aflr-t-cr}, htis-i-er, taw-y-tr, ifmrr-i-tr, we liavean inserted 
i cx y (ki) which it is not '•xry easy lo undertiand. M&Czner 

I suggests that such words were assimiblcd lo certain substan- 
tives, sudi as tourl-i-tr, farr-i-tr, lold-i-er. in which the 
sulCx -t-tr ii French, from Lai. -ariat (Drachcl. Hist. French 
Gram., ir. by Kiichin, bk. iii. c. 3). We may notice that F. 
verbs such as earry, curry, likewise (tave rise to a suffix 0/ 
timilar form in words stich as dirri-rr. eurri-fr, where ihc -w 
is purely English. I [hink it cxcremely probable tliat such 
iradc-names ai farr-i-rr (willi F. -itr) and turri-/r (with E. 
tr after i) combined lo suggest new tnule-namcs sncli as 
bauhji'^, brai-i-tr, eMh-i-tr, eoN-i-tr. glat-t-tr, gra2-i-*r, 
ios-i-tr, latv-ytr, spurr-t-ir : and that harr-itr was invented 

' Mmi Tixrci-intcrtioni occur in an nnaconited •jtUiblc. and between 
I two conwnauli, ttte luMf of wtucb 11 eiibei ■ liqtud or w. The teMoa 
I* that ihc liquuit. u imII u w, arc oficn vocallseil, toA an Bttempt U 
made to eipieu ihit kn mtliog. 



10 pair oET with trrr^i'tr. It \% not to be forgotten lh>t tbere 
was yec a third n-aj- in which the suffix -i-/r sofDetimcs aiosc. 
The A. S, lu/'ian, to love, produced an M. E. fonn /<w>«» 
(=/e7.>im) ax well as /cum (^/own), and hence «a> fomiMt a 
sb./wjj'ff- (=/oufiT) as well as loutr (^Iwa-y. Here the I'ot 
y Is really due to Uie i in the causal suffix 'tiur of the A. S. 
vcrlx He»cc I lake the moKi likely w>Iution to be, that the 
form in -itr, naiurally aii^ng in ihrce different waj's, was 
looked upon as being always the same, and so established 
itself its a convenient occasional form of t)ve agential suffix. 

The insertion of o before ui it> conunon, to shew thai the 
w has become vocal. Thus A. S. XKtaboiaH is to tDoitoai ; the 
sbs. arraiti, morrow, pillow, tailou), sorrow, tparrom, vsiUon, 
suuwcr lo M.E. arwt, morwe, pitwe, salwt, torwt. tfianot, 
wihot, from A. S. artwe, morgtn, fylt (a short form, for the 
original is the Lat. fiitiumui), tealh (gen. tealgt), sorh (gen. 
t6rgt\ ipearwa, wih'g (gen. u^ii^t) ; and the sui.yi./aU(m, nar- 
row, anxiver to A. S./taiu (de&llte form /iahoa\ atkd ntar* 
{definite form warwa). 

An inorganic mute e was often added b)' ignorant scribes 
in inipd.ssible ]>laceii, as e.g. In mattiht, but this needs no attcn- 
lion or n-mark ; imless it be worth while to say thai modern 
comic writers imagine thai they can produce * Old English ' 
by adding a. final t at random, and thus producing such 
monstrous forms as hatht, Jranke, wilhe, thalit, ittt, and the 
like; for such is English scEiolanhip in the nineteenth century! i 

We do, however, find an inorganic mute t in moiut, lumu. 
letae, geeie, getu, korst. wont, Ac. ; litis is merely an ottlto- 
graphlc device (like the -et in ntiet) for shewing tluU the / it 
voiceless, and not pronounced ass. Yet the 
laust, lo moust aie spelt precisely the same ; we most look, to 

■ Sm J-uuitH and Znum in llic ):^i>***'y «> Spc^oeiu ct Zit^)ilt, 
Pan 1, cd Mornt. to Cluiicct, C.T. 1347- wlwcr ibr tlUoiere US, 
hu ilNuru, ihe Pcloonh uiil LuiidcmiK HSS Xam l^ti^trs tnj hmtn 
R*pecti««ly. Hallittvll fiiict laeiir at k pmincuJ E. (a«iD Hi)) Is tat. 




ifae contexi to dbuinf^uitib them. Id ««e, amr, ibe finxl c ex* 

[iKues the Gact tliut the vowfl was once /<»tf ; ax in M.K. 

WM, flMw, A. S. ^;;, mJK. Satt for m/ is simply a bad spcIiiDg, 

but is RCA tmcommon ; ^milarly we h&ve hadt for had, 

pouibly to dtstingubti it, (o the eye, rroin bad m an adjective. 

PeThajW it is for .-i liki: reason lli»I we write alt (not o/) for 

the pL t. of tat; some indeed write tat, but this fs as oonfus- 

ing as our use of read (]>ronounccd rtd) for the pi. l. of rtad. 

Tlic A. S. infinilii-c is «Lin. pi. t. 'a:l, (jp. <■/« ; M. E. tlm, pi. i. i. J'H ^^ 

Hi or tl, pp. f/m; so ihai modem E. mighl fairly adopt ti for 

ihe past lensc. 

% 870. Cotuooantal inaertioDfl. At the beginning of a 
word, we sometimes find A prefixed in a wrong place. Tbc 
only fixed example in a word of nalit<e ori^n is jhI/ow- 
hammer as llie name of it hiiil, from A. S. amort, carlienl 
form tmtr; cf. Wid. Tia. tmmtritk, G.tmmerling,gt]b-ttmmer. 
gotd-ammtr. H is also inserted in wktSk, a mollusc, whidi 
ought rather to be wilk, and in whorlit-berry ; § 336. Ahio iii 
rhyiru, M. E. rymr, A. S- rim, by confusion witli rhythm. A' is 
prefixed in wti/; iDMcrled before^ in ni^ktitigaU. M. E. nighlt- 
gale; and auifixcd in billern, ituhitom, and marUrn (now 
marltn); 5 347- .^ is prefixed in _>«r, M. E. nf, A. S, to, 
to indicate tlie )K>und more clearly ; so also jiou, your, are 
written for the A. S. titu, tiwfr ; but the r in jfMit u best 
explained as representing the prefix ge-; see { 337. R is 
inaened in bridegroom, boarjt, and jirobably ui groom and 
^rf: § 353. 

Tbc spelling twarlh for miatht in Twelfth Ntght, ii. 3. 
161, is probably a mere misprint; for it is spelt nvaih in 
Troiliu, V. 5. 15. L in (0ul4- is an intentional misspelling, 
due to association with would and should; f 354, IF in 
whole is explained in { 355, where also whoop is shewn to 
stand for ho<^ 

The insertion of iv in woo/ is very curious. The M.F.. 
form is n^ a contraction from A. S. itci/, £u<ti, sbon for 


wax/ or on-web, i. e. "a web fofmcd on ' »-h»t has been 
already :^in ; so called bccaiue the woof or wed travenes 
the 'warji,' which i« the nunc given to the parallel ihreadfi 
before they arc crossed. It was. doubllcw, fcli Uiat o^wa* 
In some way connected wiih ihe verb lo tuiwrv, and a» ibc iatx 
of iln being a contraction for o-inj^ had been forgwtcn. the 
to waa restored tn tht wrong flatt, thtu producing a rorn 
woo/ to accompany weave, wti, and tet/i. See Sweet's CMdea 
English Texts, p. 513, col. a. The « in utand is due 10 
confusioTi Midi i///. 

BxoreBoeot lottora. Lastly, we may note ihc excrcaccM 
letters, viz. 1/ or/, aftern; B<a fi, after m; /after t or s\ m 
aflcrr; »ee|{34i, 344, 350, 347. 

J 371- (lo) Ctraphio ChancoB j ch«Dge« in th* 
gymboU employed. The nymbolj employed to denoi 
certain sounds haw sometimes been changed rr<Hn time t 
lime, without any change in the sound rcprc«enlc<t This 
a matter of history, and need cause Utile difficulty. Mo«i of 
Midi changes haxx: already been pointed out. It will be sufi- 
dent to note the foUou-ing. A. S. f became i before e and > 
in many nurds. W. K. «A {frcm A. S. tt) became E. Ick. 
A. S. h, vvhen not initial, became gh ot y, ot vhidi ) is bd 
longer used. Cm became gu. ffw became wh. Initial/ 
(often A. S. g) was written cither ^ or j; but j is no longer 
used. Initial hard ^ is sometimes written gu or gh. M.E. 
ggt (from A. S. i;^ or egt) is now written 1^*. A. S. fi, ) be- 
came p, Ih ; of which fi is now disused. F, as in /i/tui, to 
Xiw. became », and finally r; but with the restrktiuii that 
tlie M or p must always be followed by n vowd ; hence mod 
£. Iiv4 for liv. When final w represenled a rawel-souod. il 
was commonly wriiieti cu'. VuicdcM liital 1 was dangcd u 
a or n; voiced s was someiimcfl, but fai too seldom, ake 
to X. Ch, sk wore introduced to denote new soutxb; 
latter was also written uh in M. F. Sec above, §f 534-356, 
and Kce the chapter on Spelling. 

» J7».] 



§ 379. (tt) Hisuae of Brmbol^. Sometimes sjrobols 

were misunderstood and misuswi. Some scribes, even in 

the tuclfth ccDlury. confuse<t d wiih 3, l>y umiiting the stroke 

ftcroxK tlic toil of ihc Utter. In the Roy^I MS. of the A. Si. 

^Gospels, the * is not unlike a; in the Lindisfarne MS. of 

the same, a is often like u. Id tlte Gfleeiilb cetilur}-, <- and / 

■tre not always <liK[ingiiiKh»blc ; nor can e alwtya be discerned 

Tom *. The sUokc across an y ia sometimes omitted; It 

n becomes a lonj; s (f). V, with a longer stroke on the 

ft, looks like i. I haw seen w so writicn as to resemble 

tk; and a scrawled r that might almost be t. or even v. The 

ribe of ilie Venion MS. oRen writes an n like n, or a m 

like n; rooKl ktjIics make it and u |iti-cisely alike. 'I'he 

■thorn-lclicr {/) degcneiatcd into a mere diiplicaie of ^ ; so 

the early priiitcTs employed >' for rta/, &c. They did 

lOl hcwever pronou^cl^ Hynl ; this folly was rejrcr\-etl for the 

inctecnth ccniury. Three nicccwivc downstrokcs may 

lean n, or in, or iu, or w', or m; four may mean mi, or tm, 

or iHr, or Ml, unless the stroke meant for i \% marked by a 

(laming mark above, as i» «»mclimex done. Some MSSu 

Ihavc a short stumpy f, very like /. The A. S. ut is very like 

Z and ; are often precisely alike '. Wc Ihus see that 

poxMihIc mjMakes may arise in a great number of ways; tlie 

below, which groups the syinbols that resemble each 

r together, will give some idea of this. 

a,u;b,v; 1. 1; rf. C; t,o\/. loiigi; g, twisted r; w. in. 

It, iu, ui; n, «; mi, im, mi, in; o. f, p. w; r, r, p; s. g; 

'./"; '. «■ ; /.J" : «. « ; ". *■ ; »./-*: a. S. », ^ {and even 

Some of these confusions have ev-en influenced the lan- 

:e. Wc write taperfailsie for captrtaityt*. and then the 

is pronounced at s; if vv had written eaftreaifyit, this 

The al.becTUtioa for a final tl in l^lin MSS. alio tcWmUcd i; 
1 vitl, tboR tat viidiitl, \% now wiitien n'l. 
* FMnetlf taftrtalw ; mc quutitl^rn in j 407. 


could not hnvc happened. t( is liighljr probalJc thiU om 
mod. li. <iliun la merely a graphic error for W. K. eit^m, 
also written (proliably by intsundersUtnding)<7Vlr>n< or eilitam. 
cf. O. F. citfoin, motL F. tiloytn ; i. c. ll»e j means j, 

§ 873. Errors of editors and early printers. Evet 
nncc ihe invention of ]>rin[irtg. Innumerable misliLkcs have 
been made by primers and editors tit the attempt to conwn 
MSS. into primed books. A volimie might easily be filled 
with specimens of blucKlers, many hundred of which have ai 
\'aTious limcR come unilcr my notice. The subject is a paiD- 
ful one 1 but the reader shouJd always be OD bis guard as to 
thi$. rememberinj; thai most of our editors have been entirelf 
self-taught amutetirs, who had little or no preriou* acqoaunl- 
aiicc with the peculiarities of M. E. MSS., or even of the 
language in which ihey are written. As a angle specimea of 
what can be done, I will ]usi mention tliai the word thtar^, ■ 
dwarf, in William of Palcnic, L 363. was misread by Uarts- 
bomc, and printed as owrry. There is no snch word in th^ 
language. Once more, as a specimen of what the ccribm 
thcmsel«'eR could accomplish, take ilie following lines from 
Ociovian, cd. Wcbcr. 1743-46: — 

'AUe the baners that Crysten founde. 
They were abatyde [knecktd dewnY, 
There was many an heihen hoimde 
That they chek yn a lyde.' 

And to Weber leaves it ; Init he informs us. in his glossuy. 
that fhik means 'ehfcktd. as in the game of chess, meta- 
phorically, killed.' Thia is doubtless the sense ; but whu 
are we to think of an editor who tti[>]xMc!t that tltii can (x 
the thinl pcreon plural of a post tense ? To retnm. how- 
c^-er, to the scribe ; it is clear that be bad bcfbfe him a copy 
containing a letter m, mhtcji he misread as m, and 
copied as yn. Willi (his hint, we can sec that 


mm a copy 1 

id then mi»^H 

be actuall/^l 



wrote (ktkyn a lydt for <htk~mafydr, ihc very word required 
by the snue, tbe grammar, the mcUe, aDd the rime '. 

The geneni nile b that the scrities are rrv<iurnily stupid, 
but are often right in passages where c<^tors ' correct ' them ; 
Uh latter being, in general, much less ramiliar with Middle- 
Enf^ish soimds and Siymliols than n^re the scribcH who 
liabilua!!}- used them. 

$ 974. (■!> Doabling MT ooiuonants. One form of 
amplificalion of the «'ord is exireniely common in English, 
viz. the <loiiljling of a con.'^oiinnl after a short vowel. Thiit 
is partly due to the stress of the accent. It is probable that 
the M. E. accent was, so to speak, more e<iiiab)c and less 
mafked than ilie modem accent. The effect of throwing a 
still stronger accent on to a »hort vowel, is to bring out 
more clcaily the sound of the conscoiani that follows it. But, 
whatever may tie the reason, the fact is undoubted; to 
much so that the doubling of a consonant is now the received 
method of marking a vowel as short. The Ormulum, written 
about I zoo in die East Midl.»id dialect, abounds with ex- 
amples of this mctliod. ' The moxt characi eristic feature of 
Oim's spelling is the consistency with which he has intro- 
duced doubled consonants lo shew shonness of the preceding 
vowd*.' Orm gives us such spellings as pall for Ihai, an<l 
tristlmndom for Chrisiendom, the final o in which was then 
long. A few instances must suffice ; I take the consonants 

alphabetical order. Thus we have pelibU (for *lxppU\ A. S. 
pafiol; (kkktn,K.?>. tUm\fitkU, A. %. fieol ; skklt, K.% tieol; 
aMU or adJkd, from A. S. a^la. fiiih (see Murray's New E, 
DlcL> ; Madder, A. S. Bl&dre, naA/odJer. A. 's./64or, where tbe 
vowelii, once Uxig, have been .thortened b}- tlic stress ; gid^, 
H.E. gidi; laddtr, A.S. kiAdtr*, with vowel -shorlening ; 

' I call an onre»l fono, such u ewtry for livtrf, a ■ ghoM-woid.' 
n««iuDplc9aif|>hoat-wardia»f^vcniiiRiyrmiclcntiiI Addrcii 
' iIm Fbiloldfiickl Socict<r for iSSA, printed in the TruiiAclionl. 
' S»e«. Kinl Midtlle En^-lith Primet. jj. 41. 
' Uy Dictionwr gmi kiaJtr; but tbe « wax ori^nsllj lonj^ «* 


[Our. X\i 

riddU, A.S. r^tlx, wirh *"owcl-jsboncnii^ ; ruddtr, AJi, riitTy 
witti vovic! -shortening, from ritiy-an, to row; saddle, A. 
tadoi; off, \itriani of of, A. S. ef; staff, A..S. slir/. aad final 
j^ generally; s/raggU, {oTTact\y t/riig/f, as »pcU by Minebca 
(i6j7);/d//<'M', M.E./»/ttvw. A. S, ./yiifdM ; ^a/Axi^*)- A. 
gafgn ; mulUin, A. S. Pt^gn ; steaiiaw, v., A. S. swe^an ; 
jwai/aw, tb., A. S. nvalewe; jt/Zew, A.S. g*aiii; lilt, Iccl. A 
and finil // frequently ; tmiiut. A. S. iTMf/A- ; gammea. A. 
gamen ; slammer, frum A. S. stamer, adj., stainineriiig ; fififfi 
M. E. ^cwy. A. S. >W«-, /i-«i>(f , ftiulittg ; /oABfr. A. S. ^JMr, 
from Lat. ^i/w ; ierty, A. S. ^(^r^^ ; t^rrmo, A. S. borgiam 
Mirrvw, a mere vvianl of Stveugi^; errand, A.S. <tra»de 
/arrow, fifry. furrow, marrow, morrtw, narrav. t^rrmr, 
tparrovL', yarrow, as well as harrier from hare ; drtat.gtatt, 
grass, loss; hitter, holtom, hrilllt, ftUer, ff utter, latter (i-e. 
lattTt wrilh vowel allcred), liItU, Httlie, alter, rattle, statitr, 
settU, spittle, tetter ; dit^, A. S. dy^^l drittle, formerly driUi. 
A «ingut:ir exam[)1e appears in s^rry, formed by \-owel- 
shortening from A. S. sdr-ig, an adjective <lerivcd from sdr, 
a sore. People riaiufally connect it with sorrem. Iron 
A. S. teri. 

The double e (ci) in aeeursed, aektstwltdge, \*. unoriginal, 
and due lo oonfusion with the Lat prefix ae- (s ad) ; tbe 
double / to afford, affright, is also unoriginal, and due U) 
confusion wilh Lat. of- i, = ad). 

§ 37K. (13) Towsl-ohsnsas due to oonaonantal is- 
flaenoe. The consonants which most affect adjacent towela 
ve A, ;, ir or n, r Of /, and w or oA. 

Tlie elTeci of the old guiiural h (like G. th) U|>on a |>te- 
ceding vott'cl is fotnciimcs c-urious. It certainly tendt, is 
some instaooes, to torn the vovvl into the mod. £. long 
I'hus A. S. meaht or mte/tl alwo a{)t<cars xt mehl and mild; 
E migld. A. S. hdak, Afrrcian hits, giw* M. K. A9' or htk, 

prowd b; the cogiute G. Idser, wbich Ke In Ktvgc. Indnd, llic < 
«Aiiui{ ti a Rktod word ; from v'ku, Io leu>. 




\laa\.Aia1&.'?^hytxhygh\ bmce K. A^A, though the M.E. 
represented hy lie%<4ay, \. c. ' high daj-.' A. & nfak, 
Mercian nfh, giivs M. E. nth or neigh, bm also ny or wjyA ; 
benoe E. ir^A. thouj^li the M. K. iK<^;t is pr«Mrvc(! in neigh- 
hour. The A. %./f^hiiiH, Mercian /ihtan, giws M, ^./thUn, 
but also fihtm; E. jfe^/. A. S. rcA/ is also spelt riht; E. 
righl. Hence the German w-onb machi, AvA, na<h, /trUm, 
TtthI, oontrnst remarltably, a.s to their von-ch, with K. w^W, 
*«■'*. »lir'*. M^- '''S^- I" 'l"^ A. S. JUah, Uah, the A was 
stDopl}- dropped, Wving /fd. Ua. The A. S. hlthhan, M. E. 
. ieh^, also Agm, is now /i7«^A. 

5 876. The A. S. guttural g common])' coaI«ccs with a 
[ vowel so as to form a diphthong. Thus d^ be- 
ai, 04 in dag, E. day ; la^tl, E. A///, i^ doct the 
same, becoming ii>'. at, as in k<^, E. way, tglian, E. tfnT; 
' also ei, as w^an, E. uy^gh. Jg becomes long t if accented, 

Iat in h^itm, E. ^ ; n^^Mi, E. nint : or -^- if final, ax in hdl-ig, 
E. h^. Vg becomes m>, as \n/Mg«i, K./m.'i; tt^u, E. ww. 
yg becomes long y, as in drygt, E. i/o' : so ^'^ ^^•m. 
M.E. huggtn, later i((r)v», in noii- ^, pronounced as fy. 
A.S.€(g becomes eym ay, ri or at, as in (dgf, K. iry ; gn^, 
E. vrrav and /r^ ; hudgan, E. wnM : tlttgrr, E. jArrV. A. S, 
/og becomes u or long / {y); thtis A.S. Jl/ogan, Mercian 
fi^tm.ftigan, ap[>car( both as _^<v wAfiy; A.S. /fygau, Mer- 
cian /^u«, /(?■«•, is E. /«, to tell untruths. A. S, /ag eorrc- 
■ponds to Meiciiin /g; A. S. /qge, Mercian e^f, is E. ejif. 
There is a fluctuation in the ^oweUsound. nnd a lendenc)- (in 
Bomc cases) to the production ot the modem diphthongal >', 
just as in the case of h above. 

§ 877. The effects of « or w «[ion a preceding voTi'el are 
nodccd b;r Siiyvcrs, § 65. Thej lend to Inm a into e>, so 
that A. S. nama, land also appear as n^ma, ioid. Traces of 
tliii efl'<s;t arc Mill found. Thus A. S. comb Is now eomb ; 
A. S. /mm is now from ; whilst our prc]>. on Tq)rcsentg A. S. 
Im, pvt for an earlier an, which actually appears in the Epinal 
VOL. I. D d 





[Cn*r. Xm 


Ghssojyisi), and in ihc G. an. To thwc add E. /onyr, j"v, 
ttrmg, thmg, liirmg, lereng ; from A. S. long, tatig. ttrang, 
/hwV> Of')-A''<''W. urang. A losi n nirm o« (for iw») Idio 
A. S. long tf, £. M> ; as already shewn wiib tcgard to ibe 
wonfefWf', mmK, /ImM. h/At. A lost m does Ibe Mine In 
so/i, A. S, sS^fe. 

SicVcTS remaricti ihai n or « turos a preceding f Inio r; 
and instanocK nintiin, to lake (£. nim, to steal), pot (be 
*n*man. and cognate nith G. mknun ; also A. S. m/w/ (bcrbh 
borrowed from Lai. mttitka, whence K. mini. It ma>' be ob- 
sen'cd that the same law holds tn modern EnKludi ; wbidh 
accounts for Y..gnN, from A. S-jtmram. Other csampki 
aretlicac: *//«*, M. E. Wrtttiw, not fcmnd in A.S.; ltni{o(i 
chain), A. S. Jilencc; simi, to stnt out wine, A.S. jmwniB, 
Mui't, A. S. pencaH, which howcN'cr was conrused with ijw 
impersonal verb appearing ta mt-tkinkt = A.S. pi/Jiymti., 
Ling (fish), M, E. Ing', A. S, lengi, tlie ' long ' one, frotn : 
shape ; Ung-fr. ficqiicniali«-e of A. S. l<ng-an, to proloDg 
mtng-lt, frcquenlaiivc of A. S. naig-an, 10 mil. Uingt^ H. 1 
kengt, thai oil which a door hang» ; cf. Iccl. hmgja, to 
Singt, A. S. singan; m-ingt, A.S. xvstf^an; tiMi^t, M-l 
tuxngen. Jlinf, prob. from M- ^L htnkn, more osually 4a*fr)>. 
A. S. haUan, to seute, catcli'. We may also uodcr ilw 
double fomit dini and ^ist/, ifi/inJ and tpiaU, glint and Scstr 
f/m/; and the pronuncistion o^ FnglanJM iHgtaitd. 

4378. The effect of nd in lengthening a preceding i) 
surprising. In the A. S. ^tniAjit, the r b short, just w in ' 
and G. bindm, Iccl. Mid Swcd. tinda, Dan. £/»<&; but to tbe 
mod. E. bifid, the t' Is diphthoogal. Tbc same remark appGtt 
10 the ^'CIbt jCmi/, ^nW, ttiW, and prov, E. find (to Icmdlr); 
to the sbs. j(/n</ (female slag), mind, rind, and 

' Tliil ililFicull wncil ictmi lo lutTC txcn ooofiucd irltb lod. 7idiJ< j 
murniDT. Dan. ymtt, lo wbUpct abmit a thine, ^l"- '^ 
wiih ktnian ii much cletied up bj JunicKu'i aocavnl of jIimi; 





former]}- uwwArW; and (o the a<ijectivcR Wnd. fund, and 
Ibc adverb tthind. Kind, s., M. E. Und, turn.', ihough 
answeiing to A. S. ryttd, foUou-s the same law. In Atnd, s., 
a peasant, formed witli excrescent d from M. E. Anu. the 
long i is original ; but liau-trie is a corruption of Imt-trtt = 
lind-trct, from A, S. lirni, with short i. Tlie original fJiort 
r' of littd or hw, to kin<!le. is seen in the dcrivati%« tinder ; 
ibc oiiginal short / of the adj. hind is seen in the derivati^-e 
«rb fandtr. We also Veep the sliori t in (indtr ( A.S. nitdtr). 
Undlt, ktndrtd; and c«n in ilic »b. wind, to ai'oid confusion 
with tlic verb to mind. Vet even in the last case some 
con»der it 'correct' to pronounce the sb. xtind wiili a long 
I in reading poetry. Such pertonit arc, at any rate, 
coiuaslcDt; for in all other moDoeyllablcs ibe /(before ud) 
has been lengthened. 

It hflt also Ijcen scni, in the jirecetling section, that A. S. 
rabsiituics in (of course shori) for European m\ wc can 
thus easily under.'.iand ibat the sb. mind (for 'metufj ia 
cognate nilh I.:ii. ace. itunl-tm; and the >b. wind (for 
*Wftid) with Lat. uftii-us. This furnishes an independent 
proof that the i En these tkords was originally short ; whereas 
some Englishmen, who believe that the cornijii modem K. 
pronunciation is a stirc and safe guide to the pronunciation 
of A. S., Iiavv actually maintained lliat it was long I How 
soon the lengthening of the i in lhe»e words »el in, we 
have no i-cry sure way of ascertaining. Chauoer, C T. si 57, 
rimes fiKde (find) with Inde (India); and Shakespeare rimes 
/ltd, n-ind, lintd, mittd with Rosalind, As Vou Like ft, lii. t. 
93. If ihcy pronounced Ind with a long t'. it must at any 
rale be granted that this » was originally short. There is 
only one cxampk of long 1' before nl, mi. in/;n/, a borrowed 
J word. 

^K The eGTcct of m, in turning a preceding t into (', is not 
^V much seen. A »iriking exam]>lc ap[iears, however, in 
[ limWft, as a Utter form of aknttie ; but ibis is a borrowed 
^K Dds 




CCiur. XIX- 

word. Limp, v., to walk iajnely, is conoccied with tbe A. S. 
Ump-Aall, adj., brnc-, lultiiig. /is lengthene<l before mi m 
A. S. ilmdan. E. ^/imi. Cf. { 377. 

\ 379. A' and m also affect a prece£ng «. ' West Gcr*. 
nuiDic (says Sieven) before lunb becomes ».' 
tnatanccs A. S.^tauunn. taken, as compared witb O. H. ' 
ginoman, G. gawmmtn; also A. S. miaiUi; a monk, t>or 
from Lat. manofhut (wliicti vre now pronounce mtnJt) ; A. 
Mw*/, HOW k-ngUtcned lo motmt. trom Lat. ace. aumitm', 
A, S. ptmd, now lengthened to /omu^, from Lat. 
a weight. Other examples are : £. among, pronoiif 
^BMfip, in whidi we have two proccRC*. \iz. the cl 
from A. S. •■ (in immMtg) to M. K. (in anofigf), 
secondly the change from <? lo « (mod. E. ») ; so also A. : 
mai^ert is now s[>d[ manger, but pifonounced mfngfr ; 
ibc A. S. maug, a mixture, is the origin of our mo 
pronounced m^r/J. The O. Irish dWi, dm^, mod. Ir 
and Gad. dtnn, is stUl seen in the river-name Don; bat 
adojilcd into A. S. as Junti, nlKncc mod. F- dun, one of 
few uorda which are imdeui^dty of Celtic origin. 1'he Lo<r' 
Lat. natmn, mtnrm, was borrowed cs A S. mame, mod. E. 
luut. The Lu. jtOH^ (whence, through the French and 
IialiAD, our pm46on) became A. S. pun/, E. pvttt. But there 
is some confiiuon as to im and tm, oning to the M. E. use 
of MI 10 denote short un, as seen in A. S. iiam, M. E. smt, 
E. tm, where the M . £. spelling with o doe« not mean thai the 
sound was pronounced olhcrwbc than aa short «. Hence 
the double spelling of Am and lua, and ihc objcciionafale 
mod. E. tcngitt for A. S. luitgt. 

With regard to m following o, we may notioe M. £. 
ghmmm, to look gloomy, wheiKe E. glim. 

( 380. Some light is ihiown upon the lengthening 
i before nd by the fact that ^lort u is also Icngtbetied 
the same. TIiuk Im. fondm, A. S. pund, ia now /owii;' 
A. S. kvnden, pp., is novr houndt jusi as A. S. jm 

M. E. 

ling 0^1 






and the p]i. gnmdm it gmaid also; A- S. huitd is hound', 
A. S. mumi is mound \ A. 5. mW, hcaTihy, U s«und, and so is 
A. S. Mm/, a strait of ilie sea ; A. S. wtmden, j>i>., is wcwtd. 
V.\ta nt Icngihiriis the vowel in two catcs; Lat- mtrnttm 
giws A. S, muni, our mount; Lat. fmbm rNvs A. S._/i>n/'. 
wlwooe E. /»«/, aiid a later form yim/*, found in ihc Or- 
multiiD, I. 10914, whence E.yjwi/*. 

To these we may add a very remorltable instance of 
vo«-el-iengthening in the mod. E. maund, a Ixutkei, from 
A. S. mand, aumd. This A. S. word occurs as early as the 
dgbth century. The Kplnal Glossary has : ' tVArn. mand.' 
1.193; the Erfurt G!o«»arj-ha»: ' Corien, mwiiV; the Corpus 
Glossary has: ' Cfpimt, mand,' I. 531, and ' Qualus. mand.' 
L 1689 ; »oc Sweet's O. E. Texts, p. 4*8, It has nothing 
whatcxia to do whh the Anglo-tndian maund; see Col- YuJe's 
Hobton-JolM>n ; nor yet with ' Maundy Thursday,' as is so 
constant^ repeated by archaeologists unworthy of the name. 

I SSL The eflTect of r ujion a [ireLc<ling vowel is great 
and remarkable. Mr. Swcel says, in his History of Eng. 
Sounds, p. 67 — ' In the present Eoglish hardly any towcI 
bas the same sound before r as befcne otber consonants. 
One impodant resuli is that the r itself becomes a niper- 
flaous addition, which is not required for distinguishing one 
word from another, and is theKfore we»keiiL-d into a mere 
vocal murmur, or else dropped altogether, although always 
retainetl before a vowel.' Compare, for example, the soundK 
in far ', ktr, fir, for, fiir, fare, fear, firt, m»re, mcor, senr 

' Vci; rare ; bnt we Sod fonl-tvtttr, ia Cod»]mc'« lj*e«bdomi, (i. 
3jeL We slio fin<i/aiU,fiimt-fiet, uiA/ant-nvttr. 

* Si[K\i/iniu, bocaoM tbc u i) xboit. 

' 1 h»v« ■;i«;n /ami M A Prriith wc»ii i I now think thii i» nnncoc*. 
larj. tt ii better to lake it from Lat. directly. The A. S./mTcMlly 
tie«omc>/'"<'. ud/mM will pit/Mint. 

' UtrtRic the inird arid, where ihe rclntion of the Utiltd r oUtm-t 
the Knnu] lu tnciBbIc th»l of the a in/at. 



4o6 tmUPHOLOGY. 

with those in fat, hen, fit, fog, hit, fate, fia/, figU, mtk. 

moot, out. Observe also the difference in pronunciaiiiB 

between ' far east ' and ' far west ' ; in the former case the r 

in far is trilled, but in the latter case it is not. The loss rf 

trill in a final r before a consonant is a \-eT7 marked 

peculiarity of modem English as distinguished from otfaa 

languages, and is certainly of late date. Another modcn 

peculiarity is the levelling of rr, I'r, and ur, as in ier, fir, 

fur, under one obscure sound, and that sound a new onr, 

unknown to the older forms of the language. Perhaps tfae 

most marked result, to the eye at least, is the change fruo 

the M. £. er to mod. £. ar, as this is ofien indicated bf 

a change of spelling. Thus M. E. frr is now ^r, from 

A.S. fror. As this is rather an interesting point, I gi« 

a tolerably complete list of the native words in which ttdi 

change has taken place. The A. S. vowel is fo, the M. E 

vowel f, and the modem vowel a, in the following : iarm 

(yeast), barrmu (a mound), carve, dark, far, farthing, kardi 

(of flax), hart, smart, v.. star, starve, tar ; to which we may 

add heart and hearth (M. E. herte, herlh), which ought radier 

to be spelt hart and harth, in order to be consistent. The 

A. S. and M. E. vowel is f, and the modem vowel a, in ibe 

following : liarn, char (a turn of work, as in char-u.-omaii). 

charlock, harry ^, mar, marsh. The Icel. herbcrgi, M, E. 

herberwe, is now harbour ; the Icel. sertr, a shirt, is no» 

sarli; the Icel. j^fr, a rock, is now scar. In like manner. 

ihe A S. weorc, weorld, weor}>. iiuuM, regularly became -j ■ 

M. E. utrk, uvrld, uerlh (spellings which actually occur). 

but the action of the preceding jv caused ihem to be also 

worli, world, worth, forms which are still retained, though the 

'7 lias really been changed still further into a, and af^er^ards 

' unroundeii." The A. S. sweord became M. E. swerd, suvrd; 

whence, by the entire toss of w, the mod. E. sord (as we 

should rather spell it). The change of <r to or is also 

' Sec the lost footaotc od p. 405. 




cominon in words of French origin, and is par(icuhrl)' 

sinking in the word titrk, pronouwced a> dark, and 

^actually spelt Clark wlicn used an a jiropcr name; also 

^bn such words as vtrmm, iinhtrttly, Ac, volgsrly varmin, 

^m'vartilv. Ac. 

H The con/usion above mentioned, between rr and ur, 
H«ometiRia affects the kpc-Iling. Thm A.S. itomait, M.E. 
^ Itrnen, is now turn; ttorl, M. K. f/ierl, is now (hurl ; A.S. 
ierslati, M.E. btrsltn, is now iurti', A.S. tori, rorniU, s. 
pfseriousoess). terit, became, regularly, M. E. <rl, trtiesl. erihf, 
[but arc now oddly spelt earl, tartutl. earth, in order to pre- 
Iwrve an archaic spelling, which shews that, in Tudor Eoglisb, 
[ the e was ' open," as in mod. E. ere. 

§ 383. The Xii.\mi\ I followed by / 01 m pcrscrves the 
[0/1/ sound, though lengthened, of a preceding a. but is it- 
I self lost ; as in A. S. eeai/, M. E, ealf, E. eal/{^TOTi. kaaf); 
[A.S. heal/, M.E. half, E. half (pton. haa/*) ; .\.S. ttalm, 
Iborrowcd from Lai. pialmut, Gk. i^aKiiit, is pedantically 
upell pialn. but pronounced laam \ A. S. palm, from Lat. 
ttlma, is now pronounced paam; A.S. nvealm, M.E. 
tpno/nt, is pronounced kwaam. Xhc combinations //, M, 
\li remarkably affect a preceding a, as id «//, iald, malt; 
lie combination />( produces ilie same effect on the a, but 
/ is lost, as in vaii. The pnxe«N i* carried a step 
'ftirthcr in A.S, ea/J, Mercian a/rf, did, M.E. old (probably 
pronounced as romic fi<wtf), mod. E. o/J. So also in ce/t/, 

I told, told, ttfi. The combination Id also lengthens a pre- 
ceding / ill monosyllables ; hence A. S. tUd, M. E, thilJ, 
is E. ehlld; A.S. m\ld is E. mild; A.S. uMd is E. te-i/rf; 
but the short t is preserved in ehildrm, Mildred, an<! wilder- 
nesi. Tlic rule does not ajiply to gild or ^ild, liecause these 
are from .K.S.y, as Utg^ldan, fyldait. But A.S.gild, a pay- 
> So alw ia tbe derinlivM ealvt, iaJve. Tlie A. S. udi/i» the mod. 
^ ja/tv. mknuly prgnouuucd ■■ uwc or mIo : ibc fomwt li more 


vi ■ 




[Cur. XIX. 

mcnl, Dovr usualJj' spelt gtaid, and pronouDcvd gild, sbouJd, 
by the rule, bavc a long i; and in faa I hzve frcqtwtitlf 
hcuni it so proDounccd in the compound guild-htill (romic 

§ SOS. Wc thus sec how A, g, i», r, and / affect a pre- 
ceding vouvl; it rctnains to note that ic olini rcmarkaUj 
affects a following a or 9, if short ; and, in A. S^ a follow- 
ing i. The same effect may be produced by tiih and ^ 
Thus tn/ff, viAal, qutuk arc pronomnced as if with o. Le- 
wait (riming nith km), wol, guoth ; and tcwt, woru are pro- 
nounced as if with u, Le, teun, UMrst (conik wra, to/M). 
KxsmpicM in words of native origin an: wallet, n a Ue w , 
walnul (romic waon?(), tean, wohI, teanien, war, nyard, Wte- 
lock, warm, warn, warfi. uvrt, tfat, watA, ma^, waMi, 
waUr, waltie; viharf, \iihal. Qtmlm (pron. kwaam) is a 
native iroid, but here the a i> controlled by the foUovi-ing 
i"* \ \ jfi*- And again, wc have : jtvaddlt, tu/aUou'. both 
a. and v,, noamf. twan, noap, noard, swarm, tvoart, Jtrar/^r. 
twath, suxdh (spell swarlh in TveEfth Night, ii. 3. tbi). 
ttmlht^- In Iwaag, the a is kept Ukc the a in sang, by the 
inllucnce of the foUoinng >f. Next, ve have: uv//", k«- 
man, wonder, word, toori, vxrld, wcrm, vserntivood, worry, 
worst, wont, worshifi, wori, wfr/A. Such worKb require 
care, because the A. S. vowel may be very differail. Woi/ 
is A. S. av^; womun is A. S. ui/man, $ 349 ; wwi is Al. E. 
wtrJt, A. S. wtvrt; wtrWn M.E. icvr/d', A.S. wim'ld; werm 
is A.S. vyrm, &c. The u-ord tosmb is curious; the A.S. 
wanA became M. £. womb, by the influence of wi, just w 
tat^ became M. £. tomb ; but the modern >ouuds of wvmb 
taA tomb are differeniiiiied by the effect of the w. In Am, 
who, from A. S. twi. Atnf, wc sbould have had, by the unnl 
cliangc Etoro & to long 0, such forms as two, wht, pconooixtd 
ss wiiiien and riming uith go; but the ui has altered the 

' Tbc verb t» nvalht I*, huwner, (Ki)«n>tl]r pranoaacnl u iwtuc 
mrUh, i.e. villi a u ia/alt. 





sound from J to £ (romic on to ««), and thcD disappeaied, 
leaving /a, im (romic luu, Ami). 

It mxj be a<kted ilut an A. S.g, kRct a vowel, and IT me- 
dial, commonly becomes w, and Utc to ihcD coalesces witb the 
vowel to form a diphthong. Thn.s A.S. dragon Lt M.E. draw- 
m, £. Jraui; so aJso A.S. Affii. M.K. jdmv. E. ^iic; A.S. 
ffu^ii, K. mtfto ; A. S. u^a, a cutting mstrunieRt, E. saw ; 
A. S. fi^w, a saying, E. saw. £. law is .A. S. ^w, but this 
is quite a bte word in A. 8., and piobnbly a mere borrow- 
ing fixHD None ; cf. Swed. lag. a law, Iccl. I6g (plural in form, 
but singular in sense), a law. 

§ 884. When w and / are adjacent, tlic w may affea 
Uk ^Y>wel whether it precede)) or follows it. A remarkable 
example appears in A. S. aviibt, preserved as £. guid. By 
tbc action of the vi, thiti A. S. word ali«o appears as ewudu, 
and (by Iom of ur) ax tudu ; whence £■ fud. Again, E. wood 
is from A. S. ta»du ; but this is a late form, put for an earlier 
tadii, as in uuidairndt, woodlniie, in the Corpus Glossary of 
the eighth ccniivy, 1. iB ; this explains how it comes to be 
cognate with Icel. vi3r, O. H. G. wiiu, and even with O. 
Irish ^(/, a tree, a wood ; and how the bird called a woodwa/t 
a also tailed a wHwall, wHlal. or witloL 

In tlK combination (W.dic i is apt 10 turn into *, the resulting 
*w being a diphthong. I'hus A. S. niwt is £. new. A. S. , 

Aw is M.E, bewe. but U now spelt A«m; A.S. to is M.E. ^ih'H* '"■) 
ofgh or tw, DOW spell^rw. Ilcncc we can expl^ uaiMwd, ~ ' '' ^ 
from A.S. utwtard, lit. a sty-ward, where i/i is sbon for i/ig 
=sl^u. The A. S. sl^, a sty, is a very old word; see 
Sweet, O. E. Texts, p. 513. 

f M6. (14) Oonaoeooectf fomu. The number of wofds 
in English wluch are either spelt alike, sounded alike, or both, 
is very large. This is in a great measure dae (o ibe low of 
inflexions or other changes, wtuch have brought words into 
similar forms that were once difTercni. I use Ihc word eon- 
ptnH€ advisedly, ibr it v^uld accm that there is a n-al Imdtn^ 


COyPLUBflCE OF FORMS. (Cn**. Xir. 

in our language for dtflfereni words (o flowu H were together, 
just as two drops of ratn running <lown a wiixtow-ponc are 
ver)- likely lo run into one. It is panly due to confusion, my 
slight distinctions being easily broken down. Hence it Is that, 
when clilTercnt wortls come to riicmbU one another, il i» oc- 
casionally round that one of (be pair or Ki, osually the one 
which is either later in form or IcM usual, has imflered some 
slight violence in order lo make it agree uiih the other exaetty. 
I have nowhere seen this l»w or tendency slated, but it is cer- 
tainly true in some cases, and ought to be considered. For 
example, we find the A. S. sitnd, adj., healthful, and A. S. nmd, 
a strait of the sea, already existing in the earliest times u 
different words, from different roots, but alike in form. Of 
course IwUi of lhe«e, in oourte of lime, l>ecame scunJ in 
modem English ; § 380. But in M. E. a third word arose, 
viz. toun, borrowed from Anglo-French tmm or fir>r(Lat aoc. 
fonum), and t)earing a very close rcserablanee to the u-ofcfa 
above. Confusion easily resulted, and a new form toundwia 
produced, with the sense of ' noise ' ; the excrescent d being 
easily and naturally added on account of the word being 
strongly accented, as exprexsve monosyllables fre<)uenily art 
This is a clear case of conGucnoe. Again, there is a fish 
called a larse; but the name is frei^uenlly written Am, be- 
cause ^s is a fnmiliar form, and ham is not. When we 
have lo rcmemlwrtlic spelling of so many ihousandsofwonli 
by tlie look of them, we naturally spell as many as possible 
alike, to Ktve trouble. Tlie word wUlt, a shell-fish, has been 
lotturcd iniowktlk, because lofHli w^i once a known word in 
another sense, viz, that of protuberance. Bum, a stream, » 
frequently written bmm ; it is then spelt like houm, a Itmtl. 
littrthm H now always burden, owing to confluence with ibc 
-burden of a song; again, the burden ot a song is actnall/ I 
miMjicll lo make it more like its twin word ; it ought, of 
course, lo be either burdon or btmrdoH, with Baffin -on, \M 
the F. suffix succumbs to the E. one- The word crmth, a 

I >87.] 




fiddle, of Wcl&h origin, bas been conformed to ihe ramilbr 
£. crouiJ. I Icat-e it to tbe rewler to (iixl more exain]>les; 
sec the next section. 

$ 386. Words of different origin which have ihtu nut 
together are oomtnonlj' calletl homonymt. Striclly speaking, 
(hey are of two kinds, i.c, ciihcr kom<^apht or iomcfAonet. 
HvmC'grapki (from ypafo*, to write) are such as are ^itll 
alike ; hsmophotm (from ^vvji iround) sire juch as are sounded 
alike. Homographs arc commonly also homophone^ but 
ihere arc just a few exceptions, very trying to a child learning 
to read. Exami^cti are: bmi (to slioot with), iaw (of a ship); 
gilUfiX A lUJi), fr//, a tii^uid measure; Itaii, a mcUl, leaJ, to 
conduct : bau (of a house), Itast, Xo glean ; lm>tr, to let 
down, hteer, to frown; rdpoii. a bird, rai'tn, to plunder; jett-, 
%., tow, v.; jir^r, s., kar, v.; pronounced, respect ii^cly, acconl- 
ing to the romic spellings lou, Ban ; gil, pi ; Ini, liiJ ; iiu, 
lih ; iou>r, Imur ; rtivn, rtn^n ; sau, sou ; liir, lar. Other 
examples, ail perhaps of French origin, arc due to variations 
of accent, a.<i in the case of d/strt and desfrl. e'nlranct and 
aUriiKt,pr/iml vm^prts^t, the usual nilc being tlial the verb 
H accented on the root-syDabIc, but the substantive on the 
prefix. I liave git>en a fairly oompleic list of homographs, 
under the title of ' Homonymx,' in my Dictionary'. I tball 
only add a few remarks to shew how conRucnce has often 
taken place naiarally, owing to the loss of inflexions or to 
peculiar habits of spelling, in words of nalJw origin. 

1 3*7. The A. S. angul or angtl, a fish-hook, regularly be- 
came M. E. angil or angtl, but the F. habit prcrailcd of 
writing final •!{ for final -tl, tlius turning i( into atigU. It 
thus became a homograph with angU, a ci>mer, of F. origin. 
The A.S. btalu {for 'Mu), became M. E. bale, i,c. evil, by 
the almocrt uniwrKil tubslttulion of final -e for nearly all in- 
flectional forms. Our bait of goodt is not from mod. F. 
balit, but from 0. F, halt. The A. S. 6eifraan (=Mercian 
' See alw Koch's CranunBtik, i. tii-tiJ. 



[Our. XIX. 

^cian ?) I>ecame M. E. btrkm ; wh«ncc, \i-} the change from 
tr 10 ar (sec § 3S1) the mod. K- verb to bark. TIk hark di 
a tree is of Scaud. origin, from the base hark- of locL 
b&rkr (gen. bark-ar\ TIk F. vord barque hu )>eeD re- 
spell iNirk to agree willi these. A curious example is seen in 
the oltl word biU, A. S. b^l or b^U^, in the $cni* <rf a small 
nunoui; it sremcd more Daniral lo aaaoctaie it with the 
verb to boil than with the biU from Ibe liver; and it was 
altered accordingi}-. It is needlen to multiply instances, as 
many cxami>les can easily be traced by the historical metbod. 
1 will just add one more ; llie M. E. adv. wtl is now ^kU, 
becauM: we usually write the / double when 6nal ; on tbe 
other hamt, the At. E. sb. xwKr has lost iu final r, and 
is thus reduced Erom a dissyllaUc form to the monosyt* 
labic otf/A Ttus is a good example of the production of 
a pair of homographs by ioeniabk processes. 

5 388. We have also MKral jKiirs of homophones. Tliese 
can usually be easily explained by tbe hisiorical method. 
Thus o/r is M. £. a!e, A. S. tatu (Mercian '<>/«) ; but <»r is 
for tit*, from M. E. tSat, A.S. tglan, lo be IrouUciNniic, 
a verb formed from the adj. <gU, cognate with Goth, agha, 
difiiculc, troublesome, Btal, M. E. bilm, from A. S, biaiam. 
is spelt with la to represent that the Tudor-English soimd 
WM thai of open t (romic ac) ; whilst hfti, RL K. btl*. A. S- 
iJit, from Lat. btla, had the sound of tlou e. Tbe spell- 
ings of s(n and sun are curious, and ft is not easy 10 kc 
wby they are now diflcreni, unless an express attcmpc was 
made to distinguish them lo the ej-e, perhaps on ibc groond 
that a distincUoQ had long been kept up. The A. S. forms 
were sunn and turme lespectitvly, in tlie latter of whidi tbe a 

> ' FnuKutti (lie), vcanr, byle': Wtlchfi Glonarics, ed. Wlldks. 
144. ti; ' Funmiulm, wcarto, mti byl,' id. 145. 151 ' Carimmmti,^ 
byUi,* a. 199. *£. 'I'lim: an two Ibnw, ty/, hum. ; ud ijli, fan. 

■ ' Know ye oixht «h>t Dtlse IxMca «WT ' Matlii, ed. ^S'bcalbj, ' 




was distinctly made double. Owing to the use of the M. E. 
o to denote short u, which Mr. Sweet calls ' a well-known 
feature of Middle English',' these became sont and sonne 
respectively, spellings which may be found at least as late as 
1481, in Caxton's Reynard the Fox, ed. Arber, p. 23, 11. ao, 
38. Skelton has varying spellings, but both words still 
have 0. In Shakespeare's Tempest, the former is son or 
iontu, the latter is sun. 

Inasmuch, however, as the best method of distinguishing all 
such homophones is by tracing them back to their original 
A. 5. forms, it is unnecessary to pursue the subject further*. 

' Hiator]' of Eog. Soimds, p. 149. 

' A lilt of HomophoDel ii given hj Koch, i. 331. 



§ 388. At the end of the bst chapter we oonsidcnd 
some examples or confluence of forms, produciDg bomoii5Bi&. 
Thb will therdbrc be a conveaicnl {ilaoe for givug soine 
examples of dinorfiAitm, or the appearance of ifae same 
word under a double fonn. Such double forms are most 
common in ttiat \tut of our bnguage wbicli is of Romance 
or Latin origin. Thus the Lat balsamutn, Gk. ffdX^oftim, ba» 
((ivcn us (he vord ia/sain ; but ve also have the same vx>rd 
in (he form ia/ni, due to a French modificaiioTi of the Latin 
word. These double forms have convenient)/ been called 
Jouiltft^, and a full List of Doublets is given io my 
Etymological Dictionary. I ^atl only i»o()ce here a few 
exainpIcH of doublets in words belonging lo ibe oUest 
period or of natit% origin. 

$ 300. Doublets arc sometiotes due to a difference of 
dUIecu Kxunplcs are »een In ilie Southern Kngli»h ritiffr. 
bridgt, birth, tlmreh, ihrtd, as distinct from the Norlbcm 
''■tf. ^W- birk, kirk, isrtid. Or ibcy arc due to the 
&ct that we have sotnetimes borrowed a word from 
a cognaw lai^uagc, when wc already poMCMcd il is oat 

' Ii u t)«st to %tvf to thi* DBist, though ll is not alwrnTft lefledlir 
(xaot. In ■ few c*(c* wc haiY really trifirli, at ikrtt famu of ■ wont, 
■s when ihc Ltl. tA^rtu >ppnn ibo at ckrir uid fwW, or w1m> wr 
Invc three iptUiagi, as caJJiVK, tauU/na, wul thaUrtn, 





own ; ll>e reason being, probably, tliat il was not used in 
prcciDcly ibe same sen«. Wc already had the wrb to ihakk, 
A. S.^(cca»\ but it was u»ed in raihn a mtricled mdw; 
hence we liorrowed (he cognate Dutch dtchn in Ibe six- 
teenth century, to express the notion of Jftting, or covering 
in a more general manner. The following are examples of 
doublets of native words, probably of dialectal origin. A. S. 
ameOe, amc/e; E. rmmel, also contracted to aiU. A. S. 
na'du, also rudu ; E. suid, tud ($ 384). A. S. dynt, a blow ; 
£. dint, also denl. A. S. ddl, a portion ; K. JeU, whence the 
verb d^lan, to deal, and the sb. dttl, a portion, 1'^ dial, sb., 
which is practically a doublet of d^. A. 5. gamen, M. E. 
gamen, whence K. gamt awl the urcbaic form gammon (so 
spell by confusion with a gammon of bacon). K. o/iuw, often 
abortencd to iviu. E. ^ differentiated as ^ E. teaiiry, 
also ifiabhy, with tk for se, A. S. Kaitran, whence the 
archaic fonn ttalltr, and the hlcr shalltr. A. S. stir/; E. 
ilaff, pi. slavts, whence the later form slave. E. louse, belter 
and older form lose. M.K. losen, from nn A.S. fonn */Aiian 
(not found), of which the contracted form is A- S, /^san, the 
original of the <ioublet leaie. A. S. fiir/iait; E. lit'r/, or by 
metathesis IhritlK A.S. «; whence E. /o and loo. A.S. 
ii(j*r ; E- etiltr, also »//<■/■, with vowel-shortening and doubled 
consonanl. £. walUl, probnhly a diAiblc of vtalllt (( 361). 
£. nn^ 10 know, spelt wttt by Spenser, F. Q. L 3. 6, hjr 
ft ticcDtious lengthening of the vowel. A. S. wihi; E. v}ighl. 
and also uAry, the h in the latter fomi bi-ing misplaced. 
A. S. vxald, M. E. itw/i/, altered to E. tiWrf (or o/i/ in 
Shakespeare) bjr the influence of w on the following nm-el 
(§ 383) ; !ll-'x> <i(*<^l( u^-iM prolnbly by a |>edantic revival of 
Ibe A. S. spelling in the sixteenth century. ^.Y^wraffm, 

' Strictly >p«akinc, the A. S. /ivt-aM codM only eivekmod.R.rl/A'i ; 
ef. M. K- litrfhen, T, t'lovman, B, xix, aji. Tile vowel it, of eourtc. 
liomiwcd from Ibe sli, A. S./ifv, duL/dv/. 

* The tbint (ran. drill, it bonowcd ^m Dolch. 

4l6 DOUBLETS. [Ceat. XX. 

to vrap, W2S sometiines spelt wlappm, whence (by toss of n*) 
the form lap, in the sense to ' wrap up.' 

' Indulgent Fortune does her care employ. 
And, smiling, broods upon the naked boy : 
Her garment spreads, and lafs him in the fold. 
And covers, with her wings, from nightly cold.' 

Dryden, Translaiion o/Juvmal, Sat. vi. L 786. 

§ 891. In some cases the native word finds its twin form 
in Scandinavian. Examples are seen in A. S. dell, E. dell, 
cognate with Icel. dalr, E, dale (but see 5 392)- A. S. yfil, 
E. evil; Icel. il2r, E. ill. A. S. fram, later from, E. from \ 
Icel. fr&, E. fro. Mercian mik (in the Vespasian Psalter, 
Ps. 118. 70), E. milk; ci^nate with Swed. mjblke, miit, 
whence E- mili, soft roe of fishes, by substitution of / for k. 
A. S. rdd, E. road; Icel. reitf, Norlhem E. raid; cf. our 
phrase ' to make an inroad! A. S, rdran, E. rear ; Icel. 
reisa, E. raise. A. S. rdcan, rdcean, E. reach ; Swed. dial- 
raka, to reach, rakafram, to reach out, whence E. rake, used 
of the projection of the upper parts of a ship, at both ends, 
beyond the extremities of the keel. A, S. sagu, a saying, 
E. saw; Icel. saga, whence saga as an E. word. A. S. hSi, 
E. VDhoh; Icel. hall, E. hale. A. S. wyrt, E. wort; Icel 
r6l, E. roof. Sometimes both the forms are Scandinavian; 
such seems to be the case with Icel. skyrfa, E. ikiri, mo^fied 
to shirt. Icel. sMfa, Swed. skuffa, to shove, whence E 
scuff-li, modified to shuffle. Icel. skrakja, modified to screech 
and to shriek. Sometimes one of the words is native, and 
the other Dutch; as is the case with E. thatch and Du. 
decken, mentioned above, § 390. Other examples are E. 
thrill, cognate with Du. drillen, to bore, also to drill 
soldiers; also A. S. wa^gn, M. E. 7tmjft, E. wain, cognate 
with Du. jvagen, whence E. waggon, formerly spelt wagon '. 

' It is cmnmcin to derive E. wagon from A. S. v/agn, which I beliere 
to be Eioiply impossible. The A. S. ; in mch ■ poitlon regalulf 




§ 80a. An E. word frcquenOy has a twin foim in a word 
borrowed from I^ttn or French. Thua E. knot is cogriate 
with Lai- ncdus, whence E. ««fr. E. naktd is cognate wiih 
LaL nudu, whence E, nude. E. word is cognate wjih Lat 
lurtum, whence E. vtrb. Again, E. ktarl Is ccgnaie wilh 
Lat. eor. whence O. F. rpr, cotr, E. cert. E. namt is n^nate 
wiib LaL nomtn, whence O. F. inwn. Htm, E. noim. E. ship 
is cognate wiUi O. H. G. fit^ whence F.<'.rfu^(inCot);rave), 
E. ikiff. E. teard, verb, is cognate with O. H. G. warUn, 
O. Sax. ivardSn, Middle G. tvarden (Schadc). whence O- V. 
guardtr, garder, E. guard. Similarly ihe native words wile 
and im'st, sb., are doublets of the fonns guilt, guitt, borrowed, 
UiToagh French, from the Frankish. The Latin word wuia 
was borrowed in Uie A. & form^yiKV, with mutation of « toy, 
whence K. inch ; at a later period it was rc<borrowetl in the 
F.fbnn owue (O. F. untt). 

BoUi forms may be Latin. Tht» the T^t. lonula was bor- 
rowed in the early A. S. form Icpuil, and applied to the Ucusta 
marina, or lobaer; this early form hpust was afterwards 
made to look more like a native word by lurninj; it into 
i^ftslrt, whence K, lebsttr ; at a later jwriod, the same word 
was re-borrowcd in the form lorust, and apphcd to a certain 
winged insect. Tlie Lat. ilrupput was borrowed in the 
A. S. form tiropp. whence E. strop ; at a later period, this 
\.%.ttropp was turned mto strap'. Ftmt ax\i fount arc men 
varbnis of A.S. /^nt, borrowed from Lat. ace. fonlan (5 38o)> 
Tsn and tun both answer to A. S. timnt, a non-Tculonic word 
of doubtful origin. 

In some cases we find that llie doublets are not txatify 

p«ifn Inio part of « diphthong ; IncJml, even In A. S. Wf »lr«iil)r liad 
ibt uontnulcil fonn itwr. Afpiin, I do not luppoK that ■aragtti wm 
enr heaid of in England till thcri»teemh centoijr. ( mjCoadM 
Diet. ». T. WagiM, letd • XVI tent.' for • X IV cent.') 

' I hiiuw »r no instance of i/rd/ torlicr than in Shak.Tw. Nt. 1. j. 13. 
W«]o, howc(«r, find ui A. S.dinin.j/m/w/.M- E.<rr4/W/: (ocWiight't 
Vocabclarin and Stratmuin. 

VOt. I. 





equinlcnl, but (JifTeT slightly fn the rorm of the suffix. Tlitti 
iak, Iccl. dalr. answers to a Tcut. fonn dala ; whereas ifeff 
amwOT to DAI.JA. I now find that the £.^r is not (as aid 
in niy Dictionary) of Scand. origin, tnit is ptcdxcly the 
A. S. hfrt, which Mr. Sweet, in his Oldest E. Texts, calls s 
plufal kI)., an<l iranslales by 'dwellings.' The word b 
evidently formed by mutation ftom A. S. b6r. a bower ; so 
that bower and iyrt are. practically, doublets, though dif- 
ferent in use ; the former was usually allotted to ladies, bat 
the l.nter to cows. 

§ 383. Oomponnd Words. Compound words, such as 
head-acht, are exlremely corotnon In English, and the 
nujority of them arc compounded of iwo subdantives, the 
•ease of the compounds being obvious. But it is worth 
observing that there are some compounds, of purely native 
origin, which are of such aniitjuiiy that their fbno haa 
suAeied considerable alteration, with the result thai dieir 
sense is by no means obvious until their oldest forms have 
been discovered. I give below, for the reader's informs- 
lion, a few of ihc most interesting. The results are stated 
with all brevity; fuller inronnation will be found in my 
Dictionary. Some of these words are noticed in Morris*! 
Hist. Outlines, p. sax; but the present list ia coosiderably 
fuller. I shall, however, make no scruple of quoting at 
length (in §394) Morris's description of the various modes 
in which English compounds ate formed. 

§ 394. I. Substantive Compotmds. 

(1) Substantive and substantive. 

(a) Descriptive ; as gar-lie, iptar-piaiU, evn-a'dt, Ac 
[Here Itelong^^VM^-x^, Amg'tiem.^ 

(i) Af^xMiitional ; as eak-trn, bttih-irtt. 

(c) Genitive ; as h'tu-man. Tins-day, doMiu-dof. 

{J) Accusative ; as man-hUer, ilMd-thrdding. 

{t) Substandvc and Adjective : /ra-mnn, mtd-day, itoei 
iird, aldtr-mm. [Sec mid-riff, ntigh-birar in $39S.l 





(3) SutKtantive and Ntimcral : twi^i^hi, sm-n^hl, fni- 
tagkl[%cc%zti\\ two-fol4. 

(4) Subsuwiive and Pronoun : uif-tfUtm, stlf-wHI. 

(5) SutnUntive and Verb: grind'tlenf,whtt-ilcnt,pin-/M, 
wng-tail. rtar-meut* [see below], bakt-koust, atasA-hii, piek- 
foeit/. A Hubauntive Ib often qualified by another mbstaji- 
tive. [0 which it tv joined by a preposition, as man-of-war, 
wili-o'-iht-msp. Jack-a-l&nttm {when? a=o=o/^, brciiief-in- 

II. A4J4ctiT0 Compounds. 

(i) Substantive and Adjective ; in which the Bb. has the 
force of an adverb ; as blood-rtd ■=. red ah blood, snow-whi/e 
= white as snow, tea-sui, a'ck through the sea. firt-^eof. 
proof against fire, (one-shapfd, foglf-ryrrf. lion-h^ttrttd. (Here 
belong moH-fy, wil-/ul. harl-Ust, Ac] 

(a) Adjective and Sulmtanlive, denoting possession, a* 
bart/eot. (In tbc corresponding modem fortos the sb. has 
taken the pp. sufiBx of weak verbs, as bare-fooUd. bare- 
firaiitd, Ihrrt-ioriurfJ. Just as the suffix -n» in gold-tn 
denotes possession, so does -rrf in bool-td, thwldtr-td. fonns 
to which Spenser and other Elizabethan writers are very 

(3) Particifnal combinations, in which the participle is the 
last ekmcni. 

(a) SubMantive and Present Participle, in which the first 
element is tlic object of the second ; as tarih-tkakmgf hforl- 
rtndiHg, *ar-pitTemg, li/t-givnig. 

(4) Adjective and Present Participle, b which the first 
element ts equivalent to an adverb; as dttp-miitit^, /rtih- 
looking, t/J-teciing. 

(1-) Substantive and P«rfect PaiticJpLe; as air-/td, earfi- 
iom, molk-ealen. 

(d) A<lieclive and Perfect Participle; as dear-iwglU, 
fuU'ftd, Aigh-iom. Cf. well'ireJ, where utU is an ad- 



[Cup. XX- 

zn. Verbal Compoundn. 

(i) Sub<ii:inlivc and Vert> : baek-tite, broa>-htat, Hoott-wr'ni, 

(3) Adjective and Verb: iry-mtru, iftmi-JitmJ, 

(3) Atjverh and Verb: erost-^uttiion, deff{io off), don (d» 
on), *c. 

The above account may be uaefiiUy compared with the 
full account of Compound Words, trith x Scheme of diffetenL 
(Tomposiiioii o( N»un-lnsi», given in Ptile'x Note* on 
Na1opSkhy:iniim, Cambridge, 1881, pp, j-9. 

i 396. XJ£t of Compounds, of native origto, io wbieb | 
tlie origin haa been more or leas obAcured. 

Agnail, formerly angnait; A. S. ang-rurgi; of which Dr. 
Murray writes : ' a word of which the application, and per- 
haps the form, has been much perverted by pseodo-clytno- 
logy. The O. E. [A. S.] angiurgi is cognate with O. H, G. 
ungnagel. Fries, ongntil, ogmii ; from ang^ (Gothic aggtina. 
cf. ang-ium), compressed, tight, pamrul, aod nagl (Goth. 
tiagh\ n^. The btter bad here tlic senw, not of " finga-- 
nail," iinguix, but of a nail (of iron, etc:.) elavitt, hence a hard, 
round-headed excrescence lixcd in ihe flesh ; cf. [A. S.] 
wer-nagt, K. viarnti, a wari, Ut. " man-nail " (as oppoM<l to 
"door-nail," "wull-nail," etc). So, Lai. ehmm wax both a 
nail (of iron, etc.) and a com in Ihe foot. Subsequently 
■nail was referred to a fingtr- or toe-nail, and the meaiun^ 
gradually perverled to various (imaginary or real) alfec- 
dons of the nails.' Tlie seniiet are : (1) a com on tlw 
toe or fool; (3) any painful sn'clling, ulcer, or soro near 
the toe- or 6i]gcr-nail; (3} a hang-naiL Hang-t^ b 
a perversion of the true fonn. ' putting a phuaJble toeanii^ 
into it." 

Alone, also shortened to lODO ; for aU anr. 
Atone ; coined (rom af and one; i.c. to ' set at one,' ' 
reconcile. It originated In the phrase ' to be at one,' Khicb 





\% a translation of ihe Anglo-Fn-nch phrase ulre a an, \x> 

Auser. corruption of natiger ; A. S. na/u-gir, later lufi- 
gdr, a, tool Tor boring a hole in ibe naw of a wheel ; froni 
A. S, na/u. a nave ; gdr, a piercer, thai wliich gore*. 

Augbt, lil. ' ewr whil,' i. e. e'er a whil, anything whatever ; 
A, S. AvM, contracted form 4Jil ; compounded of A. S. d, 
ever, and tit'ht. a wight, whit, ttiing*. Cf.O.H.O. /owihi, 
aughl, the cognate form. The A. S. d is cognate vrilli loel. 
«' (whence E. «fc), O. H. G. A, G./f, Goth. aiw. ever ; where 
aav is from the sb. aiws, lime, an age, allied to iM.. auum, 
Ck. liiiv, a ure-tiine. Cf. Glc. alii, atl, ever. 

Bandos, M. £. iafid-dt^ge, i. e. a dog tied up by a band, 
a waich-dog or fcrociouB dog. 

Barley, A. S. Imrlic, i. e. that whicli is like btar, wberc 
bear is eiiuivaleiil to A. S. ierc, also explained as barley. Dr. 
Murray shews that the suffix is certainly otir liit, not A. S. 
tor. E. l/ii, as usually said '. 

Bam, contracted from A. S. here-ern, a place for barley; 
from A. S. bin, barley, and <rrn, em, a place, store-house. 

Bridal, put for iridr-a/r, t. e. bride-feast. The M. K. a/f 
frequently occurs in the sense of ' feast,' 

Bridosroom, for bride-goom, bride-man ; A. S. guma, a 
man. The second r is dragged in by the influence of Ihe 

Brimstone, M. E, bren-tioon, burning stone. 

Catorwttul, M. F. caieniKrwm, to make the wailing noise 
of cats. Cater = Icel. kaltar-, as in kallar-ilann. cat's skin ; 
orig, gen. otkutir, a cat. Cf. nigkltr-laU (Chaucer). Wau-l 

* ' II ae penicni titn a wft,' i.e. thej (Henty 11. sod Beket) eonld 
not agree i I.a Mme lU Kr!t. cd. Gluvet (Kecord Scriet)^ p. no, L 8. 

' In my Dklioooiy. I h[LTc npliincti ibe pre&x i in thin word ■* ilioii 
To in, one. ThUi* ailip (or which Icunot weonDt.ttnd u or count 
cstlrcly wionjf. 

' 1 [cg:M that my Didionaiy kivm this f>I*c cxplaoatiea. 

b the frcquendlivc of M. £. latohm, to nuke a ikmsc like 
cstl. ' Where ai/t do toaaif'; R«Him rroni Parnassus, A. ; 

ChiQCOUgh, for eiini'^augA ; (imi = iiiti, a catch in the 

Oobweb, i. c. atlercop-viA \ alter-cep = pobon-bead, al 
s^der. Cf. M J£. fo/^i's, spiders ; Wars of Alexander, L 3300. 

ComUp, prov. E, eawilop, in many (Halccbt; A.S, t&-ttefpt, 
c&slyppt, cow-slop, piece of cowdong. CX led. k^-rAi, a 
primrose, IlL cow-rcfusc. There is no doubt aboat tins; 
the Icel. word is a translation of the A. S. one. So Ox-tip 

Cranborry, (rattcberry. So also G. Krmith'btere. 

Daisy, A. S. tiagts /agt, lit. day's eye, tlie sun with rays. 

Sarling, for dtar-lmg ; A. S. dforlxttg. 

Didappor, lor dive-dapprr ; a diving bird. 

Diatafl; A. S. dislaf, for •dUe-sta/, staff with a bunch oT ' 
Rax on It. Cf. WeslpbaliaD ditstt, a hunch oi^llax ^BrctncD 
WOrtcrbuch, v. 284) ; E. Fried. dUsm (Koolman) ; M. H. C 
^hsi, a disuff, from dthtm, to switiglc Qaz, also to hack^, 
hew (Schade) ; v'tbxs, no. 134. 

Each, A. S. die, for *d-ge-ifc, ever-like ; see Aoght at 

Earwig, car-crecpcr ; A. S, tta'tga, one that moves aboi^ ' 
a beetle ; cf. A. S, wicg, a runner, horse. ' BlaUa (sic), bxi- 
ftiga, wiega*; Wright's Voc. ed. Wttlcker, 196. 18. CL 
A. S. uxg-an, (o move about. 

Bither, (t) adj. in the sense 'one of two '; A. & i^^ir, 
dghaiaptr, for *d-ge-hwajrer, e%'er- whether. See Eoeli. 

Either, (3) conjunction, M. K. riUier, variant (due to 
Lonfusion with the word abot'c) of M. £. mUker, A.S. 
i'/twaPtr ; and therefore dtHTering from the abo\-e in not 
containing the syllable^/. Sec Or, p. 417. 

Elbow, A. S. elbega, also iinbega, Wright's Vocab. aiA. sa.^ 
Elr> = ell ; boga, bow, bending. 

Eleven, A. S. aidhtfon, m^te/an (for '6a.lte/am\ Goth. 




aitftif, Lith. wino'/Ha; one remaining, one over (beyond 
(en). CC Lilh. wHKot, one; also Lith. ltk-«u, remaining, 
al-UMmi, I remain o^-cr, Lat ling-uo ; ■/RIQ, no, 307. 

Bmbor-days; itomhS.ymi-rjyne.dtcaix, comae (iKiucta), 
lit. ' u niiiiunj^ rouiid.' See $ 365. 

Brory, M. K. mtruM, 1, c. cvcr-cach. See Each. 

Farthiog, A. %.f49r9-ing, fiomf/eri-a. founh. ** / "^ ' 

Fortnight, fot/imrUtn night, iwo weeks. 

Furlong, lurrow-long, the length of ;i furrow. 

Fnttooks, (ot/bot-Aooi* ; ^e\l/oot-hooh in Baile/, Phillips, 
and Coles (1784). 

Oarlio, A. S. gdr-Uac, spcar-leek ; from gir, spear. 

Qodwit, A. S.gid wihi, good wiglit, good creature, 

QooAhyttJov God be U'/M^yow', asin OUicilo, i. 3.189 ^Grst 
folio); other spellings arc GoJ B w' y ^Suckling), God b* 
tofye (Allan Ramsay) ; God bwyyu (Marston) ; gcdiwy (J. 
Davies); God by'e (Zvt\ya); <?«/ &y ^ok, Twelfth Nighl, 
iv, 3. 108 (first folio) : sec Palmer, Folk-Eiymolog)-. Il is 
lolerabljr dear that God be with you was cut down 10 G»d 
bay or GoJ buy ; after which, tlie Kentc lieing obscured, the 
word vt,jftt, or you was again appended ; so that the modnn 
E. good-fye really stands for Evelyn's God by't, L c. for God 
be wilh you ye, or God be UfM you you. This is the true 
solution of the mystery, and is not at all ' impossible.' 

Gororow, carrion-crow; from f off, blood, carriocL 

GOBhAwk, t. e. goose-hawk ; Iccl. gUshaukr ; cf, A. S. 

OoBpol, A. S. godspel. At first this word was gid-tptl, 
g;ood tidtngx; 'Euuangtiium, id eii, l/onum nunlium, godspel'; 
Wright's Vocab, 314, 9 ; but iltc o was afterward* shoiteited 
by stress (precisely as in got-ling from gSs), and il was lAen 
commonly supposed 10 mean ' God-s[idl,' or the story of 

' Tnuimaiui Mji thi> U impouiblr, tail th«t It iiandt loi God it fy 
/Ml : AngUi. riii.). 144. lie (brseli (hut ihc plain evidence b tiM otbec 
•m) ; wtKtc t{ ' God be by yuu ' i» be fuuad i 



[C»M-. XX. 

Christ. In ihu laitcr fonn it was traosiucd into Icelandic 
aa gt^^jaU (= God-spell) and m(o O.H.G. z» gclsftl. 
AS if from 0. H.O. g^, God, noi O. I !.G. giul, good Henoe 
the ti^\(va%g9ddtptU (with short 0) in the Omiahdn. 

Oossamor. M.E.fw«i«aur-i^, lit. goosc-samnKr. (SeelMc- 

Qouip, IM. E. god-iii, related in God, a sponsor in 

Qroundsel, a plant, A.S. gnatde-neelge^ ground-swaflower, 
i.e. atiundanc wcmI. But this is a corrupted form. The 
Oldest v.. Texts have gmuieiwifge, uriiich means ' swallower 
of pobon or pus.' »iih rtfcrencc to healing cffccia; from 
.\. S.ganef, maitt^r, pux. GunJ i» used of a tuoning frocn die 
eyes ; and groundsel was good for eye-diseaKe ; Lcechbook, 
L 1. 13. For the spellings gimdeavilgt, gmidaatM^M, sec 
Sweet's 0,E- Texts, p. 9S, I. 976; p. 97, 1. 1850. 

Oruniiel, QroundaUl, llirethold ; from ground and siU. 
Halibut, holy plaice ; for euing on holidays. Also spdt 
/iffylnl (Bailey). Cf. hoH-4ay for h»ly day. 

Halyard, a rope for haling iheyarJt into [dace. 
Handouir, coirupuon of A. S. hand-{«f$ ; where c»ft is a 

Handicap, hand i' (lb') cap^ a node of drawing loli, 

Handicraft, Handiwivk ; the > here answers 10 A. S. 
ge, as in A. S. hani^ewtore . 

Harebell, M. E. hare-MU, bell of the hare. (Otherwise 
explained by lliosc who prefer fancy to fact ; and of late 
years spelt kair-btU, to foster a false etymology.) 

Heifer, A. S. hfyh-fart\ from hdah. high (fiill-gTowD) ; 
and -pre, cognate witli Gk. «^r, a heifer. 

Homlock, M.E. ktmhk, humlok; A. S. k<miie, kymlk, 
iymc/it. oldest forms fymitieo!, ky-mlitt (Oldctx E. 'Texts). 
Sense doubtful; llie sense of lit, lie* can hardly be 'Iceic.' 
but railier ' like ' ; sec Barley above. 



HoBohmaa, \A. E. ktnttnan, henxman, and more cotniplly 
htnchman \ a page ; prob. from late A. S. bengtt, a horse, and 
man. ' Can/frius, hengsi'; Wright'e Vocab. 119.37. The 
precise equivalent o( Iwl. htslamair, a horte-boy, Rroom. 
This explains Hinxman as a surname (Clergy Li»i); rf. 
A. S. Htngttltt-brde, now Hittxhrook ; flettgeiktgtal, now 
IfiMxga/e, Ac. (Index to Kcmblc's Chartcni.) The sur- 
name also occm^ in ihe form Natiman. 

Heriot, ail Anglo-French icspclltng of A. S. fitrt-geatu, 
Ul ' military cqutpnteni.' 

Hoyday, ue. high-day ; M. E. hty, high. 

EUooongh, a modem spelling and travesty of the ok) 
words kkkup and iithi, the Uill older form being fiickock. 
Sick dcnMes a spaunodic gasp ; -oek is a mere diminutive 

HoorbouDd; from hoar, while, and A.S. h£nt, hoar- 

Hobnob, Haboab, orig. at random, talce it or leave it; 
A. S. AaSioH, to have, nabban, not to have. 

Hnmbng; from hum. to cajole, tmg, a terror, bugbear. 

• For Wanricke was a Buggt, that feat'd tfrighiened] vs aU.' 

J HeiL VI, V. X a. 

Hoaay, short for hut-wift = hetat^ft. 

Icicle, A. S. it-gktt; from /J, Ice, andf kt/, a small piece 
of tec. 

IroDm(mger ; fnetiger, A. S. maiigtr*, i* a dealer in 
various (mixwl or mingttj) articles. 

Isliuid, misspelling of iianJ; A. S. ig, fdand, laiiJ. land. 
I'hc Ui. sense of ^ or iC^ is ' belonging 10 water.' It is foimed 
by mutation from A. S. /g, ta, a stream. 

lAdy, A. S. hUf-digt, probably ' kncadcr of bread ' ; ef. 
Gotb. Jtig-an, to knead. 

IiUnmas, A.S. hl^f-naut, loaf-mass; day of ofTcring 

ZiBpwicg, A. S. hUaft-wiiKt. Ki. ' one who turns about in 




Iicmman, Iiemui, A. S. l/c/-man, deu one ; frooi tAf, 
lief, anil maim, a maD or woman. 

Lichgate, c«rpse-g«te ; from A. S. /Er, tbc body, a coipsc. 

Uvellbood, a corralled fonn ; fonnetly M. E. livelode, » 
life-leading, means of living ; from A. S. a/, life ; l^, coctne. 


Irtodstone, Lodeetoue ; from A. S. Ud, a leading, guid- J 

ItCaA, A. S. hlif-ord, prol*. for 'Ud/wtard, a loof-ward. 

Mermaid, lokc-maid ; from A. S. nrrrr, a lake. 

Midrifi; A, S. mid-ri/, for * mid-hri/; Uwa mid, inkJ, . 
4r jf^ the bdly. 

Midwife, from mi'i/, with ; a «x>miui who h witfa : 
a hcltwr. (Not iwtd-wi/e,) 

Mildew, lit. bone/-dew ; bom A. S. melt, mii, hooey. 

MiUuop, lit. ' bread sopped in milk ' ; a soft fellow. 

Misaolthnuh, BO called from fccdiDgon mistlcloc-bernes: ' 
from A. S. mi'sUl, mistletoe. 

Mistletoe, lit. ' birdlime-twig,' A. S. misUi-Uht ; Iroai 
miiUt, mistletoe, also that uhicli ba^ miti or btrd>ltme ; ISm, 
a twig. 

Mole, short for mould-tvarp, tbc animal that thrown op { 

Monda7, A. S, mwan-dag, day of ihe moon. So >bo 
lYuies'dus, Tuesday, day of Tiw (Mars) ; WMm-Juff, day of 
Woden ; 33itatra-dag, day of Tbor (or thunder) ; F^e- 
dag, day of Frigu (Love. Venus); SaJem-dag, day of 
Saturn; Smmmt-d^g, day of tbc Sun. 

Mngwort, roidge-worl, A. S. mucgst/orl; cS.'mytfe, a| 
midge, lit. 'a hummer' ; sec Kluge, 3. v. MOeJhe. 

IVaught, also not ; for tu aughJ ; sec Au^^- 

Kelgbbotir, tit. ' nigh dwcUcr ' ; A. S. n/ai, mgh, h£r, a 
hu&lnndmau, dweller. 

Nicknume, orig. tit-name, i.e. additional name. 

Hightingale, A. S. nihk-gaU, a singer by oigbt. 

* 3!>i-l 



Hightmaro; from A. S. mora, an incubus. 

HoBtrU. noac-thiri. no8c-hol«; A.S. n^Jiyr/. 

Nuucliooa, ^I. K. tume-iehttKht, ti noon-drinlL; from A.S. 
KencoH, to pour out drink. Nom it of 'Lax. origin. [Cf^ 
prov. E. itammut, i.e. noon-meat, with a paraDel acns«.] 

Oakimi, lt[. 'lliu.1 whidi is combed out'; A.S. daania, 
tow ; from 4-, oui, off, and cemban, to comb. 

Oaat-bouse, a kiln for drying hops ; A. S. dit, a drTing- 

OOJol, orig. fullcn Slicks, iliat which falls of ciees ; refuse. 
From off^aA/all. Sec Notes and Queries, 6 S.ix. 155, 131. 

Or, conj.; M. £. oM^r, atUAtr, A. S. 6-kmitptr; see 
Eitlior (3) above, ji. 413- 

Orchord, A. S. erttard, er^tard, also viyrtgtard, i.e^ 

Ordeal, A. S. wdtl, orddl, a dealing out, decision, doom ; 
frocD er, out, and d/l, ddl, a dealing. 

Oxlip, A. S. exan-ilyppt, ox-droppings ; sec Oowslip 
above, p. 4S1. Siyppt=' ihp-ja, vritb mutation of « to jr. 

Pinfold, for pind-fold; from A. S. pyndan, to [>cd up. 

ftoagmire. formerly quaiemir*, a quaking miic. 

Bearmouae, a bat, A. S. hr/re-mtit ; from hr/ran. 10 

Scotftee, free from paying stol or ahcl. i.c. a contri- 

SonniSlit, for itven nigM; a week. 

Sheldrake, for ihtld-drakt, liL shicld-drakc ; a drake or- 
namented as with a shield. 

Shelter, (perhaps) ibe same aa M.E. sluUrewi, thtldimmt, 
a squadron, guard ; from A. S. scild-truma, lit ' sliicld -troop.' 
M. li skeliroun in P. Plowman means defence or sbcller. 

Sheiiir, A. S. uSr-ger//a, a shiie-rceve, officer <rf the shira 

Sladgo-bammer. where hammer is a needless addition ; 
from A. S. tietge, a Iteavy hammer ; from slag-, base of 
slagen, pp. of tUaii, to strike, with muiation of a to '. 




Soothsayer, one vho .tap sooth or tmth. 

Stalwart, -a Utr spelling of slahtorlh, M. E. tlahotr^, 
aialamr3t (St Katharine), A. S. ttrhiyrSt, pi-, serviceable 
(nid or ships), ll seems lo have meant 'good at stealing,' 
as applied to irooiM, litncc sioui, excellent, wjih refcFcnce lo 
•ecuring plunik-r. Al«oexpbincd as 'worth Mealing,' i.c- good; 
or B« stall-vooTlhy, wonhy of a ttall or place. (Unsettled.) 

Starboard, A. S. tl/orbord, steer-board ; tbe dde on which 
(he steersman Mood. 

atarknokod. M. E. Harl-nakal. lit. * lail-nakcd ' ; hence, 
wholly naked. 

St«pobUd. an orphaned child ; A. S. sUepciU; cT. A. S. 
i-il/afiian, to render an orphan, <Ieprive of parents. 

Steward, A. S. tU-voford, warden of the slies or cattle- 

Sciolcleback, the fiKh with smal) npines on ftx back ; frem 
slick, to jiicrce. 

Stirrap, A. S. tttg-rdp. a rope to climb tip by. 

Such. A. S. xmyU, Golh. stoaln'ks = so-like. 

Sweetheart. M. E. mv/e hrrU, sweet hearu dcjir bean. 

Tadpole, a had nearly all poll or bead 

Titmouse, from tU. small, and A. S. mdu, a small bird 
(G. mtis(, not G, maut). 

Topayturry, ori)>. loptyUroy (afterwards oomipily Itipiidt- 
lurvy), proK ^ lop to turty ; cf. tipso-dtittm, afiertrards 
altered to u^ididattm. T^trvy means ovcnumed, from M, E. 
ttrmi, to upset, lorvita, to throw, A. S. *rjfff«, to throw. 

Tvibill, a two-edged bill ; A. S. Aof-, double. 

Twilight, lit. ' double liglit,' hut put for ' doubtful lighf,' 
half light. See above. 

Walnut, a foreign nut ; A. S. wtalh, foreign. 

Waouil, from A. S. wet kdl, be tliou whole, be ia good 

VeOaway, A.S. ictf j^to^. i.e. woci lot vol 

Werwolf, man-wolf: A. S. u»r, a man. 



Which, A.S. hwyU, Goth. hwalHks, lit. ' uho-lilcc' 

WUdomMB, for wiUirn-aeis ; cf. M. K. wildtrnt. a place 
for wild animals; from A.S. wild, wild, A'ltr, aaiinal, vriib 
adj. suffix -nt. 

WoDum. M. E. wimman, A. S. ut/'man, liL ' wifc-mao.' 

Woodruff. A.S. wud^-ri/e, -amdu-reft, ftom A.S. r^ 
aoble, excellent ; a name of praise. Cf. G. Walthna'iltr, 
wood-master, woodruff'. In old Glosaaries wtidtr6fe irans- 
late* Hai/ula ref^'a. Lc. king's spear, usu:ill)- applied lo 
while asphodcL 

Woodwal9, a wood-pcckcr. oriole; M.E. wwkuiale, lit. 
'wood-stmnser,' from A.S. wmIA, foreigner. Cf. M, li. G. 
tDiifu.\il, similarly explained by Schade. 

Woot M. E. 03/; A. S. 6-vit/, for en-wt/, lit ' web upon ' 
or acroos ilie weA. See $ 370. 

World, A. S. wa/riUd, wemti ; lit. ■ age of man,' hence 
age. Ac. From A. S. vyr, man ; itld^, old age ; cf. Icel. 
vtrUd, woild. from vtr and 6U. 

Wormwood, A. S. wirmid, fuller form wert-mid^. lit. 
'thai which prciierves the mind*; from wert'an. 10 defend, 
and m^, mind. Similarly, hellebore was called wide-ltrge, 
preservative against madness. 

Yellow-hammer, for ^ellow-ammer ; see § 370. 

Yeonuua, of disputed origin. Tlic M. F. form is double ; 
M. £. yanan, jfoman, I take the prefix to be A. S. 'gt'a, not 
found*, but equivalent to G.^dii, province, village ; the sense 
being 'villager,' as is that of O. Fricsic gamait. The A. S, 
*g/a, if the accent be on c, wooid become M.E.>r (for A. S. 
g^ gives M. F„_>vw) ; and 'gtd, wiih sliifted accent, would 
become }i\.E.j'0 (for \.S.gtira gives M.E.^ynrc). 

' XKffii ■ corrupt (onn, due to ecvifoiion ; it (fsonld be fMtdiwe. 
Wc alio ^nd WMiAviv and v/Mdmetl, by confutlon irilti F. itat and 
W9tutU. iriih ttftccncc to itt whorli of Icmiv 

» ' Atiinthiun, weicmod " ; ytiiEhl'i Vocah. 19$. 14. 

* The A. S. ^i. B [iioTince, i;iTcn In DIclionailei, tt x complci (iction, 
dne 10 mlttikeli. No A.S. tf^Cdmi tml oaljr A-S. A huihu nlue. 



[Cur. ZZ. 

'>. J*r 

YaB, A. S. gtst. explained by me as for A. S. gt tig, ' yet, 
let it be (so)'; but Kluge («.T./a) giws it u for t/ 
= gt sw^, yea, so. Grein gives */ for ntrf. 

YesterdBy, K.S.geotlra, yesier-, and dag, day. Gtot-tra 
JE a comparative from grot- = Gk. jft*. Skt. Ajw/, yiesterday, 
orifi. t)erhap8 'momiBg." If %oj/fi-(er- = morning beytmd. 

A second lixl of compounds, all of Scandinavian ariglii, 
vill be found at tbe end of Chapter XXIII. 

§ 396. Some derived forma may be called ' petrified 
gramnialic^il formit'i i.e. ilicy arc forms due to ^rammalical 
inflexion, presened as ' petrifactions ' long after the notion 
of inHexioD has passed from tbero. Exampks ar« : fiw, adf., 
short for alive, formerly M. K. ttJiiif, elim, m> fyut, for A. S. en 
Uft, in life, vherc life is tbe daL sing, of tif, life, (ht-ti, 
taii-tt, M.E. on-M, twi-es, are genilival formit, like backwards, 
BtuRt<ar-es. Stld-om, at rare (times), is a datiw plural ; to 
also is nhil-cm, at times. Whi'l-i-t is a gcnltival form, with 
, addition of excrescent /. Why, A. S. hu>^, t% tbe instntmcnial 
casi- of wA*. Sinet, short for stihtn-s, is due to A. S. ta 3^, 
later siif^an, u-itli the addition of an adverbial (genitival) c 
and as A/-m is a dative case, we tet that tbe ->)• in ti-n-ce is 
due lo a dative xuffix, and the -<t to a gcnitiw suffix, lukled 
at a time when the notion of dative waa lost, just as tbe 
notion of genitive is lost now. For further examples, see 
Morris, Hist. Outlines ; such forms, bcitip purely of gram- 
matical origin, can be explained by tbe historical method. 

§ 397. Hybrids. English further abotmdi with Hybrid 
Compounds, i. e. woni* made up from different languages. 
Many of these are due to the use of prefixes or atiffixcs. 
Thus, in a-r<nin<i. the prefix is English, but rotmd Is Frencb ; 
so also in ie-rautt, /irf-yretU. tml-try, vpfT'PoiBtr, mi-oUl 
Id aimtrit, the suSix is Englidi. but aim is French; so aba 
in dukt-dom^/ahf-hood. court-thip, dainli-fusx,p}enii-fiii, thkrl- 
uh,/airy-liie, trouhk-some, gtniat-ly, &C- Bui besides these 
w« haN-c perfect compoutKls, such as these: ittf~iaifr, i.e. 

I 397-] 



eater of beef, where eater is English and let/ is French ; so 
also black-guard, lift-guard, saU-cellar, smaUage. On the 
other hand, French is foUowed by English in eytlil-koU, heir- 
loom, hobfy-hoTM, kerb-stone, scape-goat. Bandy-legged is 
French and Scandinavian. Arehi-trave is ultimately Greek 
and Latin ; while ostrich is ultimately Latin and Greek. 
Inier-loper is Latin and Dutch. Juxla-position is Latin and 
French. Mari-gold is Hebrew and English. Partake, for 
part-takt, is French and Scandinavian. Tamar-ind is Arabic 
and Persian. Spike-ttard is Latin and Sanskrit Mae-adam- 
is-ed is Gaelic, Hebrew, French, and English. There is no 
language in which words from very different sources can so 
easily be fused together as they have frequently been in our 


Earlt Wous or Latin Orisim. 

§ 398. I.atio of tbe First Period. When tbe Eoglisb 
invaded Briioin in tbc fifth centurj- and conqu^ml ibe Cdtic 
inlubiuitu, ihc Lalin language had already preceded them. 
Britain had been a Roman province Tor nearly four hoiulred 
years. The Latin introduced during ibit time among ibe 
Briton.t, and hy them (ranimutted to the Engtish, has bcco 
called Latin of (he Firil Ptriod. It is v'cU koovm that it has 
left its mark upon many place-names. Tbc A.S. cratbr. 
E. ehtiltr, is nothing but an English pronunciation of the 
LaL easfmm, a camp. But there are at least two words in 
common use, v\t. atrett and waU, which also belong to dili 
period; for the Romans had not left tlie island without 
leaving famous trace* of Uicir oocupalion behind them. Oor 
tired. Mercian tlr/i'. is an English form of Lat. ttrSta mm, 
a paved way, sIraJa being ihc fern, of the pp. of Lat. sirmtrt, 
to spread, lay down, pave a road. Our wall, Mercian watt*, a 
merely the Lat. ualltim, a reunpart, borrowed at a litne when 
the I^tin u was stiil w. It must also be rctnembere<d thai 
many Latin words were already bmitiar to most of (he Tea- 
tonic tribes soon afler the Christian era ; so that the Engli^ 
invaders not only learnt some Latin words from the Britons. 

• !^rH \% Herdui ud Kenlldi ; A.a lO^. 

• ffW/ii the Moidufon; Vn)>. Pull. iril. jo ; A-S. imva (I 
note here Ilat /wr, in pUce^MUM, ii I«tiai bat iBod. E. fta k 




but had brought others *ith tliem. Soch words also deaily 
belong to (he Latin of Uic Fir«t Period, but ii is not easy to 
mf pr«c>Ml]r wltat thej «-crc. Sdtl, it is probable that our 
vsme. A. S. itfir, spcU uuin in the KpinaJ Glossatj, 1. 1040, 
also bcloDgB to this period ; and the same may t)e true of 
witk, A. S. wie, A town, spell laiit in a Charter dated 740; 
Ihete words arc borrou-ed. respccdvely, from La[. uinum and 
uiott. The A. S, port, from Lat. porhu. a harbour, is coidiuoq 
In place-names *. Of course, it is also po.isible that tiuch 
vrords were already familiar lo ihc fjiglish invaders before 
they left the coRiincnt ; but thU comes to much the same 
lUng, and we are thus entitled to consider tcifff, wUk (a town), 
P»rt{* harbour), /«i/ (Welsh /n*//, I.ow. I^t. ptiJuUs), mUe, 
pmt (punishment, whence mod. K vb. fo fit'tt), as wcU aa 
ttmt and wa/i, as words belonging to Latin of the First 
Period. Tlvere may even have lieen a few more, vix. among 
ihoK whicl) arc Ufnially reckoned as Iwlonging to the SttMd 
Period ; but this is not a mauer of much consequence, and, 
In the absence of evidence, cannot easily be decided. My 
list of words belonging lo Latin of the First Period is there- 
fore as follows : mile, p»u, v., pool, port, itrul, U<all, nwi 
(town), vaim. All these probably found their way into Eng* 
liili before a.ix goo. 

f 300. Latin of tho Socood Period. ' The English,' 
■ays Dr. Morris, ■ were converted to Christianity about *. d. 
S96, and during the four following centuries many Ijuin 
worxb were introduced l>y Roman ecclesiastics, and by 
English writers who translated Latin works into their own 
bngnage. This is called the Latin of the St<md Period.' 

It is common to reckon amongAl wonLs of thix cluractcr 
sucfa words as tanet, a saint, taUt, a chalice, &c,. but this is 

* CC O. Iriib fin, wine, fltk, % lows Imtminfi'tfm), fil. \ bedce. 
ftrl, a horboiu, //•*«. pine, pftja. pnsiihiocat, all bomWcd wordi; 
iIk Iitih / tMioi; |iul &» Ijit. w. Afjain, ibe boiTcniMl wienl* wiitt, 
mib, fitu tin tbr utow at poniibRitnt), act ill c>>niin«B Tcatonic 
word*. So icdtcil i* ilrat (G. Stra/i). 

^■OL. I, f f 


like))' to mislead. As a inaltcr of fact, ihcse trords uc 
cciiainly found ia A. S., and were ccnaiidf borrowed from 
Latin ; but tiK-jr ore as dead to modera E. a& if ibcf had 
never been knowii. Sainl and thatkt arc paitety FrcDclt 
Conns, and belong to a btcr period ; ibej" cffeciuallv sup-j 
planted such fonns as santl and tolk. In the Mine war 
the ft-ord balsam itt Tound in A. S. but «ms afXcnrards 
and not reintroduced into Englbfa till the sixiMnth centDi]r.' 
Most of tbe lisis of Latin words of Ihe Second Period iteoa 
lO me more or lc*» imjicricct; perhaps ibe Tullott is lliai 
given by Koch, Grammatik, i. 5. As this \* a point of nadi 
interest, I propose to give a fuller and more accurate H«t 
Ifaan (ucli as are generally offered, carefully txehidmg such 
words as lanrl, which have not survii'ed. Ai the «aine time, 
1 take the opportunity of dividing the words into two sett : 
(i) those of pure Latin origin, and (3) those of Greek or 
oilier foreign origin. Some of llicm, a« said above, may 
really belong to the Latin of the First Period, and I sfaall 
include ihese in the list. 

% 400. Worda of puro Latin orisin. found in Anglo- 
Saxon ; inoluding thoee of the Firat Period. Allar, 
A,S. allart, dative (Matt. v. 24); Lai, altart. Ark, A.S. 
arc; Lat. arra. /((^r/. A.S. Mir ; Lat. fr/a (Pliny). Bt,x(i\, 
a tree, A. S. box ; I^ac. buxut. Bex (a), a chest, A. S. fcur; | 
Lat. huxut, buxum. Cainflt, A. S. eandfl ; LaL eaadeti 
Canker, A. S. tOMtr (Bo«worth); LbI. eanetr. Cattlt, A. S,^ 
(oski. used for \jk\.casb/lum. a village. Matt, xxi. > ; bat m 
the sense of 'castle' in A.S. Chron, an, 1137. Chalk, K.S. 
<eaU, Lat. ace. taU-tm, from lalx. Chafman, A. S. cfyfmoM, 
a merchant, from the sb. «&/ below. Chtap, adj.. from S.i 
e/ap, »)>., purdiaM; ; wliidi comus perhaps from LaL eamfio, : 
huckster'. Chtttt, Mercian f(^c{0.£. Texts); hat-easmrl 

' 1 IcflTc thii, u btiog the osu] account. Bat Ktup (t. v. tmifiii)/ 
(bewi ^ooA muMi for«ippo«a( tbat Gotb.iii«/M, to KnAv.H.iamfim,^^ 
Un- hx-f^H, An wotili tdfiHrt Gtrmank origitt, lad la tut way icUtcd 


BAftt.V lATfy fVOSDS. 


Cirtlt (so spell tij- ibc influence of F, etnle), A. S. finut; 
Lat eireulut, dinun. of ct'reut. CoitflanI, Cote, cahb»^ ; 
A. S. eoie, in iJie comp. ha^-tvU, lit. ' hcaih-cotc,' in Wrighi's 
Vocab. 300. 33. 363. 37, and in O. E. Texts ; also spell 
caul, eaw/, cauirl (Boswortlt) ; Lnl. (auli's. Cook. A. S. c6e, 
Lat, ioyrnit. Coop, nol found in A. S. except in ibe mutated 
form (jfpa, Luke ix. 17; but we find O. Sax. t^pa in the 
Freclcvnliorat Roll, I. 13; Uerc 0- Sax. i-^^M = Low Ijit. 
eopa, variant of cu/o, a tub, vat, cask (whence A. S. e^pa, 
with muution of H 10 f). Cotol, A. S, €Vglf, n^tlt^ ; Lat. 
OKuiltu (wlience also O, Irish cxAuli). Cretd, A. S. tr/tfa; 
tmta Lat. rrfJe, I belict« (the first word of the Apostles' 
Creed). Critp, adj., A. S. ^n'tf'; Lat, trispHt. Culler, 
Coulter, a ploiigli-stiare, A. S. miter; Lat. ttitter. Cuhrr, a 
dove, A. S. eulfre, fuller form eutu/rt (Grdn); Lat. e^tumha. 
Cup, A. S. €*ippe\ fonncd from Lat. a^, % cask, tatc Lat. 
fi^pa, a driitlcin{;-veuel. Higkt, prepared, adorned, pp. of 
M. £. liihttn, A. S. dihtattt to set in order ; from Lat. dielare. 
Diuipi4, A. S. dheiptil ; Lat diuipulM ; aftcfwards modified 
into the O. F. fonn dheipte. 

/oit, A. S. y*iw«n (Mali. iii. i»), where _/" was sounded as r*. 
the modem /■sound in ihia word being due 10 a Northern 
pronunciation (Wyclif hasyiin) ; Lat. vannui, a winnowing:- 
fan. Ftniui, k.%, fen<^, find, finul,fint^lt; frotn Lat./nj- 
(uhitH, fennel ; a dimin. form from fmum. hajf. Fti'tr, 
A.S. /t/tr, ft/or (Matt. viii. 15); from Lau fehrii. [Not 
[lirougli French, as said in my Diciionarj-, but immediately.] 
Frver/ttB. A. S, /e/er/ugt. Lit. /thri/uga. i.e. <U»pclling 
fever. FMU, TA.TL. fiJet, filhtt, A.S.JtHete; perhaps from 
Lat. vt'tuJa, viduta *. Font, A. S. /mat (usually /aa/) ; from 

> Not A.&.t»/te, St ^itn in tn; \)\a. ftoin the c/i ciUlitn of Bi>»- 
wonh'B A. S, Diet. • CtiiuSIa, cbj,-!* ' ; Wrigln'* Vixali. J18. 14. Wc 
Gad t&c lonuKKgtU,tuhle,<ule in the Ktil«uf St. 6ca«ilit:t.cap. i*.«<l. 
SchiOrr, ]ip. $S, H9. 

■ But Klnec(«. v.jfr./f/;>i|,iialh>(/fc& It SKcniilne Teutonic worn, 



EA/tLV LATlif irOKDS. 

[Cwtf. XXT. 

laX-fontem, act oi/ons. Feitnl, variant dS/ml. Fort, K. S. 

/arca^; 'LaX./urea. /Wiirr,a bleacher of clotlin, A.S./«/Jrr', 
Uotafiiilan, s'crb; the latter is borrowed from l-ow hu. 

ftdhrt, a verb due lo the sb. fullc, a fulkr. Giadm^ or 
Glcddin (a pUiit), A. S. gUtdint, LaL gladiolus (sword-lily). 
/(wA, A. S. yKt. formed by vowd-change from Lu. imaia. 
Ktep. A. S. (^p<m^ (yp<«*, a derivatiw of (fap, a purchaae ; 
Kcc Chtap aljove*. A>/i//, A.S. wW, Wright's Vocab. 197. 
19; earlier form ctUK Eptaal GIok. 168; fonncd, wlUii 
i-mulaiion, from Lai, calillm, dimin. of eatinut, a bowl. Kilm. 
A. S. (yln, fuUff fomi tylivt. In the C'orpua Glossary. 906 ; 
formed with i-mvUIion of « Vty, frocn I«U. etdiita. KiUkat, 
A. S. yf(w, from Lat. toquma, wiih similar muution ; ct , 
• Cogama, cyccne ' in Wright's Vocabularies, 383. 1 1. 

/.ait, A.S. iae; /^nur. Lm-*n, adj., from A.S. A*, flax ; 
Lat. /r>t«m. Lir^ietd), from the same A. S. Hn, LvMrr, A.S. 
tapp<slr«. earlier form l/fusl; Lat. Itxuila {marit). A/aStto, 
A. S. ma/we ; Lat. malua. Matt, A. S- maste, earlier misst, 
from I,at. mitta ; cf. 'Caot tcghwUc mastprmt Kcsinge fore 
Osvoilfcs siwle wi matan,' that each mast-prienl sing two 
masses for Oswuir* soul; O.E. Texts, p. 444. J/i/r, A.S 
ml/; LaL pi. ni'ii'a {patniim). Mil/, A. S. my/ir, Lat. dwAm. 
nith mutation from o to ^. il/in/ (i), A.S. w)Mr/, earlier 
in>my, a coin (O. E. Texts, p. Si) ; from LaL mtmla, with 
uimilar change. Mortar {k> poond things in); A. S. MM-Arr; 
LaL morlarium. Mouni, a bill, A. S. mm/, Lat. ace mMd-am. 
Aful^terry), M. E. mool-bny ; where mmI is from .\. S. •* 
(with change from /■ to /); cf. ' M«rut, m6r-b£am,' WrijlK's 
Vocah. 138.$. MmcU, Miaul (fiah), A.S. nusde. Lal 
viuscidiit. Must, new wine, A. S. mutl, LaL mtit/um. A'oen. 

wid bdcpcndcnt oflhr IjU rormi. Ii bhud to LalinelkM tiMteiiaa 
connectlnn. Sn> O. H. H.jUtiU in Schadv. 

■ ' Funilta. lilcl fotca,' Wright** Vooak l$4. It (/wca b ooriUcd 
In tb« Isdex to tfaii work). 

■ ItfXiap ii Tentical^ tbta ittf k Ihc nan: we agte on p. 4J«. 



A. S. mA«, Lai. nSna hora, ninth hour. Ntm. A. S. ntam*, 
Ixw Lat. noma. Offfr, A.S. c^t'an, Lat 90tTTt. 

PaU\y). h,%. p<tU,\M. palla. Poh, h.%. pamt; Lat. 
patina,^ shallow bow)', i'ru, M.E./irjr, A.S./fcH-, culkst Torm 
piost, Corj>us Glo*«. 1. iao8; Lat. pisum. Ptar, A.S. ptrt 
(Wright's Vocab. 169.33); \A\.pirum. Pmny, K.S. pmig, 
M\et fonss pmiitg, pending, probably rorm^ wilh ihc suffix 
•it^ rrora a hose pattd-, which, hlie Uie F. /un (E. ^miw), 
seems to be borrowed from LaL paanut, a clotJi. nig. piece. 
pledge. Ptriwinkh, a flower, A. S. ptrm'nca ; \M. pmiiHta. 
The name of ibu mollusc called a periwiitiU h due to con- 
funon witli ihc flower-name, and (houlil rnihcr ixptnrwinJtb 
or pmm/mile, A. S. ptne-wiiu/a, where the prefix pint- is 
nerelj' bonowet) from Lai. pr'na, a mussel ; cf. prov. £. 
ptmiym'ni/t, a periwinkle (Hnlliwell). Pi'lci, A. S. pyitf, 
pyliit; Lat. ftlli«a, fern. o\ p^Uktm, adj., made of skins; 
from ptliit. Pile (j), a large slake, A. S. ///; Lat. pihm. 
PiBtm, M.E. pitax, A. S. pyte; from Lat. puluinut. Pin, 
A. S. /MMt, a peg ; from Lat. pinna, variant of ptnna. [Tbe 
A. S. /«« occurs in the phrase 'to hapsan //«».' a peg or 
fattening for a hasp; sccOeivfa.ed. Liehermann, Halle, 18B6, 
p. ig, from the Corpus MS, No. 383, p. loa.] Pine (i), a 
tree, h.%. fin; Lat. ptnus. Pine (3), A-S. //«, Lat. p«ma, 
punishment; whence our vahlopine. Pif, A.S. pje/; Lat. 
Ptfem. Pikh, A. S. pie ; Lat. pix. Plant, A. S. plani (O. E. 
Texts); IM. planla. Pi>h, A. S. fJl ; Lat. /J/xr, a slake. 
/W (i), A.S. p^ (Welsh /»//), probably borrowed from 
BritiiJi; but Ute Brilisli word U froni bte Lat. padidii, a 
marsh. Pop^. Mercian /ki^t'(O.E. Texts, p. 85, I. 1516), 
A. S. />«>/*;f ; Lat. papatter. Peri, a harbour (O. Irish por{), 
A.S. /w/; L«U portia. PqsI (i), A.S. ^wV; Lat. putit. 

* Kluge da«bb Ihi*, but llic change is cujr. Id the Epiaal Cl«aur>-, 
L 7S4, we (iod A. S, ioU-fanit.!. hoUmr pui, u ft gloM to lAt./iiri>H : 
snd wr aeiuall; find Ihia vionl tntoc tpcll fiutfU tn the Cotpu 
GI0MU7, IL 1489,1490; wbich pubti out ibtilircdiun afth* change. 

438 £A/lI.y LATIN WORDS. 

Pamd, A.S. ptnd; \M.pimdo, allied to pmAts. Primt\ 
{canonical hour), A,S. prim; Lat. prima kora. Pumtce, 
.\..S. fumu'jlan; Lai, /ww/i"-. base of /«nni-j:. Pim/. A. S. 
pwU; from, a ponloon. 

Savin, SrwuK, si slirul>, A. & m/Iw. muiiu ; La(. saitm. 
ScutHe (1). s vessel. A. S. SfVlfl, Lai. uultlta, ilimm. of 
icuira, a Iray. Stnme-trH, M. E. stntt-tre, a tree bearing 
«/T«; where jitwx is the pi. of //rw = A. S, o'l^; 
from Lat. lorhus. Shambkt, pt. of shambif. n bench. A.S. 
stamet; Lat. sciimtUum. S/irinf, h.S. scrht \ lAX.urinium. 
SArwe, A.S. leri/an, Lat. tcrihtn. Siekit, A.S, wo/; LsL 
ttada. Sock, A. S. ja*^ ; Lat. teeemt. Salt, of the fool, A. S. ' 
»/<*, Lat. solfa. Sfvtid, S. S. tpotdan ; \m. ditptndrrt (not 
txpendtrt, as is ofieu wrongly said). Slep, A.S. titfpum, to 
Stop up ; from Lat stufpa, low (which b perhaps borrowed 
from Gk. irTvniri), orvtm). Strap, itrop, A. S. ilroff \ Lai. 
slruppus. StrttI, Mercian jfr**, A.S, ilrdt; Lat. jJruild km, 
paved road. Temple, A. S. lempel; Lai. kmpitm. Tilt, A.S. 
J'/;^rjk'; Lat. //^«/ti. Ttwu, 7im. A.S. hitmt; Low Lat. Amm. 
Tmie, K,^. laniet \ \»k4X. 7«r/fr(<io\'c). A.S. /«rt*; 
Lat. turlur. Vertt, A. S.yi*« {withy»ouiMled as r); LaL 
vrrsus. Wall. Wiek. Wint have been already mentioDed 
among words of the First Period ; see § 39^. Pravoti, Lai. 
praposilus, may answer either to A. S. prd/oti or the O. F. 
pr<n)osl (commonly pmvtf). Gtm is ratlicr the F. gemm 
than ihc A. S. gimm (from gemma), I also regard tl»e words 
metre, organ, pturl. prmt, and purple as bdti^' French woidi. 

{ 401. UnorigiDal Latin words found in Aoslo-SkxofL 
It it not a little icmarlcablc that a considerable number of 
the LjUin words found in A. S. are unoriginal, being tbem- 
sdmes borrowed from-otlicr lan|[aages, monily Gre«:k. I now 
give a list oi iliew also. 

Alms, A, S. tflmetie, Lat. eleemosyrta ; Gk. iXanumirn. 
Author, better spelt oixor, A.S. aiKOr. LaL anearii; Gk. 
i^fofpa, Angti, A. S. ei^tl. nlterwanls modifies) bjr F. and 



Lot. iii6ucncc ; Lat. angtlus, GY. Jy>tXat. Anlhem, A. S. 
ank/n, Intc \m. anlifima, Gk. drri^Hm. a pi. Ircalcd as a fan. 
sing. AptMlU, A. S. apost"! (aftcniArds modified by F. in- 
flnence), Lai. apMtclut, Glc iotiavv'Kot. ArthiisAop, A. S. 
anftiteofi, Lat. areAi-^fitcofiui, G!t. 4px>-**^*>'""c(, clikf liishop. 
[ir<n:t<jM; sec p. 434.] i^uAi^, A-S.^*:!-^ Lal.<^»f<^/, Gk. 
MvBMrvr. Bulkr, A.S. iiwV/^, Lai. bulyrum, Gk. Aivrii^ov; 
of Sc}thiiui origiit. Canon, A. S. tanon, LaL eamm, Gk. 
mvw, a rule. Cofimi, A. S. eapun, LaL Kc. eaptmem, nonv. 
f<a^; from Gk. mffUB. Ctdar, A. S. i-tV/r, [.at. tidrm, Gk. 
m1^ ; of F.iLMeni origin. Cktrvil, A. S. earfi/le, Lai. cirrr' 
/oiiim, Gk. j(uijh'4ivX*<w, lit. ' pliia^ant leaf.' CA-x/. A.S. r«/ 
(Wright's Vocab. i 76. 6), Lai. fut<t, Gk. «;<iti7. CViW. A. S. 
C™/, Ls«. CAriifia, Gk. XpiTrrft. Churek, A. S. fjriirt, Lat. 
tjrriata, the Laiini9«<] way of writing Gk. mrpoiKd, neut. pL 
used as fcm. sing. CItrk, A.S. <-/«y, <'irif, deriait, 
Gk. sXqfjicift ; from iX^^r, a lot. Cfoitii, «mi, a measure, 
A. S. enrnt. Low Lai. rum.Jii, a nloni; !te|iu!<1ire, ht'ncc a 
(rough ; from Gk. rini&f, a liollow cup, a bowl ; so ihai a 
teomb h a ' bowlful' Cof'fur, iV S. toper (Wright's Vocab. 
317. 9), \aX. ruprunt, Cyprian brasi ; fn>in Gk. K£ir(ioi. 
Cumin, Cummin, A. S. eymin, Lai. cumiaimt. Gk. 
' ; a Hebrew word. Dutton, A. S, JitKon, LaL Jiaconus, 
Gk. Aidmrar, a wrvani. Dn'i/, A. S. JA/h/, Lat. t/iaio/ut, 
Gk. Ai«9(iAot, slanderer. A'jA, A.S. i/uc, Lai. Jiseus, Gk. 
^m(. /^rM^ A. 5. Vni/, LaL i-iMMd^J, Gk. nbMtAf ; of 
liastem origin ; if. Skt. fatia, hemp. 

/mfi, a scion, M.E. imp, n graA, A.S. imp-an, pi., grafu, 
Adapted from Low Lai. impotut, a grafi ; from Gk. Tfupvnt. 
engrafted. Zi(y, A. S. ///«, Lai. lilium, Gk. Xdpwv. Martyr, 
A, S. and L. marfyr, Gk. ^im-p, a wilncKs. Mimltr, A. S. 
mynskr, LaL monasttriHin, Gk. jiawi«T4^Hai> ; from iiMOffr^t, 
one who dwells alone (tulwt), a monk. jV/n/ (i), a plant, 
A. S. min/f, Lat. uMt/a, Gk. ^i>Ai. ^mJ, A. S. «««('<■, Lat. 
■Kwai-Atu, Gk. lumajtit, sohtary ; from ft^r, atone. Pa/m 



tour. XXI. 

(uee), A. S./a/jw, LaL palma; probably borrowed from Gk. 
iraXifji^. Paptr, A.S. pap«r (Wright's Vocab. 513. 7^ Lal 
papyrus, Ck. mmrpot ; of Eg^pdan origin. Paseh, A. S. inil 
L, pascha, Gk. ni^x^ ; from HcK fitsatA, a, puling owr. 
Pta{iock), M. E. ^A<«f, pMk; iJ)c btlcr rorm b bota A. S. 
/dnv,/dn«. Lat. /<un), Gk. reb; of Tamil origin. Pr^tr, 
A.S.f^, \..fapfr. Gk. nowpt; %)a.pif>pcll. Phenix. K.&. 
/aux,\Al.ffhamix,C>V.^wti', of PboenicJaD origin. Plasler, 
A. S.fUatlrr, hit. trnfJai/rum, Gk. JjiwiiwtjMii' ; from J>r^XiHr- 
ivi, (laubcd on or over. P/um, A. S. pltimt, Lat /«Ki«Kai, 
Ok. frpoiiiov, npoufiiioi-. /'i*^, A. S. p^pa, L. /o^, Gk. m4a m t , 
father. i*r/«/, A.S. fr/otl; from I.. prttbyUr, Gk. wpi*^ 
TVfMi.cUIcr. Ptalm, A.S. fcK/jn, Mercian az/jr (O. E. TcxIs)l 
L. psaltHus. Gk. ^hA^m ; from <f<aXX<u', [o twitch harp-stnngv. 
10 play lli« har]k 

J?iu/, A.S. rose, L. riua ; from Gk. piiv, for 'Ffiiat; 
Arab. luir^. j'.ai'it, A. S. f<irf , L. taenis, Gk. w^buc, HcK 
50/; probably of Egyjitian origlru Sthoot, A.S. «-«/■. L. 
uioia; fromGk.frxoXq, mt, leisure, disputation, &c. jAMt/(i), 
a muliitudc of fishcB ; doublet of ScAool. Silt. prob. from 
an O. Mercian fmm 'tiU (cf. Iccl. iUki), an&«vring to A.S. 
ttak; ultimaicly from Lat. Srriium. silk, ncui. of S*rtnu, 
belonging to the Srrtt; from Gk. %h^, pt- the Seres; prtriv- 
ably of Cliinese origin. .SVo£', A.S. jiW^, L. $Ma. Gk. 
vToX^, equipment, robe, stole. Tipp^l, A. S. tapf<l, L. i^^iir, 
doth ; Ck. nnnjT-, stcD) of nirg*, a Carpet, rag. 7>-<M(/; A. & 
truhl, I., frucla, Gk. rptlicn/c ; from Tpiytu', to gnaw. 

$ 402. Clanifloation of borrowod (Irfttia) words. Ii 
thus appears that die Latin words of die Second Peiiod 
amount to upwards of one hundred and forty, of which 
about Iwo-tliirds are original Laiin «x>rds, and about one- 
third arc borrowed from Greek, or (through Greek) fran the 
£an. If wc ucamine these words a little more closelx, we 
•haU see thai they can be lou^ly distributed into claaws, •■ 
(bliowx; — 



(l) Wortlt rflalittg t» KeUtiattkai malUrt, rtligt'oa, and 
tit BAU: alms, altar, angel, anthem, apostle, archbishop, 
ark, bi&hop, candle, canon, Clirisi, cburcb, cleik, cowt, cr«cd, 
cummin, deacon, devil, disciple, font, marlyr, man, mineccr. 
monk, nun, pall, pasch. pope, priest, prime, psalm, sack 
(Gen. xlii), KlirmL-, stole, temple ; matt </ which art raihtr 
Greei than Latin. 

(s) Utt/ul impltmtnli, maltriaJt, and food: anchor, box, 
butter, chiilk, cheese, chest, coop, copper, coulter, cup, dish, 
fan, fiddle, fork, kettle, kiln, kitchen, linen, mill, mint (for 
coins), mortar, must (nAti wine), pan, pa]>cr, pile (tiaki), 
pillow, pin, pitch, plaster, pole, post, pumice, jnint, tcuiile, 
riianU>lc8, sickle, strap, scrop, tile, tun. ArtieUi ^ drat: 
{Hlcb, silk, sock, tippet, tunic Weighit, Meamres, &c : circle, 
coomb, inch, noon, penny, pound. 

(3) Sirds : capon. cuUxr, pca(cocfc), phoeaii, turtle. 
Fisket : lobster, musu:!, i)eri(winkle), trouL 

(4) Trut : box, cedar, palm, pear, pine, plum, rose. 
servicc(-trec). Planlt : [balsam], beet, chervil, cole, fennel, 
feverfew, gladden, hemp, lily, lin(»ecd), mallow, mint, mul- 
(berT]'), pea, pepper, periwinkle, plant, poppy, savine. Htrt 
bthmgs imp. 

(5) AfitftilantoM : canker, castle, chapman, cheap, cook, 
fever, fuller, lake, moimt {hill), pit, sole (of the foot), school, 
sboal (of fisfi), wnte, 

(6) Vtrti : dight, keep, offer, shrive, spend, stop. 

(7) Adjtdivf. crisp. 

j 408. Bemorlu. T)ie numlier of Latin word* uf llie 
Second Period wliich lia^v been supplanted by French 
forms is probably considerable. We may notice Lat. eaitx, 
A. S. (■«/«■ (E. and O. F. ckalitt). lM.fiitu, K.S./tt l^^fig, 
O. F.jfjr). Lai. lae/iua, A. S. loffiuf {^. Utliut, of F.ori^n). 
Lai. and A. S. Ue (E, lion. F. limy Lat. marmor, A. S. Mar- 
man-tldn (E. marblt, O. F. mardre). Lai. melnim, A. S. mttcr 
(E. and F. mt/re). Lai. orgaumn, A. S. argOH, very rare (E. 


organ, F. organe). Lat. ostrea, oslreum, A. S. ostre (E, igater, 
O. F. oisirt). Lat. ptrsicum, A. S. /fr««- (E. /«ac>S, O. F. 
ptsche). Low Lat. perula, A. S. /ffr/, once only (E, ptarl, 
F. /^r/ir). Lat pra:dicare, A. S. predieian (E, prtack, O. F. 
preckii). Lat. sancttu, A. S. jaw/ (E. and F. /ih»/). La(. 
/a*a/a, A. S. te/, a game at tables (E. and F. tabli). The 
word hymn occasionally appears as A. S. ymn, ymen, but 
was little used ; it was revived at a later time. The history 
of piie is obscure ; pipe may be native English. There are 
also some Latin words in A. S. which are now disused 
altogether. One remarkable example is the Lat. margarita, 
a pearl, which was turned, by help of popular etj-mology, 
into the A. S. mere-gr^ol, as tf it meant ' sea-grit.' It may be 
here observed, that Latin words were freely introduced into 
English at various later periods, without always passing 
through the medium of French. Thus cell, AL E, celli, oc- 
curring in the Ancren Riwle, about a,d, taoo, is perhaps 
directly from Lat. cella ; ctd>it was introduced by Wyclif into 
his translation of the Bible ; Spenser has rite, from E-aL rUui \ 
disc is used by Dryden ; and crak by Johnson. 


Tm« Celtic Euhekt. 

^ 404. Ttiis is a difficult Miliject, and I can but treat it 
8ti[Kiiicially. Owing to recent inixwligalions, our views con- 
cerning Celtic words have sulfercd considerable change. It 
has bccD pn»'ed that, in the case of some words which vrerc 
once supposed to have l>een borrowed fiom CeJtic, ibc 
borrowing lias Ixen the other way. For cxamjile, our verb 
to ifpfr is noi derived from the Welsh Aflrfu, but the Welsli 
iojio was simply borrowed from the M. E. Aouri, to wait 
about, of which Acvtr i» the frcqueiitaiive form ; wliilst the 
M. E. Aw^i is merely formed from the A. S. in/l a dwelling- 
place, still preserved in the diminuiivc Aor-rf. A list of some 
Celtic words found in English b given in Morris's Ele- 
mentary Lessons in liistorical Englii^h Grammar, anil a fuller 
list in Marslk's Student's Manual of ihe lijiglish Language, 
ed. Smith, i86a, p. 45. The latter is taken from a still longer 
list given by Mr. Garnetl, in the PTOCcc<ling!i of tlic Philo- 
logical Society, i. 171. It is certain that these lists rctiuire 
careful revision, and the same may be said of the list given 
by myself at the end of my Etymologicil Dictionary. Many 
of the words formerly supposed to be Celtic are now known 
to be nothing of the kind. Tlius the word tarrutv, in the 
tease of ' mound.' is formed niih perfect regularity from the 
A. S. i€«rg, a hill ; se« all the various forms in Murra/s New 
Englt!i)i Dictionary. Kila is not from the Welsh n/r'n, l>ut 
from the Lat. culfna. wluch passed into A. S. in the fomi 
ry/ff, with the usual mutation. Dainly is not t)orrowed from 

THE CEinC BIEME.VT. (C»*». XXlt. 

the WeUh danlatlh, but is of Old FmKh origin, and really 
reprcxenu, in »pitc of the change of meaning, the LaU ace 
dtgnitakm. Daub is also pure I'rcnch ; 0, P". Jotiitr, hom 
Lat. dtallare, lo whiten. In my own, 1 have iDduded 
Kuch v,-orit« UK kiuisl, ioifUrcta, which mutt certainly be Mnck 
out, Along with the suggestion that tarrtno maybe ulthnatcty 
of Celtic origin. 

$ 406. I am here principall/ concerned with ilte con- 
sideration of such words of Celtic origin a« found their way 
into Engiisli before a.i>. io66. This greaOy limits (he in- 
c[uiry, for I tlititk it will be found that the words borrowed in 
the modem period from Wel^, Scotch Gaelic, and Itkh 
considerably exceed in number the word* ibat truly belong 
to the Old Celtic element. Bui *& it will greatly clear the 
way if we can ray wiili certainty which arc the Cdtic words 
of comparatively late introduction, I shall turn aside to oon* 
sider ibe»e first. 

$ 400. As regards the Celtic words tbnl are of com- 
paratively late introduction, It is easy to say, in many instaDCcs, 
from which of the Celtic languages lliey were bonowed. I 
shall therefore consider each language separalely, beginning 
with Irish, 

Words of Irish origin. It is suquising bow Etile aeens 
to be known of the IrislrUnguage in our old authon. Indeed. 
allusions to Ireland, of any sort, are not at all common in 
our earlier Utcrature. In the Ubcll oS Englishe Poticye. 
written in 1 436, there is a chapter ' Of the commoditces at 
Ircbnd,' &c.; but I find no Irish word in iL Sianyfaorsi's 
Description of Ireland was first published (as a part of lIoBa- 
slied'-i Chronicler), in 1 586, and probably was one of ihc 
earliest books to introduce Irish words into our liieralure. 
It contains, however, but few, the cjucf l>eing galk\glatt, glU 
(lock of hair), ttrtu, s/uin (knife), and jhamrotk*. dt which 

' 1 only £iic ibc ttynologlM of nich word* w are nat in n 
)ogie>l Dldioniry. 






gtdlc^lati, htrm, and skein occnr aUo in Shakespeare. Our 
great dramatist also employs llie words h^ and tr^ut 
(wooden shoe). Spcnwr's View of ihe State of Ireland, 
printed in 1633, also contains gaUoglatt, glib, tenu, tktant, 
and thamroh, \mx adds to these tlte words iarJ', pillion, 
ianist. l,aiigk occun in Fairfax, ir. of Ta*»o, bk. i. «. 44. 
The word tory occurs as carl/ as 1656, but did not come 
into more general use lUl about itiSo. The word i>rTtTy first 
occurs alwut 11% f,. The word fun first a[ipears in the 
eighteenth ccniury. Oiher words are, for Ihe most part, 
quite modem, and arc lo be found in books relating 10 
Ireland, especially in uidi n-orks as Carleton's Trails and 
Stories of the Irish Peasantry. On the whole, I diink we 
may consider the following list as giving the principal Irish 
words that have found tlieir way into Engliflh, viz. hoH, 
ieg, trpgue, dirk {?), yS«, ga/l«gliisi, galore*, glii, s,, iem, 
iotigk, orrtry, pillion (?) ', rapparte, shillelagh *. stain {sktne, 
eketn), ihamroek, spalpeen, lanisi, Tory, tapub<ttigh\ Of 
the^fc, titrJ, lies, irtgue, and galore may perhaps be also 
looked upon as having claims lo a Gaelic origin. 

Amon^l the modem Irish words not given in my Dic- 
tionary, I may notice some which take ibc diminuliw suffix 
■in, which is sometimes used as a term of endearment, or, 
as in the case of spalp-een, wliti some touch of conlempL 
Thus colleen b Irish eail-in, literally 'little gir),' from eailt, 

' Though thU vonl lint occdt* in llolland'i llmiate, ind Sir John 
llolluul wii I Scotch wilier, the wonJ tecnu lo have been ni^nlcil ai 
Triik, Holliinil hat: 'a Ain/tiat of IrUnil'; Shalcnixaro hki 'm 4>r,/ 
of Ifclanii'; and Spouer ma it of Irith poel*. 

' For ibete wiinjs. kc the Supplcmeiit to mj Dictioniuy. 

' Ullliiialtly <A I.illn oriii;in, In a»y ciuc; peihap) merely bonowcit 
fiom Span, ptllan, a long robt of ikini or fun. if (hot be in old word. 

■ The following Old buk farnu, gircn by Windiich. mar help: beei, 
^ott—iriet, ihuo— /«m, tune, vng—pill, roreljjfiier, tdath, a jonik 
— aUi, batlle ^wht^norr E. itm ii a deiiialivF) — IctA, loach — atom, 
XtcSt—ttmar, irairfc, ihamrocli — /.'iniiV, MKUixi—tatarht, pnnnit — 
■ler, ittin, life. See IriKbe Telle, cd. Winditeli, Leipi^. tSSo. 



a girl. Mai'ourntfn, my <hTling, is compounded of mo, 
my, and mhuirnin (mA=c), a toucated forro of mtiim-n, 
a darling ; from mtiirit, alTeciioii. Shthten, a sroail [wbliC' 
hoiuc, is (I suppose) merely a diminutive of uafia, a gfaop. 
wliicfa can hardly be Other than the English word ih»p traiu- 
planted inio Irinli. Tti« word thanfy \s jiirotxtbly fron ihr 
Irish stiiK, o!<l, antt tigh, a house, 

§ 407. Words Of Sootoh Gtaelio origin. A few Gaelic 
words haw conae to us, through Lowland Scotch, at various 
limes, liui die uumlier of ihew wtiich found their way lo at 
al an early period is extremely small. The word hamoek b 
generally considered as Gaelic, but It occurs iii an A. S. 
glosK, nnd must therefore, if Celtic, be reckoned amongst 
the Old Celtic words. As such, it wiD be reconsidered 
below. Barbour's Bruce contains die words Iwg {6. 37), (tag, 
glfH, and loch (»i>elt lou<h). Crag ans^^■erK to Gael, creag, a 
rock ; but is a general Celtic Irrm. BtUant, an old oante 
for the firKi of May, or a festival held on ihal day. Is men- 
tioned, according to Jamic^on, a,d. 1424, in the Aetx of 
James I. of Scoiland. Ii is doubtless of Gaelic origin (Gact 
btalllainn), and ne may test assured thai die lirst ytui of the 
V'ord has nothing lo do with Bfi, or the Baai of Scripture, 
a* was so amusingly and pcrusiently maintained by the anti* 
quaries of t)ic lant century. In Lalie's History of Scodand, 
1596, edited for the Scottish Text Society in 1885, I lind 
the words taptrcafy. p. 39, elation, 14, flan, 56. iiuA, 13,' 
ilra/A, 13, and Gallmaty, 14, as the name of an 'amUiag 
horse,' The notice of the first of ihe«c is of tome intercd. 
' In Rosse and Loquhabcr.and vthiris places amang hilis ud 
knowis \lMi>lis\ ar nocht in missing fir trie suSicicni, tjuhair 
of) aittis a certane fotd and veric rare called (he Caftrtafy 
lo name «itfa the vulgar peplc, the horse of the fotrcsL' We 
sliould here noie the correct spelling irith the symbol j, 
which should l)e represented in modem books by_y, not, 
usually and absurdly, by s. The explanation ' horse of the 





fiwesi' U the liicnl tneatiing of the Gaelic nunw; aipullfmilt. 
C/aeioM is the Gar), claehnn. a circle of stones, Itcncc, a nidc 
church, and finall)', a anull hamlci posse^ng a church. 
Cltn it uliiinately of Latin origin (Sii|>[t. to Etyin. Diclionar^-). 
Ineh U the Gael, innit, an iKbnd. Siralk a a rivcr-t-alley 
with a low. Bat boitom ; Gael, sralh. 

Duncan';! Ap|>fiidix Eiyroolo^, 1595 (E. Dial. Soc.) 
contains the nord f/u/r as a gloss : ' Affunia. vi/ -u, tii/m>iiim, 
inundalio, a si>ate of water ' ; also the word traig (crag). 
Crtti '» rcprcwnted 'in modern Gaelic only by the dimin. 
form (raidJiltag. ' a basket, a creel,' the original word being 
trM, (he same as O. Irish rnW, a coffer, a box ; the cnuy 
' A baxket and iij inUt ' occun in the WiIIk and Invcnlorics 
published by the Surtccs Society, i. 314, under the date 1564. 
' The dh in rraiMltag iB merely on orthographical device ahew> 
ing thai the preceding ai is a diphthong'; II. Mac Lean, 
in Notes and Queries, 7 S., iii. 44. Dunbar (sec Jamicson) 
has the verb wautk, to drink up, whence was formed the sb. 
wauthl, wiiughl, a draught, as in the phra*c ' a waught of 
ale,' and Bums's 'gudcwillie tvauehl' i.e. draught drunk 
for good will'. Hence was formed, needlessly, a new 
verb to waHthl, with the sninc »cn»^c, uxed by Gawajn 
Douglas. 1 have no doubt lliai this tvatteh is precisely 
the E. verb to ^uaff. from which a new verb was formed 
in jwccisely the saine w;iy ; for Palsgrave has : ' ! fuaitghi, 1 
drinkc aHe out.' And I funher think that these verbs waaeh 
and ^tmff (='iu<iui;h) are both due to tlie Gael. maiA, a cup, 
a IjowI, variouHly i^ielt in Engli:<.h as gwuh, quuiffi, gvaigh, 
gtufh, qvtff, and ptng. The last spelling is used by Smol- 
lett, in his Humphrey Clinker. If these he so, then qtM0 
and gttaich are both Gaelic ; and the Gael, word is itself 
I a loan-word from the late Lat. cauait, a drinking-vessel, 
uaed by Jerome. Slogan, a war-cry, is curiously tipelt 

' Some pooplt turn it imo'cu'lc wllllc-waDclit'; irliich pmenli ui 
wUh ■ new wotiI villit-'u-atKit, with a Kcac tmfalhomable. 


ibguit \>y 0. Dou};lns, which sonie nriiera (including ChUler- 
lon and Brovning) hara tuned into ihigSorn, as if it wen s 
kind of bom I Sec S/i^Aem in Supp. to Htym. DidkMivjr. 

Itc)dde« ihew, ve have seviem] words whidi ue li) (pro- 
bably) only round in modem anthora, viz. touAv' (also 
Irish), eaim, <aUra» (the Gaelic equivaknt of the Itvb 
Jum), clofmort, toUii {eotfy)*, cory *, giUit, gaeaa, marimlmk 
(rrom a peisooal oainc) ', pkih'ieg (Jliiiieg), fHarm^an {Yy. red 
[■ dance), ip/evcAan, tporran, wkitkey. Aloreover, we have 
ingtt, kail, and ^aid, ihrcc wofds which are not original 
Oltic. but ada|>ted from I^iin. We mtght ftmber add, fma 
Scott's Pocnu, the hitly fomiliaT words forenMA and rwrw. 
CoronOfA is the Gael, eorranaci, a bmentation, dtrge, as at 
a funeral ; lit. ' a howling together,' from eomA- (Lat. tm), 
together, an<t raitaieh, a howling, roaring, from the verb r«*, 
10 howl, cry, roar. C«rru is the Gael, coire, a cirailar 
hollow surrounded with hills, a mountain detl. Tbc word 
airt in Bums is the Gael, aird, a height, also a quaner «/t 
point of the compass ; cf. Gael, ard, a height, O. Irish airi, 
a point, limit •. The list might be slightly extended. 

j 408. Three words demand a special notice, vix. jrotr, 
brankt, and pibroch. Brest I suppose to be the Gaelic 
brolhai (as suggested by Madcod and Dewar), the M being 
silenL I funlier su^^Ktse it to be allied to Gael fro/, 
broth ; but this can hardly be anything but a Gael, adaplailoa 
of the E. word brofk. From which it would follow Ibai brwt 
a a mere ndiipt;ition from the English ; juxt as the O. FrcDch 
Jmwrr (in Koqucron), whence M.E. irttits, tsa mei 


' See the Supplement to Etjrm. IMclinnsry. 

* So Bliomwacluqiif, prrbi^aone of thp urnngeit compoundi ta mt 
langD«£«; for H b abvioailjr a oompoand of C*elk and Uebnw, with 
■ Fttnch lal&K, «ad ii dedliud m kd EnjElkb Teth, 

* Ttie (bUowlof OM Irith iom^ givai \rf WladlKh. m^ Iwlp 
here: ttn,-morta,n,iUf,la!irf—£tim,viitm — lalk.tmXAt — tiaiiM,mctA, 
mir. gnM—tvi/^n, whtlp—rtMMtA, cona*e, htMtm—tHU, mnwat— 

fiU-im, 1 foH *», vaM—utu, »r«l«— «>rf, polal, liuli (m aba**). 




!ation from tbe O. H.G. bro4, which b (be cognate word to 
onr brolh. Branti in certainly tlic hotk word as Gaol 
irat^at, but whi-n ire compete this nriih the Dii. and G. 
finmgtr, which had precisely tbc same sense, wc can hu-dly 
doutit iliac the OTigin of tltc word is Teutonic. In fact, we 
fiiKl in Gothic the comp. verb ana-pragg^n {=ana-/>raigaii), 
10 harass, orig. lo press ti^btly upon. As to fiiirvti, it is 
merely EngUsh in a Gaelic disfnu-'u^- The GaeL words piet, 
ftaiair, arc merely the English word* pr/>f, piper, borrowed 
from English in tbc sitCecDlh century. ' I-'rom the ladcr, by 
the addition of a Cellic tciminaiion, was fonncd the abstract 
noiun/iiWai>"«iA(/=|iiper-agc, i>i[>ef-Khiji, pi|)ing. . . . When 
the Sasiinnach, having fotgollcn bis own pipenhip, rcim- 
poned the art from the Gad, he brought with it the Gaeliciscd 
name piobairtaekd, wftened into pibroek, where the old 
En^^isb piper is so disguised in the Highland dress as (o pci» 
muner for a genuine Highlander '.' 

{ 400. From wtiat precedes, we may make out the fol- 
lowing list of wordi borrowed from tbe Gaelic, viz. lanthtt 
(also Irish), Bdlane, bag (also Irish), branis, brete, taint, eaprr' 
eaityie, eateron, elaekan, dan. elaymore, eollie, ewonark, eorrit, 
CMy,€rag, trt*l,gtillaMy (pony),gi/lie,glen,geu>itn, rwA, ngie, 
kaii, loci, macinloth, pMfibeg, pibrot/i, ptaid, ptarmigan (?), 
quaff, reel, sl^an, tpalt, tpleuekan, sporran, sirath, tfhiskty. 
We may also draw two conduKions; that the English has 
boirowc«I more fieely from Gaelic than from trtsb, and dial 
Ibc borrowing Iwgan at an earlier time. This is the natural 
consequence of the respective geographical pouiions and 
political rriationn of Scotland and Inrknd to England. We 
should alto bear in mind ihai elan, ingU, kail, and plaid are 
ultimately of Latin origin, from pianta*, ignit, caulit, and 

■ The Diitlcct ol th( Soathctn Coiuiiin u( Sooilinil. bj J. A. H. 
Mnnajr, p, ^ Dr. Murrmf brre mmlloiu larttH la bdng ■ Cacllu 
word, hm rigbtly uj», in ihc Enata, Ihal it ij Frmcli. 

■ See Khjt, Lcclnns on WeUb Philolo^, 9ed ol., p^ j}i. 





fxUU ; whilst h^osr, pibr9<kt are really of English origin, from 
hr^ and pipt; and brattks is nally Nortbcm Engtuli, 
borrowed prottaMy from Holhnd. Hexbun's O. Duich 
Dictionary gives the very word : ■ Em Prangt, Pramgtr, «flt 
[or] Hali-yser, a shackle, of a neck-yron * ; from the 
'praagen, to o[){»e^se, consttaine. compell, or to sbaddc' 

$ 410. Words of Wolah origia. The words of 
parativcly recent introduciioD may be considered 
Shakespeare has earn, crooked, »wry, oontraiy lo the 
pose, which he may have ]>icked up locally a^ a word ih: 
had strayed over ihc Welsh border ; from Wekh earn, wUlt 
the same sense. CobU, a small fishing-boat, seems to be ihc 
W. cfuhat. Chilltr, a confused heap, is apparently (lie W, 
eludair, a lieap. Flannel, prov. V.,/lannai, is ibe W. galamtn, 
from gtplan, wool. Flumtiury is the \V. llymru, llymnaei. 
Hawi, in the sense to force ap phlegm from the ihrooi. is 
ttic W. htx/d, Coraelt, eremltch, and me/iei-lim, ate well 
known as being of Welsh origin. In Miihltc Knghsh. we 
find ihc words iragei, braggft, a kind of mead, W. 6rag«J; 
eroud, (rcHlh, later croaid, a kind of fiddle. W. eradh. I 
should therefore propose to draw up ibc lin of words ol 
Welsh origin as follows, vii. braggtl, cam. ehiiUr (heap), 
(to clear the throat), k(X. h'h, kuk, tiu/itgl/n. 

$ 41L Setting a»ide the words discussed above, which may 
be distbctly dalrned as being borrowed from Irish, Gaelic, 
or Welsh later ihan the twelfth century, it remains thai we 
should enquire (i) whether any Celtic words arc found in 
late English which cannot precisely be traced back deficuul 
to any <«* of these languages ; and (>) whcilter any Celtic 
word$ can be traced in English of (he earliest period. Tbe 
former of these questions is one of gical difficulty, aad ii i 
better to leaw the question unanswered tlun lo give un- 
satisfactory guesses. Amongst the words which perhaps 
hatvt the most daim to be considered u Celtic, or founded 






upon Cdtic, are some of which the origio is veiy obscure. 
It may suffice lo mention liere ibe woiJk hold, iai (thick 
slick), itggic, boit, brag, irait, ira/, brill, irisk, bug, bump, 
taiia, thar (fish), eturi, tloei (oiig. s bell), eo6, (obblt, 
teek (tiniall boat), rix?/, citb, CulAe, curd, cat, dad, dandriff. 
dam, drudge, dudgeon (ill humour), fun, gag (?), gown. 
Sy^'<J^- *""*'. '"•'■ ^S' ^" (0- '*¥*• l'*bitr. mug, m^gm, 
tKoi, pilehard (?), pony, pvck, pi^, rut, tA^, skip, taper. 
tvMn. Ax to Komc of these, there does not seem to be 
much known. I vrish to say distinct!)' that I feel I am 
beiTG treadin)^ on dangerous and uncenain i;round, and that 
1 paniculart)' wisli to avoid expressing myself with xay 
ttrtatnty as to mosi of these words. The most likely words 
arc iho&e which can be connected with real Old Irish words, 
such as those to be found in the Glossat}- to Windisch's Okl 
Irish Texw. Thus bran probably meant ' refuse,' and is 
coonected with O. Irish br/n, stinking, foul. Srat, originally 
a cloak, piniUbie, agrees widi O. Ir. brat, a cloak. Ctcck; 
O. Irish eloc, a bell. Cub ; 0. U. tuib, a dog. Cul^ is 
certainly Celtic ; from O. Ir. c/le £>/, servant or associate of 
God, where De is the gen. of Dia. God. Fun ; O. U./onn, a 
tune, a song. Litg ; 0. Ir. lae, lag, weak, feeble. BrM is 
Comish ; cf. W. brith, spotted. 

$ 412. 1 now pass on to consider the words, which, though 
found in A. S., ace net^rtlicloiK probably of Celtic origin. 
Such words arc but few. Amongst ihcm arc : bannock, a 
kind of cake, A. S. tannue ' ; cf. Gael bctmaeh, a bannock. 
Brock, a badger, A. S. broc ; certainly Celtic ; Irish, Gaelic 
and Manx broe, Welsh and Breion broeh'. Carl, A. S. cral, 
O. Irish era. Cl«ut, A. S. <i£l, Ir, and Gael. tlud. Combe, 
a hollow in a bill-side. A. S. cumb, Welsh cwm. Perhaps 
cradle, A. S. cradol, is also Celtic ; cf. Irish eraidhai, Gael. 

' Dr. Homjr qootei • Bmelhm lemipknam, bealinc bunoe' a* ■ 
fleas Ei'<«B to lUupl'i Zdachnll, ix. 463. 
■ Co£Utc mlh Uk. »«p» fc , cr>y. 

og a 


crealhall, a cradle ; in fact, a more primitive fonn, without 
the suflix, is seen in W. cryd, a shaking, also a cradle, O. Iri^ 
crilh, a shaking ; cf. GL apab-atai, to quiver ; so that a cradle 
is named from being rocked. Crock, A. S. croc, also croeea ; 
Gael. cr(^, W. croehan, Ir. crogan, O. Ir. crocan. Down, itatt 
A. S. d^M, a hill ; O. Irish Mn, a fort (built on a hill) ; the 
cognate original £. word is i£n, an enclosure, town. Dm, 
i. e. brown, A. S. dunn ; O. Ir. donn, brown (whence Dim as 
a Celtic river-name). Slough, A. S. sUh (stem slig-') ; per- 
haps Celtic ; see Etym. Dictionary. Matlock. A. S. mailut, 
may also be Celtic, as we also have W. malog and Gael 
madag; but these words look very like loan-words from 
-.(jtf ;c^ English, Hence the E. words found in A. S., but of Celtic 
i' '' origin, are perhaps these, viz. bannock, brock, earl, cloid, 

combe, cradle, crock, down (hill), dun, slough. I doubt if the 
list can be much increased. 

The net result is, that the Old Celtic element in English 
is very small, and further research tends rather to diminish 
than increase it The greater part of the Celtic words in 
English consists of comparatively late borrowings ; and the 
whole sum of them is by no means large. A wild com- 
parison of English words with modem Celtic forms, such as 
is so commonly seen in many dictionaries, savours more of 
ignorance than of prudence. 


Tax ScAmtXAViAif OR Scahdian Elkmemt. 

f 41S. It has long been undcnftood that majiy words found 
their «ray into b'tcrary Eng:tish, and still more into 8C^'cral 
of our provincial dialects, from the language spolccn by the 
Northmen of Scandinavia, at the time of their numerouH 
incureions in ilic ninth and teiilli cenluricK. Moreover, there 
were actually Danish sovereigns upon the Knglish lhron« 
from AJu loifi till 1041. The period when tliis influence 
was greatest may be roughly dated between 850 and lo^o, 
or more exactly, between 950 and 1050. But it is a very 
mnaikablc fact that, speaking broadly, the words thus tnUo- 
duced made dieir way into liUrary Eogli.'ih at a very slow 
rale, so that it is often diCficuk to find examples of their use 
before about the year laoo*. Nevertheless we may rest 
assured, from our knowledge of ihc historical facts, that u-ords 
of tliis class properly belong to the period it/ore, rather ihao 
a/kr, the Norman conquest. 

§ 414. The language spoken by the Northmen was a kind 
of Old Daniih, but has frequently been called Old Norse. 
As Norse properly mcaii% Norwegian, thi:( is not a good 
name for it, being too limited. The same objection realty 
applies, at the present day, to Old Danisli :l1so '. It is better 

' Om of tha lery tsrlint eiamplM ii the word ro//, bctrowed Imm 
Uic Olil ScuiduuTtan nrcb la,'l-a. It ti £Dgliihcd u taUliaH in the 
poem on the BkUle of MnldoD, wbich U daied, la the A. S. Cfaionlclv, 
fa Dm jai <)9J. Tbe poem wm cumpoteil Ju<t after t!ie tutile. 

' YR llie old tilJe 'Docok laoga.* 01 Ouiiiti [oDgne, vu aoBe Btol m 



Co enlarge the title by calling ic Old Scandinavian, and it b 
usual (o drop the adjective ' Old,' because it is understood 
that the borrowingK from nearly alt took fJaoe, 
as far as we can icll, at an eatly period. Tlw only ob^tion 
lo the lille ' Scandinavian ' is its length ; ou which account I 
fihall take the libeny lo shorten it to ' Scandian,' which is 
equally explicit'. 

\ 415. Owjnf; to the colonisation of Icdand by the North- 
men in 874-934, the Old Scandian has been fairly vcdl pre- 
served in Iceland 10 (he present day ; in fact, tbc language 
lias suffered so little alteration, owing to the careful cultt- 
vation of the language and the early codification of the 
Iccl3n<1ic law, (hat Scandian is alDioat qmonymous with Ice- 
landic ; and ii ia by the help of Icelandic that we can best 
discover the true forms of Scandian wotds. Indeed, if 
we go so far as to soy that certain Enjilish words are dircctlf 
borrowed or derived from Icelandic, wc usually ciprcaa the 
fact, for philological purposes, with quite suffident exactness, 
anil no harm is done. ! have already shewn ihai, owing to 
the scanty remains of the Old Northumbrian and Old Mcreian 
dialects, we are constantly obliged, in practice, to speak of 
English words as being derived from Anglo-Saxon, i.e. from 
ihe dialect of Wcsses ; whereas wc know, at ibc same time, 
thai the word is far more likely to have belonged to Old 
Mercian, or even to the Old Anglian of Northtunbria (( 31]. 
I'rcciiwly in the same way, i( is frequently convenient Ift 
speak of words as being derived from Icelandic ; and, in the 
absence of better materials, ii is the best we can do. See 
p. 76. It should particularly be remarked that the Anglians 

m wide vaA general tena ha ScuidinBrita ; tee £>4aisJer tn Ibo teeUadk 
Dictlonuj. Al a lata period, the tena craplofod wat AbTtfwa or 

' 1'hc nunc ' Scandinavia ' occun in Viacf't Natoral lliitary. bk. I*. 
C t J, where it it rasnetf used of aa iiland oi DaMTtaln tkit. Bsl ta 
C 16, he tpeaki of the Uland of ' Scaodia.' wblcb probably umii pr^ , 
citdy the lamc codntry. See L«wU aad Short'* Latin Dioiooaiy. 




were ihemtelves Scandian*, sui they came from the district of 
Angcin '. which lies between the towns of Fletisborg and 
Slcswig, in the south of Jutland. The difference between 
the language of the Angles and of the inrading Nortliincn 
must have been but ulighi, and there is no dtntbt ihsi they 
could well undersund one another. There is not much 
exaggeration in ihe siatement Ui the Saga of Guniilaugr 
OrmMtinga, cap. 7, thai there was at that time (the clcwnlh 
century] ' the same (ongue in England as in Norway and 
Denmark.' An earlier and more important alatement b that 
of the author of the finit grammaiical trcatiM' prefixed to 
Snorra £dda, from about 1 1 50 : — ' Englishmen write English 
with Latin letters such as represent the sound correctly. . . . 
Following their example, since »« arc of one language, 
although the one may have changed greatly, or each of ihcm 
vi some extent ... I have framed an alphabet for as Ice- 
lander*,' &c. ; Sii. Kdd. ii. 1 3. ; Dahlcrup and F. JdRS-ton. Den 
fbrtle og andcn gramm. Alhan<lling i Snorrex Edda, KjOlwn- 
havn, 1S86, p. 30. Hence it i» hardly possible to say, in the 
absence of evidence, whether a given word of Scandian origin 
wax introduced by the Northmen or by the Angles before them. 
We may, however, usually allribuie to the Northmen such 
provincial words {not foimd in A. S.} as occur in the modem 
Northumbrian and Anglian dialects, 1. e. ilie dialects of the 
Lowlands of Scolbnd, the Nortli of England, Lincolnshire, 
Norfolk, Suffolk, and even Essex, Cambridgeshire, and 
counties lying still furilicr to the west*. I also lake occason 
to make here an important remark, which I do not remember 
to have seen hitherto elsewhere, viz. that our own Scando-- 
Englisb words sometimes present forms mert ar<hait than 

> ' If JOB look tt ft map of Denmaik or of Noitheru Cvmusy, ym 
win *oo o& the Bailie Sn a litilr Innil otldl AHgilit.'—Vnem*^, Old 
Eitg- Uitt., p. 1. 1 have Inrikfl in tcvcial map*, without fiacliDC any 
ncli DMBC. Only tbe b«t ailoia iccogniw it 

* SouidltD word* maj alio be Iraced in many placet Ifing oa llie 
COM, and r*ea np 1&« Serem ud nikcc bigc xiyvn. 



arc (0 be found in Icelandic. Thus the word Mnt preseoti 
Ibe combinatioD nk, which has been assiinilaud in Icdandk 
into kk, the Ice), form being brtkka. Svcdiih and Danish have 
brink, like English. We mast ahntT^ bear in mind the 
poagibility of such a result, 

§ 416. As I have considered, in Chapter V, the Enfuluh 
long vou'els, as compared ^hilb Anglo-Sixon, I shall now 
likevrise consider the same (in words of Scandian orighi), 
as compared with Icelandic. 

The lool. li (long »). The modem Icel. i is prtmoanced 
like 0w in taw, but the original prontinciation must have been 
the same as tliat of the A. S. long n, wltick had the sound of 
aa in baa. Sec Swcel, Icel. Primer, p. i, Coiwcqwcnily, it 
shared the fortiutcs of the A. S. i. and passed into the M. £. 
long a (pronounced as as in brsad), and finally mio thr 
modem E. long 9, ^» in slont, bont. By refening to the 
tables in % 8o, wc see that the led. <f commonly corresponds 
to the A. S. & or 6, Swed. &, Dan. aa. Goth, t. Teat. t. 

Examples. E. b^h, Icel. iOS-ir; from *bd, both, and 
^'r, they ; cf. A. S. bd, M. £. Bo, wiili ilie xarae Kense. £. 
bore, sb.. a tidal surge in a river, Icel. b4r-a, a billow caoaMl 
by wind ; cf. Swcd, dial • bSr, a mound. E. /ru, Icel. Jri, 
from ; hence ihc ^Ay/ro-wartl, i. e, (rom^murd, [lerversfe E 
itrw. ailj., Icel. I4g-r, where the -r is a characteristic suffix o( 
the nom, case, tike the (cqui^-alcni and older) s so common 
in Gothic. E. oa/ (put for 'oal/, ibe / being dropped as in 
Mal/!t,nA talf), Icel. il/-r, sn elf; Chaucer uses th-ith with 
the sense of 'simple,' C. T. Group U, 1893; just as the IceL 
4i/a-ltgr, i. c. clf-iike, means ' ailly.' 

Similarly llie Icel. bidr, livid, dark bhie, became M. K. ble, 
Uvld; Init is only preservrd in the dt-Ucctiil variant Men ia 
Lowl. Sc, ^ae ; whence biat-bfrry. a bilbeny. So abo lodU 
bri (cognate with E. brew) only appears in the IajwL Sc. 

' S««dub •dUIecUl K'ordi ue tkkcn from Rku't Swnkit Dislect- ' 







brat, the brow of a hil), M. K. bro. (Tbc latter vord is not 
Celu'c, 15 is wrongly said in my Dictionary.) 

% 417. The loelandio h (long e). This \x>wel com- 
monly answers to Swed. H, Dan. <r. In modem Icelandic, s 
parnxilicj^sound is heard before the vowel, so ihal it MUnds 
liiic ihc E. word yta : bui the original vowel was free from 
ihtt, and sounded HIce the A. S. /, or like ee iu the German 
Sti. It tliere:fore becomes et in mod. E., jait as the A. S. / 
docs. I only know of two ciamplcs, viz. E. kmtt, Dan. 
knal-t, from Dan. krut, Icel. hi/, knee ; and E. /«r, as a 
Duutical term,from \tx\.kl/. Ice (as in E. u»c),orig. 'shelter'; 
cf. Dan. la, Swcd, Id, lec, A. S. hlwm, a covering, proicction, 
shelter. The A.S. word is preserved in ilie prov. E. Iod, 

$ 418. Tho Icolandic > (long 1), The mod. Icel. f 
still preserves ihc old sound, viz. tiiat of the A, S. /. or w in 
bftt. It i» al&D |lre8er^'e<l in Danish and Swedish, whereas in 
modcni Dutch and German Ihc vowel has become a diph- 
thong, having the same sound as mod. E. long / in ii(t. Bat 
in E. words of Scandian ori^n It has usually sbarcd the same 
late as in native words ; as might be cipecied. There are, 
however, one or two inlerc^ting exceptionit, so that the 
examples fall into two separate sets Rccordingly. 

{a.\ E. Inch, as a nautical (erm, meaning the border or 
edge of a sail ; Icel. tk, also lik-iima, a leech-line ; Swed. 
tik, a boll-rope ; il&tndt li'ifti, the (standing) leeches. £. 
tleek, adj.. M. E. i/it ; Icel. s/lt-r, sleek, smooib. The E. 
tlui is Ihc same word, with a shorienctl vowel. E. ihriek, 
M. E. ithriih-tn ; another form of which b tertteh, M. E. 
Krkktn; Icel. strfkja, to titter with suppressed laughter; 
Swcd. tirtka, to shriek. The Icel. tkrakja, to tJiriek, comes 
nearer in sense ; bat we do not lind an M. £. form 'tfreeeA- 
fit ; and it is remarkable that Shakespeare used ttriteh, though 
hit editors often turn it into tcreeek. 

(4.) £. grime, a ..smudge, csp. on tbc face (cf. 'bt-griitud 


wilh soot*); led grim-Ot « dffignuc. mask; Swed. did 
grm-^ X smut on the &tt ; Dan. grim, (crime. E. JUm; 
Swcd. IUmo, orig. lo be Bke, resemble. I-L r^ ; IceL r^, 
O. Sved. rif, abundaat E. nW; IccL n/-a, Sn-eil. r^iW, 
Dan. riipv, lo tear. V^tnift; IceL Mf/-d, as in myrt'-ti^ 
a nxxx-RRipe. E. lAiiv, a ihin ilicc ; Icel. itt/'-^, Dan. itoc, 
Sweti *kt/pa. E. jiriX*. the butcher-Wrd, Icel. i£lsir1if*. 
a ifarike, Ul • sun-dirieker.' E. Air, a dog, a low rdlov. 
Icel. ak, Sved /i:», a bitcb. Tbc diScnIi E. gibtjibe, scew 
to answer to Sw«d. <liaL^<^ft->t (Icvl.jr"i»-a), lo talk nonsetar; 
cf. SweA muH-gipa, ihe corner of the mouib ; Norwcg. gap-i, 
to grin, make grimaces. 

} 419. Tbe loelaacUo 6 (Icmg o). Pronounced u A.Sl 
i, or i)m; German o in ro. Il would ibcreforc rcgularlj be- 
come the mod. E. m In b«H. It appean aa long « in S 
and Danish. 

Examples, (a.) E. htmm. «.; IceU H&m, hUm-i, a bloon, 
flou'.-r. K ^OM : Icel. 641. E i!m«, the munc of a water 
more corTectl)r called ham in Shetland ; IceL iSm-r, Swed. and 
Dan. lorn, a toon. E. rw/; Ice). rSI, Swed. r^. E. rctfii^; 
Swed. ii(^-tf. £. fcMt, cmpt)' ; Icel. /tfrn-r; Swed. an^ 

(J.) The lone » is prawrved in E. how-iitu, tcel Ajf- 
Swcd. bogltMo, but is altered in ilie tample word JMcr (of 
dup); «cc below. 

(c) The long o also becomes mv (as in am) in Engi 
owing 10 the influence or a following gutiuraL E. ^mv (of 
ship) ; Icel. h^-r, Swcd. bog, the shoulder of an anioxal. the 
bow or ' shoulder ' of a ship ; the cognate A. S. word ts t4k, 
an arm, also the branch of a tree, which baa become the 
mod. E. iet^A, with prccitcly the same sound, though spell 
difftfcnity. E. pMugA. A. S. //W, very rare and only a bor-. 
rowed word from Scandtan; Icel. ^j!i^r. Swed. /i/iy; but 

irly bf 


' 'Tlnslkf^O, H.ti^fftita ocean <m\ylo . . . > titneil sla«au7 ao- 
powd probably la Oilcney, and Mlof laceiptlernu'i Munj'i Dk-L 




is remarkabte thai the Scandian word was also borrowed, and 
the origin of this word, so widely spread not only in the 
Teutonic biil also in the Slavonic languAgce, is uill undu^- 
oovered. The true A. S. word was tuih, whence prov. 
Southern E. i(w/'. K. sloiuk. orig. a sh. meaning 'a slouch- 
ing fellow * ; Iccl, Mk-r. with the same sense ; cf. Swcd. 
tlvk-tt, to droop. 

$ 420. Tho Iceluidio ii (long u). Abo long u in 
Swedish and Dani-ih, and still preserving the oI<l «ouii(l. It 
answers to A. S. <«, and should therefore pass into rood. E, 
mr, OS it UHUalty doex. But in a few words, which I give 
firM, ihc olil Nound is rciained, 

(tf.) E. ie^M; Icel. &&3. V^ trust; \ctA. krit. V.. droop; 
Icei drip-a. K. gmttcm*. grtuaomt, horrible ; cf. Dan. gru, 
horror. Related words art E. Fiieaic gri-i-tn, lo shudder ; 
G. grau-m, to shudder, grau-sam, horrible ; the but of lliese 
\* formed in ihc same way as the K, word, tlcxham's Old 
Du. Diet, also gi^vs ' grouwsaem, horrible, abhominable, or 
detestable.' E. Aoo/; O. Swed. hut-a (««/ tn), to hoot (one 
out); Swed. Aui/ bcgonci E. pooA, intcrj.; Icel pi. ilie 
same. In the words hut-band, hus-tingt, both derivatives 
from Iccl. h&t, a house, the u has been shortened by the 
accentual stress, and then ' unrounded,' See Chap. XXV. 

{6.) E. boun-d, adj.. ready to go (with excrescent d) ; Iccl. 
li£inn, prepared, pp. of bA-a. E. eew, v, ; Icel, kHg-a, to 
tyrannise o\'er. Din. itir-^, to coerce. T..f<Kvtr; Icel. i£r-a, 
Dan. itir-t, lo lie quiet, doxe ; Swed. iur-a, to doze, roost 
Inrds). E. dtntn (t), soft plumage; loeL ^imn, Swed. dun, 
\.dtatttdiam. Y.. roust {i), to 8lirup,orig. inlransitivc, lo 
(out of covert); Swed. roj-a, Dan. rut-*, to rash. E 
route (a), adrinking-boiil (Shakespeare); Swed. rut, Dan. naa, 
dnuikennesa: Hence perlups K, row (3), a disturbance, 1^ 

*Sea/l, Salt, prtmosnced imtt \gUuie not or lucl], ik a |)Jow (tlw 
rnaioc)'— Kfarlai-lft Wtft ntvon; RcpristcdGlesMriM, E.D. 3., 

roar; by dropping the final j,asiiijAoyforfAdiM,/«» ioTpratt, 
&C. K. icvul (i), to ridicole (an i<ka) : Iccl. sk^i-a, a uuiu, , 
jt£/-yr9i. reproaches, lit ' scoui-wcwdK.' E. sanvl; Dsn.] 
thti-e. [o Kcowi, cast down the c}'cs. K, swuJ; Swd.tnti^ 
Dan. nmd-4 (for 'snul-t), K. Fricsic tnut-a. tmt/; c£ Ci 
■SVAmomk. £. J'^cw/ (put for 'spreul, like Jj^Ati for 'j/w-aU) ; j 
Swed. J/I>^a. occasional toim of tprut-a. lo sqoin, &pom ; 
Dan. sprud't (for *sprul-t), to SpOUL K. //■ruB/, really the 
aimc word ; £. Friaic tprui-tn, to sprout The led. sprtBa\ 
means both lo spout or spin, and to sprom ; cf. G. tpriiun, 
ipritsitn, both from the tacne root. £. atU-laui ; led. il- 
I4g-i, the same. 

To these wc may add the verb lo dtfU. which should nlfc9^ 
have become 'tfouzc; Swcd. dial. <aW-<i, to doie, slumber, 
Norwcg. diua, to nrpose ; led. ti6r<i (for *Mtix), lo nap, diue. 

S 4flL The I'-matalioii of A. S. vowds has abtttdf 
explained in $ itii ; the results being that the Ot^[tinl 
in the row marked (A) below were changed to the secondary 
or mutated vowds in the row marked (B), whenever the 
letter i' occurred in the following nyllable in tlie original 
of the derived word. 

(A) a o n ; & d d ; ea, eo ; te, 4^ 

(B) 6y 71 A6ji »ft(y); i» (^). 

The I'-mutations in Icelandic are very simQar to these, ud 
may be thus arranged. Cf. Sweet, loeL Primer, p. 4. 

(A) a(o) o u(o) ; i 6 u ; oQa, jo) ; au ; ji (j6\ 

(B) 6 y ; «i « i ; 1 ; ey ; f. 

The led. a is always long, and its xMntl agreed with tfan 
cf.Uie A. S, rf. The led, a, though of different origin, is 
frequently written a. In the modem language, Iwili ir and 
a are tonnded alike, with the dij)}i[lx>ftgal »oand of £■ 1 ia 



I shall DOW continue the histoir of (be long vowel y and 
of the ili{>)it}K»i^ 

$ 42a. The loelftndic Jr (long y). This was sounded 
IDte A. S.y, orG. e in^'rtfn.and ihe aametsinieof ihe Swcd. 
and Dan. long;^. The Svcil. and T>an. long_^' siill keeps its 
oM sound, but the Icciy is now f (E. tv in httl^. Like ihc 
M. E.^y, tliis sound was completely oonfiucd (in Eni^Iish) with 
long (■ (A. S. f). and consequently becomes the mod, F.. » in 
biU. As seen abow, it properly arises from an i-muiation of 
long 6, or nf/ii oryA 

ExainplM. }! Iccl. /jf, Sweii. ami Dax\./y! E. 
mire, Icel. mjrr, modern mjri, a bog ; Swcd. myr-a. Uan. 
tHyr'f, myr. E. tfy, adj. ; Dan. ^ky, shy ; cf. Swed. and 
Norweg. tkygg, E. Friesic sehii (G. (cAf*) ; Uic primitive 
diphthong occun in A. S. sr^h, limid. where A. S. /!t=lccl. 
J6. E. j*v: loci. i*>f. Swcd. and Dan. sky. a cloud: the 
priiuilivv diphthong occurs in the O. Saxon form skio, iky ; 
d". aSto A. S. n^fi, shadr. E. itiiu, v., to wipe the now ; 
Iccl. mjl-a. Swcd. myt-a, Dan. jiprfv (for snyl-r), to wipe ihc 
snout ; derived by mutation from Swed. snul, snout. Thus 

§ 433. The loelandio long m. This was originally 
sounded tike A. S. d, or )L. e in thtrtK Consequently, it 
passed regularly into later E. m or m. The old sound is 
preserved in Swed. a, Dan. a, which are corresponding letters. 
We may divide the examples into those which contain E. ta ; 
those which contain E. «■; and those which giw the sound 
of E, »■ in hiU, which Is the sound of mod. Iccl. a. 

Sxamplofl. ifl) E. scwim, M. E. scrmi-m ; Ice!, skram-a, 
Swed. tifUm-t. Dan. tkramm-t. to scare, terrify ; here the E. 
word has preserved the original sense of the word, viz. ' to 
cry aloud,' the sense ' lo scare ' bt^ing secondary. E. ual; 

' The IceLcuwl « mcduw conhued. The !od. 7 (■•malMknof^ 
mn different b ori^n, ud t^uiiilciil 10 Sw«d. and Du). t; In Ebj;- 
had it VH identified with i* (>• inutMiuu o\ i) , sad pkued Inlxi E. m. 



Icet. ArZ-r, Swed. tat-t< .. i t^-um [i.e. derived bf vowel' 
change from a buc ' parallGl lo ibat of ^-loi], pc f. pL oT 
jiif/u, to sL E. <)r»Mi; S««d. iyiAl-^ to cmk. E. xfwa/; 
Swed. tjtdl-a, to Rqueal. 

(ft) £. mttr, M. £. titer-<n, to deride ; Dan. tmterr-tt to